Urinary System Terms Flashcards

renal corpuscle
Terms Definitions
meat/o
meatus
azot/o
nitrogen
ureter/o
ureter
poly-
excessive
albumin/o
protein
PEP
protein electrophoresis
pyelo
renal pelvis
-lithiasis
condition of stones
GFR
glomerular filtration rate
pollakiuria
abnormally frequent urinating
true or false
 
Juxtamedullary nephrons account for more than 80% of the nephrons
false
which kidney is higher
left
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney
cortex
the light colored, granular superficial region
Hyperplasia
Condition associated with renal agenesis on one side.
renin
an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
tubular secretion
step three of urine creation.
The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the
 
a)  renal corpuscle
 
b)  collecting system
 
c)  nephron
 
d)  papilla
a
Podocytes
send out finger like projections called pedicels
Glomerulus
The capillaries run paraellel, is specialized for filtration. It differs from all other capillary beds in the body in that it is both fed and drained by arterioles
 
 
(Afferent and Efferent)
NAMEunder normal conidtions, these deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys per min
renal arteries
Angiotensin II
a potent vasoconstricting substance the increases the peripheral resistance resulting in an increase in blood pressure; increases the rate of aldosterone secretion, thirst, salt appetite, and ADH secretion; formed from angiotensin I by the action of ACE
True or false. Hydronephrosis, a contraindication for excretory urography, is the distention of the renal pelvis and calyces.
True
spectrometer
instrument that measures index of light reflection
nephrosis
degenerative disease of the renal tubules
granular cells
these muscle cells act as mechanoreceptors that sense blood pressure in afferent arterioles
What percentage of the nephron is juxtamedullary?
20%
The PCT reabsorbs what percentage of the filtrate produced?
60-70%
Kidney Functions
Removal of toxins& wastesBlood volume regulationGluconeogenesis during prolonged fastingRenin(blood pressure & kidney function)Erythropoietin(RBC production)Activation of Vit D
Urethra
tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for removal out of the body
collecting ducts
rich in aquaporins, sensitive to ADH
NAMEthis layer of the glomerular capsule is made up of simple squamous epthilea
parietal layer
Describe alkalemia.
-pH of plasma rises about 7.45-physiological state result is called alkalosis
Tufts of capillaries (closely invested by simple squamous epis)supplied by an afferent arteriole (wide) drained by an efferent arteriole (narrow) FILTERS BLOODCapillaries covered by Visceral layer of BOWMANS CAPSULE
BOWMAN'S CAPSULE
True or false. Each renal tubule consists of a proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop and a medial convoluted tubule.
False
vesivorenal
pertaining to the kidney and urinary bladder
albumin
chemical test used to detect albumin in the urine
renal corpuscle
this is where filtration takes place; this consists of glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule) and enclosed glomerulus
How often do peristalic contractions begin within the kidney to move urine from the ureter to the bladder?
every 30 seconds
Arterial flow into and out of the kidneys (venous and arteriole) follow similar or different pathways.
Similar
Ureters
- 2 slender hollow tubes about 10 inches long that transport urine from kidneys to urinary bladder- Located bilaterally- Urine is drained by peristaltic activity from major and minor calyces, continues until reaches urinary bladder
Stent
Device that holds tissue in place to maintain an opening.
NAMEthis is where the inital portion of the its coiling DCT lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus
juxtaglomerular apparatus
What are mesangial cells?
surround the glomerular capillaries and seemginly part of the JGA have phaogcytic and contractile properites
At the kidney level, what transport activities are there?
-diffusion-osmosis-channel-mediated diffusion-carrier-mediated transport
Renal Post-glomerular vascular pathway (imcomplete):
Glomerular capillaries, eferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, interlobular veins, arcuate veins, interlobar veins, renal vein
True or false. Each kidney has a concave medial border and a convex lateral border.
True
ureter
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
tubular secretion (def)
def: Secretion of substances into the urine
Where is the outer part of the internal kidney located?
Renal cortex
5 structures of the renal tubule
pct
descendng loop of henle
ascending loop of henle
dct
collecting duct
The renal corpuscle includes the ______________ (a ball of capillaries) that is surrounded by the _________________ or _________________. It is always in the ____________.
glomerulus; glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule); renal cortex
slit pore diaphragms
made of nephrin, contribute to keeping proteins out of the filtrate
(1) can also be called the Bowman's capsule
glomerular capsule
Capsule pressure (CP)
a pressure that moves fluid from Bowman's capsule to the gomeruli which is caused by the pressure of the filtrate already inside Bowman's capsule; approximately 10mmHg
What is the average capacity of the bladder?
500 ml
stress urinary incontinence
involuntary discharge of urine at the time of cough, sneeze and or strained exercise
What is tubular secretion
the movement of wastes and other substances from peritubular capillaries into renal tubules
What is a nephron
a long tube with associated blood vessels
What are the renal arteries?
under normal resting conditions, the renal arteries deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys for each min
What does the proximal convoluted tubule secrete?
-H+, NH4+, creatinine, drugs, toxins
Internal urethral sphincter
Formed from detrusor m. at neck of bladderANS control
What does Urine consist of?
1. Urea
2. Toxins
3. Excess Water
4. Excess Salt
Define Renal Autoregulation
the ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood flow and GFR without external control
What are three of the waste products excreted by the urine?
urea -
uric acid -
creatinine
effects of angiotensin II on renal physiology
1) vasoconstriction which reduces filtrate formation2) active transport mechanism for sodium @ PCT increases absorption @ PCT3) goes to adrenal cortex to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone => target cells are epithelial cells of DCT, turns on active transport mechanism for Na+, reabsorb even more Na+ than usual4) stimulate secretion of ADH (made by hypothalamus & stored/secreted from the posterior pituitary) => target cells are epithelial cells of DCT, makes cells permeable to H2O => * H2O passively follows Na+ into blood, increase blood volume and blood pressure
What is the reneal sinus?
is an internal space w/in the kidneys
Why is the glomerular capillary pressure higher than the pressure in other similar areas of the body?
Resistance. The resistance of blood flow in the afferent arterioles and the glomerular capillaries is low, but as the vessel diameter decreases at the efferent arteriole, resistance increases, resulting in decreased flow and greater pressure in the glomerulus.
What are the organs of excretion?
Kidneys, skin (sweat glands), lungs and intestines
Where are the kidneys located in the body?
retroperitoneal (behind the peritoneal cavity). On either side of the veterbral column, between T12 and L3. The left kidney is slightly superior to the right kidney
tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism in renal autoregulation
* macula densa cells are capable of detecting an increase in rate of flow of filtrate* macula densa secretes vasoconstricting molecules from the juxtaglomerular apparatus* vasoconstricting molecules go to the afferent arteriole, lowering volume of blood to glomerulus, decrease glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure which decreases filtrate formation
What is the proximal convoluted tubule?
-first part of renal tubule nearest to Bowman's capsule-follows a winding, convoluted course
How much do proximal tubules concentrate urine by? How much water passes through the proximal tubules per day?
65% (reduces volume by 80%)180 L fluid, mostly reabsorbed by the time the filtrate reaches collecting ducts.
Up until fluid reaches the collecting duct, it's known as what?
filtrate. Once it reaches the collecting duct, it's known as urine
What happens as the renal arteries approach the kidneys?
they are divided into five segmental arteries
when are lobes apparent in the kidney?
in fetal kidneys-- not visible in adult kidneys
What are the major mechanisms that create and maintain the high solute conc. in the renal medulla?
1) the active transport of Na+ and cotransport of other ions out of the thick portion of the ascending loop of Henle;2) the impermeability of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to water;3) the vasa recta supply of blood and removal of excess water and solutes without affecting the conc.;4) active transport of ions from the collecting ducts to the interstitial fluid;5) the passive diffusion of urea from the collecting ducts into the interstitial fluid
What is a glomerulus and what does it do?
There is a glomerulus in every nephron. It is a cluster of capilaries that does the actual filtering of the blood in the nephron.
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