us history regents Flashcards

Terms Definitions
13th amendment
abolished slavery
Roe v. Wade
legalized abortions
suffrage
the right to vote
ratify
to give something official approval
Scopes Trial (1925)
Science vs. Religion
26th Amendment
lowered voting age to 18
Muckraker
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
Dawes Act
Law aimed at "Americanizing" assimilating the Indian
political machine
well organized organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Trustbusting
breakin up industrial monopolies; all 3 progressive presidents did this
fdr
32nd President of the United States
laissez-faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
unions
organizations of workers who bargain with employers as a group
monopoly
exclusive control or possession of something
secede
withdraw from an organization or communion
muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
legislative branch
the law-making body of the government
mercantilism
an economic theory that believe the colonies should benefit the mother country. Limits colonial trade and manufacturing
Marbury v. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
impeach
the process of accusing a public official of wrong-doing
New Deal
term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression
Appalachian Mountains
The western geographical boundary of the colonies before 1763
Progressive Era
Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption, for social justice, general equality, and public safety: Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle", Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`
sharecropping
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South; received a small plot of land, seed, fertilizer, tools from the landlord who decided what and how much should be planted; landlord usually took half of the harvest.
president's responsibilities
commander in chief, chief diplomat, chief of state, chief legislator, chief of law enforcement, chief guardian of the economy
robber barons
People who'd built fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, and bribing officials
Ronald Reagan
us president contributed with ending the cold war; built up the us military
Seneca Falls Convention
1848, first Women's Rights Convention
Lincoln Steffens
Muckracker who wrote about vote stealing and political machines in The Shame of Cities
League of Nations
an international association formed after World War I with the goal of keeping peace among nations.
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Unwritten Constitution
Political practices that are followed, but are not part of the actual Constitution. CLAPP JR, political parties, judicial review, and the Presidential Cabinet, lobbyists.
Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
united nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
WWII
began when Germany invaded Poland in 1934; US became in WWII when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan in 1941
third party
a political party organized in opposition to the major parties in a two-party system
louisiana purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
frederick douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
declaration of independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
salutary neglect
a hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s
concurrent powers
powers that are allowed both states and the federal government. includes the powers to enforce laws, establish courts, borrow money, protect the health and safety of the people, and collect taxes
Mapp v. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan's famous speech that criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; wanted US to back money with silver, not gold
Pearl Harbor
The Japanese launched a surprise air attack, destroying many planes and ships and killing thousands of men. This lead the U.S. to enter the war
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case (1896) Legalized segregation under the Constitution with the concept of "separate but equal."
buying on margin
Buying stocks with loans from brokers
habeas corpus
a legal order prohibiting people from being held in prison or jail without formal charges of a crime.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd president of the United States, leader of Anti-federalist, believed in strict construction of Constitution and limited government and responsible for Louisiana Purchase
transcontinental railroad
Completed in 1869, it linked the nation from the East Coast to California's railroad, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Upton Sinclair
author of "The Jungle" exposed horrors of meat packing industry
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years
strict interpretation
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to ONLY do those things SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution
social darwinism
The belief that the rich succeed because they are superior to the poor.
Gideon v. Wainright
under the 6th amendment, poor defendants must be provided with a lawyer
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Delegated Powers
powers given to the federal government by the Constitution ex) Declare war, Coin money
Recall
the act of removing an official by petition
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
satellite nations
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control
gibbons v ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
kent state
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
vietnam
a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea
worcester v georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
korematsu vs. us
Sup. Court upholds legality of Japanese relocation camps; 1988 US gov. officially apologizes and pays reparations of $20,000 to each camp survivor
assembly line
mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
marshal plan
George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe
john d. rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
elastic clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
the "elastic clause"
Congress can make "all laws necessary and proper" to carry out their constitutional powers.
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court - appointed in 1801, created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many decisions that expanded the power of the federal government and the Supreme Court
Nuremburg trials
a series of trials for the prosecution of the prominent leaders of Nazi Germany
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
states' rights
Idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government
US v. Nixon
president not above the law. Nixon forced to turn over Watergate tapes
Annexation of Texas
Texas seceded from Mexico and declared independence in response to Mexican abolition of slavery. US adopts/annexes Texas because Southern states support Texas slavery. The North feared expansion of slavery and war with Mexico (see Mexican American War)
Tinker v. Des Moine
This court case said that students/teachers keep 1st Amendment rights in schools as long as it's not disruptive
underground railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Mexican American War
Manifest Destiny - Texas annexaton by US outraged Mexico.US sent troops to areas in dispute. At end US gained Texas, New Mexico, California, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Ended 1848
poll taxes
taxes that required voters to pay a fee everytime they voted, since freedmen could barely afford these, they didn't vote abolished by 24th amendment
precedent
an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action
Populist Party
Also Known as the People's Party, they demanded unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, and immigration restrictions
Judicial Review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall
Northwest Ordinance
the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union. PART OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
founding fathers threw out the Articles of Confederation and wrote the constitution
korematsu v US
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
roe vs. wade
the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.
articles of confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
mcculloch v maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
federal reserve system
the central bank of the United States
nj v tlo
limited search and seizure in schools, must have reasonable grounds [4th Amendment]
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Red Scare
two periods of time, in the 1920s and 1950s, in which Americans feared the growth of communism. These suspicions led to tests of the civil liberties of people under the Constitution.
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress had the power to charter the bank because federal laws have supremecy over state laws - Necessary and Proper
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power. (Question may mention two or more branches)
miranda vs. arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
martin luther king jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
GI Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
cherokee trail of tears
The moving of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. Only 1 out of 5 lived. then the indian removal of 1830
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