US Presidents Flashcards

Terms Definitions
12
Zachary Taylor
Jimmy Carter
26
Theodore Roosevelt
7
Andrew Jackson
Harrison
shortest term
28
Woodrow Wilson
15
James Buchanan
John Tyler
10. 1841-1845
Andrew Johnson
17. 1865-1869
21
Chester A. Arthur
18
Ulysses S. Grant
42nd President
Bill Clinton
18th President
Ulysses Grant
35th President
John Kennedy
37th President
Richard Nixon
32
Franklin D. Roosevelt
19
Rutherford B. Hayes
44th President
Barack Obama
Warren Harding
29 (1921-1923)
Harry S. Truman
33. 1945-1953
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
32. 1933-1945
19.Hayes
Republican; 1877-1881; Black discrimination
Zachary Taylor
Last Whig elected
43rd President
George W. Bush
Jimmy Carter Jr.
39 (1977-1981)
Chester Arthur
Pendleton Civil Service Act
38.Ford
Republican; 1974-1977; End of Vietnam War
James Buchanan
15th U.S. President. 1857-1861. Democratic
John Adams
2nd U.S. President. 1979-1801. Federalist
James K. Polk
11th U.S. President. 1845-1849. Democratic
Ulysses Grant
Most corrupt cabinet in US history
Grover Cleveland
24th President (1893-1897) Adlai E. Stevnson
Warren G. Harding
29th U.S. President. 1921-1923 (Died of natural causes). Republican
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th President (1953-1961) Richard M. Nixon
44
Barack Obama
38
Gerald Ford
30
Calvin Coolidge
13
Millard Fillmore
George H.W. Bush
William McKinley
25. 1897-1901
33.Truman
Democrat; 1945-1953; Containment
Andrew Jackson
Nullification Crisis
34
Dwight D. Eisenhower
4th President
James Madison
Fillmore
Compromise of 1850
35
John F. Kennedy
Herbert Hoover (R)
1929-1933
Barack Obama
44 (2009-present)
Lyndon Baines Johnson
36. 1963-1969
John F. Kennedy
35 (1961-1963)
44.Obama
Democrat; 2009-; Iraq War, Health-care
Tyler
running mate for "Old Tippecanoe"
James Madison
4th President (1809-1817) George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry
Martin Van Buren
8th U.S. President. 1837-1841. Democratic
George Washington
1st U.S. President. 1789-1797. No Party
Kennedy
35th
Roosevelt
1933-1945
Thomas Jefferson
Third
Abraham Lincoln
16
12th
Zachary Taylor
2nd
John Adams
Dwight Eisenhower
1953-1961
27
William Taft
Whig
1849-1850
Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore
13
22nd
Grover Cleveland
15th
James Buchanan
Franklin Pierce
14;1853-1857;Democrat
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829
Madison
War of 1812
Arthur
Pendleton Civil-Service Act
1st President
George Washington
Harry Truman Number
33
27th
William H. Taft
Ronald Wilson Reagan
40;1981-1989;Republican
William Howard Taft
1909-1913
9. 1841
William Henry Harrison
McKinley
First Pan American Conference
Taft
1908; Democrat Dollar Diplomacy
Domestic: Make Precedents
George Washington
Hamilton's Financial Plan
George Washington
George Walker Bush
43;2001-- ;Republican
Harry Truman
Election of 1945+ 1949
Coolidge
Business of America is business.
Dwight Eisenhower Years in Office
1953-1961
pardon
an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime.
all roles are played
separately but simultaneously
veto
constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress for reasons for rejecting it
George W. Bush
political party: R
3 facts:
19. Rutherford B. Hayes
Great Railroad Strike
Richard Nixon
Vietnamization, China visit, Detonte, and Watergate.
James Monroe
5) Daniel D. Tompkins; 1817-1825
How many people were elected as President between 1828 and 2000?
Thirty-One.
circular structure
Seceral of the president's assistants report directly to him. The circular method has the cirtue o giving the president a great deal of infomation, but at the price of confusion and conflict among cabinet secretaries and assistants.
cabinet
a group of advisors to the president
executive privilege
the right that communication with advisers are confidential and doesn't need to be disclosed to courts or congress
kitchen Cabinet
Informal advisors to the president. The phrase originated during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, who frequently met with friends and trusted advisors in the White House kitchen to discuss policy.
Mandate
the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory
electoral vote
the official vote for president and vice president by electors in each state
pardon power
the unilateral power of the president to grant unconditional clemency to anyone for any reason.
representative democracy
a political system in which leaders and representatives acquire political power by means of a competitive struggle for the people's vote. This is the form of government used by nations that are called democratic
James Garfield
Presidency lasted 200 days (he was assassinated by Charles Guiteau); proposed civil service reform; manages a national debt crisis without calling a session of Congress
California acquired in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Oregon Treaty of 1846
Mexican-American War
Annexation of Texas
James Polk
unified government
A government in which the same party controls the presidency and both houses of Congress.
US vs. Nixon
the Supreme Court held that while there may be a sound basis for the claim of executive privilege, especially where sensitive military or diplomatic matters are involved, there is no "absolute unqualified Presidential privilege of immunity from judicial process under all circumstances."
White House Office
the personal staff of the President, incl the chief of staff, policy offices and political offices; incl. National Security Council
Franklin D. Roosevelt
• 32nd Pres (1933- 1945) Democrat
• Victorious against Hoover
• New Deal (to stop depression)
• Polio
• NY senator and gov
• Brain Trusts (advisors)
• During great depression
• Fireside chats (radio)
gulf of tonkin resolution
allowed the president to take all necassay measures to repel armed attack or prevent further aggression; vietnam
Incremental Expansion of Presidential Powers:
Most presidents from Madison to Hoover failed to exercise the powers of the presidency in any significant manner.
Andrew Jackson was the first president to act as strong national leader.
Made extensive use of veto power (total of 12--more than all previous presidents combined)
Reasserted the supremacy of the national government (and the presidency) by facing down South Carolina's nullification of a federal tariff law.
War Powers Act (1973)
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
36
johnson
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989
20th
James Garfield
Hayes
1876 Republican
1881-1885
arthur republican
republican
abraham lincoln
Gerald Ford
1974
2
John Adams
29th
Warren Harding
25th
Theodore Roosevelt
16
Abraham Lincoln
Bill Clinton
1993-2001 Democrat
Democrat
1837-1841
Martin van Buren
Missouri Comprimise
James Monroe
16th president
Abraham Lincoln
Forty Third
George W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
1989-1993
1809-17 dem-rep 4th
James Madison
41st
George H. W. Bush
Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)
8
What causes Gridlock?
A divided government.
Millard Filmore
#13, 1850-1853, (Whig)
Signed Compromise of 1850 which temporarily reduced tensions between the north and south on the slavery issue.
Eli Whitney invents cotton gin
1-Washington
Impeachment
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"
Theodore Roosevelt
26th U.S. President. 1901-1909. Republican
presidential cabinet
no constitutional basis for presidential cabinet; informal institution based on practice and precedent with membership being determined by the pres (appinted by pres and can be removed by pres)
The Wilmot Proviso excluded slavery from newly acquired Mexican territory but was never passed.
11
Appointment Power
the president's power to appoint people to key federal offices.
Congressional-executive agreement
formal agreement between the U.S. president and leaders of other nations, gets approval by both houses of Congress
Issue Network
the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Lyndon B. Johnson
36th U.S. President. 1963-1969. Democratic
wife, Anna Tuthill Symmes, never made it to the White House because Harrison died early.
9
Divided Government
A situation where the presidency is held by one party and at least one house of Congress is controlled by a different party
What date is the president sworn in?
January 20th
8
how many total years can an individual serve as president
James K Polk (1845-1849)
Democrat
Major Items:
• Oregon Treaty (1846)
• Mexican War (1846-1848)
• Wilmot Proviso
Bureaucrat
A person who works for a bureaucratic organization
served as minister to France and was secretary of state under Washington
3
Unit Rule
Practice of awarding all of a state's electoral votes to the candidate who wins a plurality of the popular vote in presidential contests.
Council of Economic Advisors
an executive agency responsible for providing economic advice to the President
precedent
an example set for the first time that future generations will follow
Vacancies Act
Passed in 1868, this law limits acting appointees to 120 days in office. If the Senate takes no action during those 120 days, the acting official may stay in office until he or she, or someone else, is confirmed for the post.
Office of Management and Budget
Presidential staff agency that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
Council of Economic Advisers
White House staff agency created to give the president advice regarding economic and fiscal policy
full house of representatives
Holds hearings and votes on wether to impeach (majority required)
John Tyler in 1841
Man who set the precedent that if the President is removed from office, the Vice President shall become President with the full powers and benefits of the office when assuming the Presidency.
1861-1865
Lincoln
1940
FDR
14th
Franklin Pierce
Rutherford Hayes
Carter
SALT II
11th
James Polk
Benjamin Harrison
23
4
Republican
3rd
Thomas Jefferson
Theodore Roosevelt
26;1901-1909;Republican
James Monroe
5th 1817-1825
Rutherford B. Hayes
19
Gerald R. Ford
38.
1974-1977
Skowronek
Politically affiliated/opposed
resilient/vulnerable regime type
vulnerable + opposed: reconstruction eg REAGAN and FDR
vulnerable + affiliated: disjuncture eg Carter/hoover
resilient + opposed: pre-emption eg Clinton/Nixon
resilient + articulation: articulation eg. GHWB and LBJ
24
Grover Cleveland 2
Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)
22
Forty-two
Wilson J. Clinton
32nd President
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
1853 - 1857
Franklin Pierce
William Henry Harrison
#9 -- 1841
James Monroe (Democratic-Republican)
1817 - 1825
Reprieve
Temporary suspension of court imposed sentence or punishment
1797-1801
Adams, Federalist, Alien and Sedition Acts
chief legistlator
architect of public policy; proposes legistlation; veto power; informs congress on the state of the union;
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)
Republican
Major Items:
• National Origins Act (1924)
• Dawes Plan (1924)
• Scopes Trial (1925)
• Sacco & Vanzetti Executions (1927)
• Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
pocket veto
rejection of legislation that occurs if the president does not sign a bill within 10 days and the Congress also adjourns within the same time period.
Coattails
The effect a winning candidate at the top of the ticket has in bringing success to those lower on the ballot.
executive orders
a presidential directive that has the force of law, although it is not enacted by congress
James Madison (1801-1816)
J Democratic Republican. Killed the first national bank, but it came back. President during the War of 1812. Declared war after assaults on American shipping and British support for Indians.
Courts can:
Can declare a policy ruling or other action taking by the president as illegal or unconstitutional
James Polk (11)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Polk sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate it. Mexico seceded California and New Mexico and would acknowledge the Rio Grande as the boarder.
direct plan
Calls for the selction of electors in each state in the same way that members of Congress are chosen.
William H. Harrison
9th U.S. President. 1841-1841 (Died in office of natural causes) Whig
Qualifications to be president
native born U.S. citizen
at least 35 years of age
U.S. resident for 14 years
Battle of Fallen Timbers
in 1794 Native Americans were defeated by Washington's army and forced to moved off their land in Ohio
Power to make treaties
All treaties must be approved by at least two-thirds of the members of the Senate.
If a president follows a policy of doing anything that the needs of the nation demand unless those actions are forbidden by the Constitution, that person follows _______
the stewardship theory of presidential power
4
Madison
1
George Washington
16.
abraham lincoln
Oregon Treaty
11-Polk
22 President
Grover Cleveland
9th
William Henry Harrision
Monroe
Gibbens vs. Ogden
1881
James A. Garfield
Francklin Pierce
14th: 1853-1857
J. Q. Adams
6th
lyndon johnson
36th president
1832
Andrew Jackson
Martin Van Buren
Democratic
...
George H Bush, 1989-1993
R
Previously VP
Martin VanBuren
William Henry Harrison
Group 7
Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson
ad hoc structure
Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters
James A. Garfield
1881 (x)
spoil system issues
Calvin Coolidge
30th U.S. President. 1923-1929. Republican
Who assassinated Abraham Lincoln?
John Wilks Booth
Presidential
a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable).
conversion, mobilizing
Presidents cannot always count on party support, especially on controversial issues; focus on _______________ of opposing party members as well as __________________ supporters for policies
Chief Diplomat
Power to appoint ambassadors, make treaties, and receive foreign diplomats;
G. W. Bush
43rd
September 11th terrorist attacks, led the United States into war against Iraq
hierarchical system
everything goes through chief of staff, and he reports to pres. advantages: pres. can stick to agenda, and be less distracted, more efficient disad: chief of staff gets a lot of power, pres doesn't get first hand info.
Senate
After the President has made a treaty with another country, it must be approved by 2/3 vote of the __________
JFK
1) born may 29th 1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts
2) 35th president
3) navy hero
4) 1st president to win pulitzer prize
5) 1st president to be catholic and irish American
6) he died in 1963, was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald
7) In office January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963
8) Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War.
7) married to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier and four children
Is a directive issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government.
Executive orders
George Bush
Only person to serve as acting President, and only for 8 hours while Regan underwent cancer surgery.
Modern presidents are more like what than chief administrators?
Chief legislators
Commander in chief
the power of the president as commander of the national military and the state national guard units (when called into service).
President has control over Army and Navy
Commander in Chief
clinton v jones
Court ruled that President is not immune from civil litigation and the judicial process. Furthermore, court stated that although branches are separate the branches have the right to exercise control over one another.
amnesty
a blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators
Of the first five presidents of the United States, how many did not serve two full terms?
Only John Adams
council of econominc advisors
White House staff agency created to give the president advice regarding economic and fiscal policy
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (D)
Created New Deal and Second New Deal. (Depression President.) First 100 Days. Had Polio. Bank Holiday. Deficit Spending. Court Packing. Fireside Chat.
identify two factors that decrease presidential approval ratings and explain why eac factor has that effect
One factor is if there is a crisis especially in foreign affairs such as hostages in iran and he handles it poorly. If the people do not approve of the way the president handled a cris, the presidents approval decreases. However if a president handles a crisis in a good way, the approval ratings will increase. Handling a crisis is so important to people because many times their safety, such as in 9/11, is involved and they want someone who they feel will protect them.
Another factor that decreases presidential approval is if the economy is bad. The opposite is also true, if the economy is good, presidential approval will increase. people are personally affected by the economy so it is important to americans that the economy be in good condition
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