A&P. Muscular System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Scalenes
tenorhaphy
tendin
tendon
Algia
suf
pain
brachialis
flexes forearm
biceps femoris
latissimus dorsi
ligament
bone to bone
Extension
straightening or stretching
Contractibility
Able to shorten
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
stores calcium
motor
efferentsignal AWAY from CNSmultipolarcell body INSIDE CNS
ADL
Activities of daily living
gastrocnemius
plantar flexion of the footh
insertion
more movable point of attachment
nerve
bundles of processes in PNS
opioid
relieve moderate to severe pain(dentanyl, morphine)
The diagnostic term Spondylolisthesis literally and actually means:
vertebrae/slippage/condition
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm of the muscle cell
contains sacroplasmic reticulum
antagonist
oppose or reverse a particular movement
Bursae
fluid-filled sacs between some tendons and bones beneath them
fascicle
groups of m. fibers together, wrapped with perimysium
Muscle Cells
Also known as muscle fibers
bradykinesia
extreme slowness in movement, symptom of Parkinson's disease
The upper jawbone is called the
maxilla.
conductivity
local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels along the muscle fiber
Muscle Fiber Arrangements
 
Parallel Muscles
-fascicles are parallel
-most common arrangement
- Central body (belly) portion of muscle gets wider during contraction
-tension depends on the number of myofibrils
-biceps brachii
Tropomyosin & Troponin
Regulatory proteins associated with actin that control myosin-actin interaction
Synergists
muscles which work together to perform a movement; often differs from the movement either performs when working alone.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
Similar to edoplasmic reticulum. Fluid filled system of cavities that contain sarcomeres. 
 
Stores and releases calcium ions for during contraction
Skeletal muscle
Responsible for volunatry movements. Innervated by the somatic nervous system.
NSAIDS
relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammaiton(ibuprofen, advil, aleve)
branchiomeric muscles
from from somitomeresform muslces of pharyngeal arches. they are jaw and pharygeal muscles. deriver from somitomeres in the head and supplied by cranial nerves.
A physician who uses technigues and treaments common to Medical Doctors and Chiropractic Physicians is an:
Osteopath
Endomycia
layer of connective tisue around each cell (thin aerolar) allows room for cappilaries and nerve fibers.
acetylcholine
the acetic acid ester of choline, C7H17NO3, released and hydrolyzed during nerve conduction and causing muscle action by transmitting nerve impulses across synapses.
thick filaments contain...
-myosin: long protein with globular head
external intercostals
more superficial layer that lifts rib cage; allows inspiration
prime mover
the muscle responsible for producing a particular movement
flexor and extensor retinacula
prevent "bowstringing"; carpal tunnel syndrome
myoclonus
a spasm or twitching of muscle or group of muscles
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
The muscle term adductor literally means:
one who/draws/toward "medially"
actin
a globulin that is present in muscle plasma and that in connection with myosin plays an important role in muscle contraction.
cross bridge
The connection of a myosin head group to an actin filament during muscle contraction (the sliding filament theory).
What muscles move the arm?
Latissium Dorsi, Pectorali major, Deltoid
Organization of sarcomere: Z lines
define boundaries between sarcomeres, and anchor the thin filaments.
carpal tunnel syndrome
tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
Union between a nerve fiber and muscle fibers is called the ___________________ ____________________.
Neuromuscular Junction
What Are The Muscles Called That Are Located in the Upper Chest Are?
Pectoralis Major
What muscle of the face allowas you to close your eyes?
Orbicularis Oculi
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, many of its symptoms are similar to those of fibromyalgia syndrome, characterized by profound fatigue that cannot be improved with rest and last more than 2 months
transverse t tubules
run through the cell and through the other end
Sliding filament model: list steps of skeletal muscle contraction
1. Motor neuron releases acetylocholine at neuromuscular junction 2. calcium ions are released out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum into muscle cell body 3. calcium ions bind to troponin and tropomyosin, uncovering active sites on actin 4. mysoin heads form bridges on and with active sites on actin 5. ATP broken down for energy 6. actin pulled over myosin as heads move like paddles
The diagnostic term Rotary Cuff Avulsion actually means:
tearing of shoulder joint's soft tissues, ligaments, and deep tendons (rotator cuff muscles)
What do the smooth muscles do in the digestive tract?
advances the movement of substances
1. Motor neuron
2. How many m. fibers do motor neurons connect to
3.  Motor unit
Sends impulses to m. cell for contraction or inhibited contraction
 
10 or 1000 m. fibers
 
motor neuron and all m. fibers it connects to
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