USMLE Neuroanatomy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
5HT
Raphe
NE
Locus ceruleus
GABA
Nucleus accumbens
penis dermatome
S3
ankle reflex
S1
skull dermatome
C2
big toe dermatome
L4
ACh
Basal nucleus of Meynert
hemorrhage into cerebellum
clumsiness, nausea
Pacinian
Vibration, pressure (deep skin, ligaments, joints)
broca's aphasia
good comprehension, nonfluent speech
ALS
atrophy, fasciculations both arms and legs
hemorrhage into thalamus
contralateral hemiparesis, sensory changes, homonymous hemianopsia
guillain-barre
flaccid paralysis, loss of sensation both legs
damage to medial lemniscus
contralateral loss of position/vibration sense
damage to reticular formation in lateral medulla
Horner's syndrome
hemorrhage into pons
coma, small reactive pupils, quadriplegia
right ACA lesion
weakness/loss of sensation in left leg
damage to medial longitudinal fasciculus in medial pons
ipsilateral eye cannot adduct
damage to corticospinal tract in medial pons
contralateral spastic paralysis
vertebrobasilar artery TIA signs
vertigo, diplopia, ataxia, facial numbness/weakness, nausea
upper pons blood supply
lateral: SCA, medial: basilary artery
where is broca's area?
frontal lobe, near lateral fissure
inferior salivary nucleus
CN IX, otic ganglion, to parotid gland
what part of the brain is responsible for vision?
occipital lobe
lateral thalamus: venrolateral nucleus
input from cerebellum and basal ganglia, output to motor cortex
what part of the brain interprets taste?
insula, below postcentral gyrus
damage to nucleus VII in medial pons
ipsilateral spastic face paralysis
damage to nucleus ambiguus in lateral medulla
hoarseness, loss of pharyngeal reflex
what does the ACA supply?
medial cortex, leads to motor and sensory loss in contralateral legs/feet
what do the cerebellar arteries supply?
cerebellum and lateral brain stem (leads to ataxia/brainstem syndromes)
DA
SNc
knee reflex
L4
thumb dermatome
C6
anus dermatome (lowest)
S5
belly button dermatome
T10
Meissner's
Dynamic touch (adapt quickly)
huntington's
atrophy of caudate nucleus
medial thalamus
projects to frontal cortex
posterior thalamus
medial geniculate: auditorylateral geniculate: visual
damage to vestibular nucleus in lateral pons
vertigo
what connects the brain hemishperes?
corpus callosum
wernicke's aphasia
fluent, nonsensical speech, poor comprehension
sup. salivary nucleus
nerve VII, sublingual/submaxillary ganglia to lacrimal, nasal, submandibular glands
syringomyelia
loss of pain/temperature arms and shoulders
lower pons blood supply
lateral: AICAMedial: basilar artery
where is wernicke's area?
temporal lobe, superior gyrus
anterior thalamus
part of limbic systeminput from mamillary bodies, output via cingula to cortex
Merkel's (disks)
Static touch @ hair follicles (adapt slowly)
parkinson's disease
loss of dopamine input from substantia nigra to striatum (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus)
what does the PCA supply?
occipital cortex (contralateral homonymous hemianopsia)
damage to spinocerebellar tract in lateral pons
ipsilateral limb ataxia
lateral thalamus: ventral posterior nucleus
lateral: medial lemniscus, spinothalamic tract (proprioception, touch)medial: trigeminal nerve (taste)
what part of brain handles reading, writing?
angular gyrus
Free nerve endings
Pain and temperature. All skin.
C - slow, unmyelinated (like postganglionic autonomic)
what is the left hemisphere responsible for?
language, math, sequence, analysis
what is the right hemishpere responsible for?
non-verbal, musical, geometrical, spatial comprehension
pupillary light reflex
optic nerve --> tectal area --> Edinger-Westphal nucleus --> parasympathetic --> sphincter
hemisection of left spinal cord
spastic paralysis, loss of proprioception in left leg and loss of pain/temp sensation in right leg
damage to nucleus VII in lateral pons
ipsilateral face paralysis
lateral medulla damage to nucleus solitarius:
ipsilateral loss of taste
damage to nucleus V in pons
ipsilateral face loss of sensation
signs of an internal carotid artery TIA
ipsilateral monocular blindness, hemiparesis, sensory loss, language disturbance
damage to medial lemniscus in medial medulla
contralateral loss of position/vibration sense
what does the anterior choroidal artery supply?
basal ganglia, hypothalamus, posterior limb internal capsule
damage to hypoglossal nerve in medial medulla
ipsilateral tongue paralysis + atrophy
what does the MCA supply?
lateral cortex + anterior limb of internal capsue (leads to contralateral upper body loss of motion and sensation)
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