USMLE Step Pharm 2 Flashcards

Inhibitor
Terms Definitions
Fosfomycin
UTI's.
Methicillin
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin.
Ergocalciferol
Vitamin D
Methyltestosterone
anabolic steroid
Lispro
Short-term insulin
Bevacuzimab
Vacuums up VEGF!
Etoposide
Toxic to topo2
Mesalamine
Anti-inflammatory bowel-specific salicylate. Mesa of aspirin?
Stimulated Receptors? Clonidine
A2
Drug class? "--triptyline"
TCA
Drug class? "--stigmine"
Anti-cholinesterase
Drug class? scopolamine
anticholinergic
Odansetron
Anti-emetic. Serotonin antagonist. Used for chemo anti-nausea. Oh Dan, set run! Then puke. May cause headache and constipation.
Omalizumab
IgE antibody for asthma.
-pramine
Tricyclic antidepressant: blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Sometimes used for chronic pain. Has anticholergic side effects: lethargy, sedation, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain. Note that overdose can cause vtach.
Glucocorticoids
Stuff like prednisone, anti-inflammatory, anti-rejection, asthma, glucocorticoid deficiency
Cytarabine
Pyrimidine antimetabolite. Gemmed pyramid! Uracil is a pyrimadine. Cytisine sounds just like cytarabine.
Drug class? "--terol"
B2 agonist
Mefloquine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Allopurinol
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Iinhibits catabolism of purines into uric acid to reduce uric acid levels in gout. Only for prophylaxis. May cuase rash,
Primaquine
Antimalarial. Chloroquine is most widely used but has resistance. Quinine can be used for resistant strains. Primaquine can eliminate protozoa hiding in the liver.
Isoproterenol
All B2 (SMC-relaxing but cAMP-stimulating) agonists. Albuterol (short-acting) and salmeterol (long-acting) are inhaled for asthma use. Dobutamine is use as tocolytic to delay parturition, May cause some B1 side effects. Dobutamine is used for its B1 effects to acutely increase cardiac output in shock or for stress test. Dobutamine and isoproterenol think of for B agonism.
Ketamine
IV anesthesia. Glutamate antagonist. Dissociative but no loss of consciousness. May cause psychotropic effects. Think of horse all trippy with ketamine
Ranitidine
H2 (peripheral) antagonist. GERD, peptic ulcers.
Praziquantel
Paralizes helminths. Cestodes or Flukes.
Eptifibatide
Gp2a/3b inhibitor directly blocking platelet aggregation. Antiplatelet. Abciximab is just a Gp2a/3b antibody
-nacin
Muscarinic antagonist used for overactive bladder.
Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that blocks aqueous humor production in open-angle glaucoma. Weak diuretic, can cause kidney stone formation, metabolic acidosis.
Succinylcholine
Non-competitive NMJ blocker. Short duration due to Hoffman Degradation
Anastrazole
Aromatase inhibitor. Blocks peripheral estrogen synthesis in breast cancer. What's that nasty aroma?
drug with -estra- in it
estrogen
Metyrapone
Blocks cortisol synthesis. Sometimes used in Cushing's but mostly used for testing ability of pituitary to release ACTH.
Amphetamine
Sympathomimetic amines that increase NE availability in frontal cortex for ADHD or narcolepsy. Can cause sympathetic side effects.
Warfarin
Vitamin K regeneration inhibitor. Blocks coagulation factor synthesis. 1 week until onset. Monitor INR (PT: Factor VII path). Fetal malformations.
Abciximab
Gp2a/3b inhibitor directly blocking platelet aggregation. Antiplatelet. Abciximab is just a Gp2a/3b antibody
Neomicin
Aminoglycoside. 30S inhibitor. Can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. SNAG that ear and kidney!
Lorazepam
Benzodiazepine. GABA potentiation via frequency. Anxiety, acute seizure ablation, anterograde amnesia/sedation for surgery. Causes dizziness and drowsiness
Phenobarbital
Barbituate. GABA potentiation via duration. Seizure ablation for pregnant or kids. Dependence and depressant problems. Classic for enhancing all P450 enzymes.
Ethosuximide
T-type calcium channel blocker. Specifically for absence seizures.
Carvedilol
B1/A1 block. CHF and hypertension
Glycerol
Osmotic diuretics. Contraindicated in CHF due to transient ECF expansion. Used to acutely deplete volume
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretics. Contraindicated in CHF due to transient ECF expansion. Used to acutely deplete volume
-artan
Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Use in patient that get angioedema from ACE inhibitors
Dronedarone
Anti-arrythmic (Type 3). Potassium channel blockers with some anti-adrenergic activity. Prolongs QT= torsade risk. Blue-grey skin discoloration.
Acyclovir
DNA polymerase inhibitor. Herpes zoster or simplex.
Metformin
Decrease hepatic glucose output. Prevents formation of glucose
Raloxifene
Bone resorption inhibitor. Estrogen agonist selective for bone. Relax bone, you don't need to degrade, raloxifene is here.
Stimulated Receptors? Norepinephrine
A1, A2, B1
What's the antidote/treatment for toxicity? opioids
naloxone
Drug class? Echothiophate
Anti-cholinesterase (Indirect cholinergic)
Atropine
Muscarinic 3 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block bronchial SMC contraction, relax iris and ciliary muscle in glaucoma. Muscarinic 2 antagonists (decrease cAMP) for AV block. Muscarinic 1 antagonists (IP3 route) used to block exocrine secretions.
Etanercept
TNF receptor that binds and inactivates TNF-alpha. Used to reduce inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis.
Butorphanol
Opioid partial agonist with ceiling effect. Less respiratory depression. Used as nasal spray for migraines. Has scary psychotomimetic effects due to Kappa receptor agonism that makes abuse unlikely.
Haloperidol
Dopamine antagonist. Also blocks HAM causing hypotension, extra-pyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rigidity, delirium, autonomic instability- use pralidoxime)
Colchicine
Inhibits leukocyte response to urate crystals in gout. Rarely aplastic anemia.
Hydralazine
Increases cGMP in peripheral arteries to decrease SMC tone. Used to decrease afterload. May cause edema and reflex tachycardia. Classic cause of drug-induced lupus!
Cyclosporine
IL-2 expression inhibitor for renal transplant. Shitload of side effects.
Carbamazepine
Sodium channel blocker used as anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer. Ataxia and classic for aplastic anemia.
Finasteride
5 alpha reductase inhibitor. Blocks DHT formation, baldness, BPH.
Fluoxetine
SSRI. Used for depression, OCD, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, fibromyalgia, panic attacks, PMDD, phobia. May cause sexual dysfunction.
Zoldipem
GABA activator with specificity for sleep cycle. Good for insomnia and does not disrupt sleep structure that much.
Quinidine
Class 1a antiarrythmic. Blocks Na channels with prolonged QT interval. May predispose to torsade. No effect on AV node.
Nevirapine
Non-nucleoside RT inhibitor. NEVIR but REVERSED!
Vancomycin
D-ala D-ala cross link inhibition. Staph aureus, C diff. Red man syndrome. Oto and nephrotoxicity
Aliskiren
Direct renin inhibitor used in hypertension. Alice kills renin.
Teriparatide
PTH, postmenopausal women. May cause osteosarcoma
Ethambutol
Mycobacteria drug that inhibits RNA synthesis. Can cause optic neuritis. Causes things to appear Ethereal!
Tamoxifen
Estrogen antagonist used for breast cancer.
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclone of mustard. Melted mustard! Nitrogen mustard alkalating agent. Hemorrhagic cystitis
Naloxone
Opioid antagonists used for opioid overdose or to prevent highs during abstinence.
Nateglinide
Stimulates insulin release. Also has the glide like sulfonylurea. Helps insulin glide out of beta cells.
Pegvisomant
GH antagonist. Acromegaly. Peg down your height!
Phentolamine
Alpha blocker. Hypertension caused by pheochromocytoma. Causes postural hypotension. Phen=pheochromocytoma
Side effect of which drug(s)? hemorrhagic cystitis
cyclophosphamide
Phenylephrine
A1 agonist (IP3) used for SMC constriction for nasal or ocular decongestant. Sometimes as acute rescue for hypertension.
Pralidoxime
Reverses AchE block in poisonings to reverse paralysis.
Thioguanine
Purine and guanine in names. Purine antimetabolite. Used mainly for lymphomas and leukemias
Cetuximab
Epidermal growth factor on head and neck cancer. See the tux around my neck!
Misoprostol
Prostaglandin E. Makes you ALL man. Used for ED and maintaining PDA. Prostaglandin E used in GERD.
Cetirizine
H1 antagonists that cannot cross BBB. Used just for seasonal allergies and hives.
Probenecid
Increases renal excretion of uric acid in gout. Prohibits acid (ecid) in plasma.
Carbapenem
B-lactam drug with huge range of activity
Loratidine
H1 antagonists that cannot cross BBB. Used just for seasonal allergies and hives.
-navir
Protease inhibitor in HIV. NAVIR TEASE a proTEASE
What 2 alpha-adrenergic antagonists are used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma?
phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
What is the DOC for cardiogenic shock?
dobutamine
What drug(s) has the potential side effect? Hepatitis
INH
Amphotericin B
Binds ergosterol and forms K channel. Nephrotoxic.
Sildenafil
PDE5 inhibitor used for ED. Fills your penis with blood!
Adenosine
Opens K channels in SA and AVnodes, raising threshold for firing. Used to acutely ablate SVT. Can cause transient asystole.
Duloxetine
NE and 5HT reuptake inhibitor with no intermediate activity. Few side effects but may cause sexual dysfunction.
Side effect of which drug(s)? nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (2)
lithium and demeclocycline
An AA male that goes to Africa develops anemia after taking prophylactic medicine for primary dz prevention, what enzyme is he deficient in?
G6PD
Olanzapine
I come Cloz to you and Risper Quetly in your ear (like a schizophrenic). Atypical antipsychotics with dopamine and 5HT antagonism that have differing effects in different parts of the body. Can improve negative symptoms (dopamine agonism through high serotonin antagonism) and positive symptoms (dopamine antagonism in mesolimbic system). Less incidence of tardive dykinesia. Clozapine can cause agrnulocytosis.
Side effect of which drug(s)? tardive dyskinesia
high potency neuroleptics
What types of adrenergic receptors are found on the beta cells of the pancreas? What effects do these have?
alpha-2: inhibit insulinbeta: increases insulin
What is the MOA of Guanethidine?
Blocks the release of NE
What screening test should be performed before placing a patient on Infliximab?
PPD test because infliximab can reactivate latent TB
What is the equation for maintenance dose?
MD = (steady state conc) x CL
In what population must B-blockers be administered with extra caution?
Diabetics because it can mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia
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