AST 5 Flashcards

atomic mass number
Terms Definitions
Tombaugh
Discovered Pluto
Meteor
Has entered the atmosphere
2 telescopes
Reflection and refraction
Neutrino
An electronically neutral, subatomic, nearly massless, particle emitted by the fusion reaction within the sun that travels at nearly the speed of light
Small rocky debris still found throughout much of the solar system is called
planetesimals
Planetary orbits
almost circular with low eccentricity
Compared to Jupiter, the element ________ is notably less common in Saturn's atmosphere, perhaps condensing to fall coreward as rain.
helium
Rifting
plate rising from mantle and spreading
Attractive very short reang strangest
Strong force
Gamma radiation
the most destructive type of radiation
SN 1006
brightest. probably a Type Ia, exploding white dwarf
*Ch.21 Q#6: What is a starburst galaxy? How do observations of starbursts help us understand why the stars in the elliptical galaxies are so old?
...
zodiac constellations
the 12 constellations along the ecliptic on the star chart (the dial of animals)
Most comets are believed to originate from the Oort Cloud
True
nova
the dramatic brightening of a star that lasts for a few weeks and then subsides; it occurs when a burst of hydrogen fusion ignites in a shell on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary star system
An equinox occurs when the apparent path of the Sun crosses the celestial equator.
True.
globular cluster
a large spherical cluster of gravitationally bound stars usually found in the outlying regions of a galaxy
Time interval necessary to complete 1 orbit
Period
On what day does spring officially begin?
Vernal equinox
Tully-Fisher relation
A relation used to determine the absolute luminosity of a spiral galaxy. The Tully-Fisher relation can be used to measure distances to spiral galaxies out to about 200 Mpc (650 million light years). The distances to even more remote galaxies may be determined by using Hubble's Law.
A neutrino is:
an elusive massless (or nearly massless) particle produced in the proton-proton cycle
If Saturn was in a bathtub, it would
float
90 degrees
if polaris is deirectly overhead what is its altitude
The masses of nearby spiral galaxies can be determined by studying their
rotation curves
• The term "seeing" is used to describe how bright an object the human eye can tolerate without damage to the retina.
False
protostar
a forming star that has not yet reached the point where sustained fusion can occur in its core
The typical neutrino
low mass particle that interacts poorly, Porduced at the center of the sun escapes directly from the Sun on a straight line path
main-sequence
a star, fusing hydrogen to helium in its core, whose surface temperature and luminosity place it on the main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram
At what size to comets stop forming?
1 km
Some lunar eclipses appear reddish-orange because
the Earth's atmosphere refracts sunlight
Condensation Hypothesis
origin of the moon. Formed the SAME time as earth
Frequency (nu)
number of crests passing a point per time
The atmospheric gases primarily responsible for our greenhouse effect are
water vapor and carbon dioxide
Emission Line Spectrum
Light is seen only with specific colors against a black background
Planet Property - Mass
measured by gravitational effects on surrounding objects. P^2(M1 + M2) = a^3
Approximate black body
heated iron bar and the photospheres of stars
parallax
an apparent motion of a body due to motion of the observer
___ is the name of an asteroid that may collide with Earth on April 13, 2036.
Apopthis.
Mars rotates on its axis every 24 hours 37 minutes. This rotation accounts primarily for which of the following on Mars?
day and night
Which of the following sequences describes the evolution of a 5 solar mass star from young to old?
protostar, main sequence, red supergiant, supernova
Most interstellar clouds remain stable in size because the force of gravity is opposed by _______ within the cloud.
thermal pressure
Thermal pressure is the pressure resulting from the thermal motions of the particles in the cloud.
• Comet X orbits the Sun every 10 years. What is the average distance (semi major axis) of the comet from the sun?
4.64 AU
radiation zone
(of a star) a region of the interior in which energy is transported primarily by radiative diffusion
Who was the telescope made by
Dutch sectacle makers in 1608
Of the following 5 lists, which list is just of terrestrial planets?
Venus, Mercury, and Mars
What is the next event to happen after today?
The Summer Solstice
5. When a thin crescent of the Moon is visible just before sunrise, the Moon is in its
waning phase
What is accuracy a measure of?
The agreement of measurements with accepted values.
List the Jovian planets in order of decreasing radius (largest to smallest).
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
The stellar spectral classes ordered from hottest to coldest:
O B A F G K M
radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultra-violet, x-rays, gamma rays
raging martians invade roy g biv using x-rays and gamma rays
What happens during the apparent retrograde motion of a planet?
The planet appears to move westward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights.
The further away galaxies are??
the faster they are moving away from us.
If a star has a larger parallax than another star:
it is closer in distance
What does not fall into the category o interplanetary debris?
rings around the Jovian planets
The most likely theory for the formation of the moon is that it
formed from a sideways collision from a mars sized object
Numerous craters on solar system bodies are evidence that:
They were bombarded in their youth by many solid objects.
The amount of energy liberated in fusion reactions is:
mass times the speed of light squared (E=MC^2)
The Galileo mission put a spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter which used
a gravity assist from both Venus and Earth
Observations show that elements with atomic mass numbers divisible by 4 (such as oxygen-16, neon-20, and magnesium-24) tend to be more abundant in the universe than elements with atomic mass numbers in between. Why do we think this is the case?
At the end of a high-mass star's life, it produces new elements through a series of helium capture reactions.
Helium has atomic mass number 4, so each subsequent reaction tends to make an element with an atomic mass number divisible by 4.
If a star is more luminous and cooler than the Sun, it must:
have a diameter greater than the Sun
The solution to the solar neutrino problem which won a Nobel Prize in 2002 was
2/3 of the neutrinos decay into a new form in the 8 minutes to Earth
What kind of gas cloud is most likely to give birth to stars?
a cold, dense gas cloud
This type of cloud has lower thermal pressure (due to the low temperature) and stronger gravity (due to the high density), giving gravity the upper hand.
The FSU student and the UF student decide to do some radio astronomy and look at an intergalactic molecular cloud with their 30 meter dishes. They are looking at 60 micrometer light. The decide that the resolution is not sufficient to see the details of t
They each stay at home, but get a fast internet link, and link the outputs of the two radio telescopes together with a computer.
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