vocab for ancient egypt Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Waterfall
cataract
edict
a command
Mastaba
earliest Egytian tomb
afterlife
life after death
Mastabas
earliest egyptian tomb
Large stone coffin
Sarcophagus
The goddess of truth
Maat
pharaoh
ruler of Ancient Egypt
deity
a god or goddess
tribute
a gift to show respect
elite
people of wealth and power
Horus
The egyptian god of religion
KHUFU
4th dynasty, largest GIZA pyramid
imports
good bought from other countries
desert
Egypt is made mostly of this
Nubia
East African trading empire that developed south of Egypt on the Nile River
The falcon-headed god of the sky
Horus
Mumification
embalmig, wrapping and burial/The body has been cleaned, dried and rubbed with good-smelling oils.
Hieroglyphics
writing system in which pictional symbols stand for words or sounds
Rosetta stone
the key to deiphering heiroglyphics
obelisk
a tall,foursided pillar that is pointed on top.
silt
fine soil found on river bottoms.
papyrus
a long lasting paper-like material made from reeds that the ancient egyptians used to write on.
Hyksos
*"princes of the foreign lands"
*helped contribute to fall of Middle K.
*spoke Semitic language
*prob. came from E & N of the Sinai desert
delta
triangle-shaped area of land made of soil deposited by a river
Hatshepsut
first women pharaoh in history, helped Egypt greatly by sending traders to acquire ivory, gold and spices, dressed as a king and wore a false beard
pyramid
a huge building with four sloping triangular-shaped walls
Napata
A Nubian kingdom where its kings gradually took control of more and more of Egypt.
sarcophagus
the coffin that the pharoah was in
Engineering
usses science and mathematics to make things that help people
Apprentice
one who is learning by practical experience under skilled workers a trade, art, or calling
dynasty
line of rulers from the same family
Tutankhamen
boy king who ruled for 9 years
Peasants
This social class was the lowest of the social pyramid and there were 3 seasons to them, the flooding season, the planting season, and the harvest season.
canopic jars
used during embalming to hold organs( liver, intestines, stomach, lungs)
Ramses the Great
Egyptiam pharo, he expanded the kingdom and builtlasting temples
Step Pyramid
First pyramid to be built in Egypt
King Tut
Who's tomb provided an amazing glimpse into ancient Egypt?
cataract
a waterfall (there are many alond the nile river)
Menes
he ruled upper and lower eqypt first pharaoh and dynasty unified kingdoms of upper and lower Egypt built Memphis
Monotheistic
a religion of belief believing in one god
Queen Hatshepsut
Ruler who worked to increase Egyptian trade.
Osiris
husband and brother of Isis. God of agriculture and ruler of the dead. Wears white crown and holds crook and flail.
A small stone carving of a beetle, placed over the heart as a good luck gesture
scarab
Nile River
The Longest River in the World; source of life in Ancient Egypt
What are the 3 great river systems?
Nile, Tigris, Euphrates
Ramses II
Pharaoh who lived to be about 92 years. Conquered lands for Egypt and built many structures.
ra
was the sun god. he was believed to sail his boat across the heavens, appearing in the morning as a youth, at midday as a man in the prime of life, and in the evening as an old man. ra was considered the king of the gods.
irrigation
the watering of dry land by means of canals or pipes
What were soldiers?
Egypt had a permanent army that offered soldiers a chance to rise in social status and could receive land as payment.
What goddess cult did all priests belong to?
Cult of Sekhmet
ramses
he had 8 wives and 162 children and 50 were sons. he ran for 67 years
Red Land Black Land
Where the black, fertile land stops, desert begins.
the black land
the name ancient Egyptians gave to the narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River. The name was referring to the darkness of the soil. Egyptians called themselves "the people of the black land."
They wrapped the body known as a mummy then put into several wooden coffins, one fitting inside the other
Life after Death
Why did powerful pharaohs spend so much energy building the pyramids?
They believed that after being mummified, they'd live forever, so they wanted to make a tomb that would also last forever; yet tombs got robbed over the century of valuables "taken to the afterlife."
Height of Old Kingdom, Egyptian mining, raiding, and trading extend...
southward into Nubia, above the 1st cataract of the Nile
What are some examples we see of Roman influence?
Amphitheater in Alexandria
Delta and Alexandria show a lot of Roman architecture
Catacomb tombs
Mummy boards/portraits/tags
They were poured over sledges to help them slide.
How did water and milk help with transporting the stone?
monsoon
seasonal wind
Manetho
Egyptian historian
mummy
a wrapped body
calligraphy
find handwriting, art form
predict
to tell in advance
Thoth
God of writing and knowledge.
Hieroglypics
Writting system which pictorial symblos stand for words or sounds.
cataracts
steep rapids in a river
pictograms
writing, simple pictures meaning what they are
Imhotep
2668-2649 BCE: Egyptian architect and physician; designed and built the Step Pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser during dynast 3; worshipped as a god of healing.
Horus was the god of what?
sky
cartouche
Hieroglyphics written inside an oval shape; represented the name of an Egyptian ruler.
Text illumination
intersection of narrative and physical proof is powerful
natron
the salt- like chemical located near the Nile which was used to dry out the body of the dead person.
Chief Treasurer
Looked after the governments wealth. His main duty was to collect taxes.
artisan
a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft
who built the first empire
Sargon, from Akkad
Narmer
King of Egypt during Dynasty "0" unified the two halves of the country.
Polytheism
The belief in more than one god.
Senusret
encouraged the development of art and architecture during his reign
demotic
Written script for daily use in Egypt
embalmer
a person who preserves a dead body
Mentuhotep II
founder of 11th dynasty: 2055-2004 BCE
-defeated the Hierakonpolis rulers and claimed the throne of Upper Egypt
-he then fought the Libyans in the delta, reuniting all of Egypt (like Narmer/Menes)
-reestablished a strong central government and prosperity settled over the country
Pharaoh Hatshepsut
the first female pharaoh who ruled during the new kingdom period and encouraged trade with other lands (such as Punt), her temple at Dayr al-Bahri showed her trade expeditions
Zoser
Name of pharaoh for whom the first pyramid was built
Upper Egypt
Ancient Egypt distinct region in the South.
crook and flail
curved stick (hieroglyph for 'king') and whip (symbol of Osiris) carried by the pharaoh as a symbol of his royal power
MUMMIFICATION Step 7.
mask and amulet is put on
WHAT DID THE SILT ACT AS
a natural fertilizer
Ka
Part of the soul that looks identical to the deceased
Empire
Rule of many lands and peoples by one. (Think about my empire building example)
Tutankamen
boy who became pharaoh at age 10 and died at 19
High Nile
years when crops grew well because the flooding watered their fields
social pyramid
a triangle chart that shows the rank of people in its society
lower egypt's crown
short, boxy crown with spike in the back and curlicue in the front
Ramses 11
A pharoh who ruled Egypt for 66 years greatly expanding the Egyptian empire by conquering surronding territory
WHERE DID PEOPLE START TO MOVE AFTER THE SAHARA DRIED UP?
the NILE Valley
General of the Armies
a government official who was the top military commander
What does it mean to "harvest?"
time when the crops were ready
What was the Legend about the unification and when Upper Egypt gained control over Lower Egypt?
That the king responsible was MENES
When figuring the calendar of 12 months at 30 days each (360 days) there were 5 days left over to make 365 total days. WHAT WERE FIVE DAYS LEFT OVER Used FOR?
the birthdays of the gods
1.Horus
2.Osiris
3.Seth
4. Isis
5.Nephthys
WHAT DID THE FARMERS DO WHEN EMERGENCE STARTED?
1) Fields were hoed and seeds were planted in furrows
2)Cows were led across the fields to push seeds into the ground
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