Astronomy final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
false-color images
la stella
second largest planet
winter solstice
december 21
equal day and night
meteoroid that hits earth
Astronomy was originally called ________
aprhodite terra
largest highlands on venus
object spins on its axis
K stars
3,500 - 5,000 K
Enters the Earth's atmosphere- "Shooting Star"- streak across atmosphere
Radio astronomy
principally use parabolic reflectors made of metal, usually placed on the surface of the Earth
infrared radiation
electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
How many satellites does Saturn have?
Which Galilean satellites is closest to Jupiter?
nearly circular surface features with a floor at a lower level than the outside terrain
earth's yearly orbit around the sun
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Pre-main sequence stars
-protostar collapses, center heats
-creates gas pressure - pushes out
-when gas pressure is substantial, object is pre-main sequence star
-star contracts (at slower rate)
-energy source: gravity
Apparent Brightness
how bright star appears from Earth
gamma rays
wavelength < .01 nm (high frequency)
population 2
relatively low abundance of heavy metals, found mainly in the nucleus and halo of the galaxy, relatively old stars compared to population 1
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
Gravitational lens
A massive body that produces distorted, magnified or multiple images of more distant objects when its gravitational field bends the path of light rays
radio telescope
a telescope designed to make observations in raido wavelengths
white dwarf
at the center of planetary nebulae
the naked eye can not...
perceive celestial distances.
cygnus loop
veil nebula in Cygnus; no m#
shepherd moons
little moons that corral particles together and keep them from spreading
Sun is the center of the universe.
Electromagnetic Radiation
a traveling disturbance in the electric and magnetic fields caused by accelerating electric charges. in quantum mechanics, a stream of photons. light.
A meteor that strikes Earth's surface is a _________.
outer planets
gas giants, jovians. jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
A very luminous, star-like object that generates energy at a high rate; quasars are thought to be the most distant objects in the universe
motion away
red shit, lower frequency, longer wavelength
aurora borealis
the aurora of the Northern Hemisphere.
the apparent path of the Sun traces annually on the celestial sphere
planet with winds over 1000 km/h (the windiest planet of the solar system)
coude focus
a reflecting telescope in which a series of mirrors direct light to a remote focus away from the moving parts of the telescope
our moon goes through ______ phases as it revolves around Earth once every 27.3 days. The same side of the moon always faces the earth, no matter what phase the moon is in.
red shift
the change of light waves from retreating objects to the red end of the spectrum
A band of 12 constellations that the sun moves through; the moon, planets, & the sun are all found near the zodiac
the sun is directly at 23.5 degress north or south
Composition of Neptune
Core: heavy element
2nd layer: ices and rock
3rd layer: Gaseous hydrogen and helium
more massive
for two stars with different masses, the center of mass lies closer to the ___ ___ one
series circuit
has only one pathway for the current
change in position of object when seem from two different places
Geomagnetic Storms
a sudden disturbance in the earth's magnetic field.
The effect by which stars and other objects, when viewed through interstellar dust, appear redder than they actually are. Reddening is cause by the fact that blue light is more strongly absorbed and scattered that red light
Brightness Apparent Magnitude
the brightness as seen from Earth
the slow circular motion of the north and south celestial poles among the stars
the is the region with most stars
main sequence
Ionization energy
The minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its ground state.
Comparison spectrum
a spectrum of known spectral lines used to identify unknown wavelengths in an objects spectrum
the model where the sun is in the middle of our solar system
- was not accepted mostly because they couldn't feel movement
Polar orbit
An orbital path that takes an earth satellite over the poles during each orbit
Which of the following wavelength regions cannot be studied with telescopes on the ground?
both B and C.
Lunar Eclipse
the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and the moon
Local group
A small group of about two dozen galaxies of which our own Milky Way galaxy is a member.
the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet
Order of Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars (these are known as the inner planets), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (these are known as the outer planets) The inner and outer planets are separated by the asteroid belt.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
dopplers effect - red shift objects m____ a____ and blue shift, is for objects moving t_____
moving away, towards
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Top Four Worlds (Terrestrial Plants) Earth's moon is included as a bonus!=)
A named region of of the sky that contains a pattern or grouping of stars. There are 88 of them.
aurora boralis
a display of shifting colours in the northern sky caused by solar particles colliding with matttter in earth's upper atmosphere
black hole
An object whose gravity is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape
On the magnitude scale what do larger numbers indicate?
less brightness
Stefan's law
total flux emitted by an object is directly proportional to the fourth power of the surface temperature
first phase of the moon
new moon (no moon is seen)
Autumn Equinox
On September 21st or 22nd, it the day when there is 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness. It marks the beginning of Autumn in the northern hemisphere.
both cepheid method and type Ia supernovae measurement method are "______________" methods. explain.
standard-candle, know absolute magnitude (luminosity), compare to apparent magnitude, find distance
Orion, Little Dipper, Zodiac Constellation
Be able to name some constellations.
Types of radio galaxies
CORE HALO: bright core
- region of radio emission that is much smaller than visible
(M87 galaxy)
-Region of radio emission that is much larger than visible
-Largest Object in UNIVERSE!
Reflecting Telescope uses:
a concave mirror to reflect light and is of aluminized glass
The sky is divided up in to how many constellations?
Mercury (though small) must have some energy it in because it ________.
has a magnetic field.
What probably is present at the center of most galaxies?
A supermassive black hole
Line of Nodes
The line along which the plane of the Moon's orbit intersects the plane of the ecliptic.
full and new moon
what phases of the moon do spring tides occur
12 billion years old
according t the tun-off points of the oldest globular clusters, they are about.....
The casuality problem
the universe is too big for all parts to interact with each other and create the large-scale uniformity observed
Heliocentric model of the universe
Model which places the sun at the center of the universe
Mars (Bonus answer is Olympus mons)
This planet has the largest volcano and deepest canyons. >>> Bonus: what is the name of the volcano?
What is Newton's version of Kepler's Second Law?
An orbit's angular momentum is conserved.
What is eccentricity? Which planet has the most eccentric orbit?
Eccentricity is a measure of how oval-shaped an ellipse is. In other words, how far from a perfect circle it is.
Mercury's orbit has the highest eccentricity (although it may be changing over the next few million years!)
What do Moon phases describe?
The part of the Moon that is visible to us on Earth
How are the physical properties of Venus similar to Earth's?
It's radius is 95% of Earth's, and it's mass is 82% of Earth's.
Gas Giants, rocks, dust particles, and ice
The planetary rings around the 4 _____ are composed of _____.
Why do we see both total and annular solar eclipses?
Because the moon's orbit around the earth is not exactly circular
True or false
Two stars that look very different must be made of different elements.
false, The most common element in the universe is hydrogen. Instead stars look different due to size, varying surface temperature, and distance
Where is the NCP and CE as seen from a latitude in between the north pole and the equator, like Grinnell?
Altitude of the NCP above the N horizon is equal to the observer's latitude. (CE is 90 degrees from NCP)
Resonance rotation
Density =
- mass/volume
Speed and direction.
cloud that births stars
electromagnetic radiation having frequencies and photon energies greater than those of ultraviolet light but less than those of gamma rays, and wavelengths shorter than those of UV light but longer than those of gamma rays
Southern Hemisphere
South of the equator
Solar System
various stellar objects (stars,planets,etc.) orbiting a star
transfer of heat through light
Type II supernova
Low mass stars
can see during solar exlipse
1942 AD British theoretical physicist and cosmologist; has done pioneering work on black holes and also in explaining big bang cosmology to a non-technical audience.
the property whereby certain atomic nuclei naturally decompose by spontaneously emitting particles
Apoapsis in orbit around the moon
a "light bucket" whose primary function is to capture as many photons as possible from a given region of the sky and concentrate them into a focused beam for analysis
Supergiant star that explodes before dying
parallax and distance equation
d = 1/p"
Earth is closest to the sun
Novae and supernovae are essentially the same phenomenon
Novae and supernovae are essentially the same phenomenon
processed meteorites
Meteorites that apparently once were part of a larger object which the original material of the solar nebula into another form. They can be rocky if chipped at the surface or mantle, or metallic if blasted from the core.
Which Apollo mission orbited the EARTH?
Apollo 7
(astronomy) any of the small solid extraterrestrial bodies that hits the earth's atmosphere
All wavelengths of light carry the same energy. T or F
heat transfer by rising hot material and falling colder material
Spiral, Ellipitical, Irregular
longest year how long?
1year=165 earth years [neptune]
Retrograde motion
when planets appear to back up
seismic waves
vibrations traveling through or around an astronomical body usually associated with earthquakelike phenomena.
Made when lava flows filled huge impact basins. cover 17% of moon.
a conic section produced by the intersection of a plane with a cone when the plane is passed through the cone at an angle to the axis other than 0 degrees or 90 degrees
The imaginary line that separates the north and south.
Broad Stellar Lines
Low intensity on absorption spectrum
the angular distance of a heavenly body above the horizon
sidereal days
rotation of Earth relative to the stars
(normals days = rotation of Earth relative to the Sun)
an open curve formed by cutting a circular cone at an angle parallel to the sides of the cone
First Quarter
1/2 of moon visible from Earth; gaining visibility. North of Earth.
gravitational potential energy
an object has gravitational potential energy when it is higher and less when it is lower
Semimajor Axis
One-half the major axis of an ellipse
Spiral Galaxy
This class of galaxy included our Milky Way. They all have beautiful spiral arms.
how a low-mass star dies: the exposed carbon core will still be very hot and will therefore emit intense ___ radiation
the point above the observer that is directly opposite the nadir on the imaginary sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected
This is the term for a rapidly spinning neutron star
solar eclipse
occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
The rate of change of an object's position with time, without regard to the direction of movement. Units: meters per second (m/s) or Kilometers per hour (km/h)
The largest dwarf planet in the kupier belt
Spirit and oppurtunity
two rovers larger than pathfinder, currently working
what has the longest wave length on the visible colors of the spectrum
In Ptolemaic theory, the point off the center in the deferent from which the center of the epicycle appears to move uniformly
1% Dust and 99% Gas
The interstellar medium(ISM) is composed of
an island of stars far out in space. all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center
Johannes Kepler
most of his work was theoretical and mathematical; because he had poor eyesight, he based his work on observations of Brahe and others
sun and low mass stars COLOR
red orange and yellow
neutron star
collapsed core fo a supernova that can shrink to about 20 km in diameter and contains only neutrons in the dense core
1 light year
measurement = to the distance traveled in a vacuum at the speed of light for 1 year. (approx 9.5 trillion km)
Lunar Highlands
lighter in color and older than the maria, dating 4 billion years ago, the mountainous areas of the moon.
Continuous Line Spectrum
A spectrum that contains an entire range of colors and not just separate wavelengths; hot high density gas
Dark areas on the surface of the sun that contain cooler gasses are called
Diffraction limit
depends on both the diameter of the telescopes primary mirror and the wavelength of the light being observed
helps shape the magnetospheres of planets and blows back material that forms the plasma tail of comets
solar wind does what?
Proxima Centauri
the closest star to Earth besides our sun
Lunar Phases
Changes in the visible portion of the Moon caused by its revolution about the Earth allowing us to see more or less of its lit up visible portion.
heat of formation
In planetology, the heat released by in-falling matter during the formation of a planetary body. (p. 372)
Precession also causes
"a shift in the intersection point of the ecliptic and the celestial equator. Age of Aries occurred 2K years ago, age of pisces now, age of aquarius will begin 400 years from now"
X-ray binary
a binary system in which mass from an evolving star spills over onto a collapsed companion such as a neutron star or black hole; the material falling in is heated to such high temperatures that it glows brightly in X-rays
Laws of Gravity
the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
when the sun and a planet are on the opposite sides of earth. 180degrees away from the sun
the period of time that it takes for a planet to make a complete revolution around the sun
Kepler's Third Law
also called harmonic law. a rule of planetary motion inferred by Johannes Kepler that describes the relationship between the period of a planet's orbit and its distance from the Sun. the law states that the square of the period of a planet's orbit, measured in year, is equal to the cube of the semimajor axis of the planet's orbit, measured in astronomical units (Pyears)^2=(Aau)^3
Vernal Equinox
the day of the year that marks the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere
plane of the ecliptic
The plane defined by the earth's orbit.
synodic month
full set of phases of the moon. 29. 5 days (approx. 28 days aka 4 weeks)
away from the Sun
where the tail of a comet always points
Kirchhoff's first Law
A hot solid, liquid or gas, under high pressure, gives off a continuous spectrum.
Radius and Mass of the Sun?
Radius= 100 Earths
Mass= 1 million Earths
center of mass
the point at which the entire mass of a body may be considered concentrated for some purposes; formally, the point such that the first moment of a physical or geometric object about every line through the point is zero.
Explain why we cannot necessarily believe that indirect observations of planetary companions via Doppler wobbling are truly planetary companions. Are our assumed companion planet masses higher or lower than true planet masses in tilted systems? Explain.
We cannot believe the observations and measurements deduced through Doppler wobbling because they do not account for tilted systems, simply because they cannot measure transverse velocity. Since scientists cannot measure the transverse velocity, two stars that have the same radial velocity will appear to produce the same wobble, therefore appearing to have the same mass. Scientists assumed companion planet masses are lower than the possible true mass of the planet if it is in a tilted system, also known as lower limit.
Number of quasars near Earth is
Less than the number of observed quasars for the young universe. Quasars appear to die out over time.
What are the different energy transport processes in the radiation and convection zones?
In the convection zone, energy is transported by the rising of hot gas and the falling of cooler gas. In the radiation zone, energy is transported outward primarily in the form of light photons.
Why does the Fission theory have trouble explaining the difference in abundance of volatiles in the Earth and Moon? Also, explain how the current (relatively slow) rotation of the Earth is a problem for the Fission hypothesis.
The Fission theory does not explain the difference in volatiles because it does not give a possible heat source needed to eliminate the volatiles. Also, the current relatively slow rotation of the Earth is left unexplained, because the Earth slowed by a factor of 10, a factor that cannot be explained by tidal effect alone.
new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, wanning gibbous, third quarter, wanning crescent
order of moon phases startin with new moon
Why doesn't the Moon have an appreciable atmosphere?
Because the Earth has gravity and the Moon has very little.
Imagine for a moment that despite all the evidence, Earth actually is not rotating and orbiting the Sun. Which of these hypothetical observations (none of them are real) would be inconsistent with our Sun-centered view of the solar system?
We discover a small planet beyond Saturn that rises in the west and sets in the east each day.
The rotation of Uranus is peculiar in that
the axis is nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit
main factor causes the phases of the moon?
The reflection of the sun to the surface of the moon-- light from the sun that casts onto the moon
strong force
Plutos moon
planetary light
reflected sunlight
Daughter Elements
Decay products
Venus rotates slowly and
rotation of earth around axis
units used to measure power
measure of a star's brightness
short for "quasi-stellar radio sources, believed to be cores of galaxies that were formed when universe was young, extremely strong sources of radio waves, the most distant objects in the universe
Red glow comes from what?
fusion to red giant
h to he
why is io significant?
has many volcanoes
more energetic charged particles emitted during the explosion of dying stars
cosmic rays
Satellite Hipparcos
Satellite that accuratly measures stars positions, distances from the earth, parallaxes, and proper motions. The Hipparcos Catalogue, a high-precision catalogue of more than 100,000 stars, was published in 1997.
laws of motion (F=ma), universal gravitation (F=GmM/R^2-- M=a^3/P^2), tides, equatorial bulge, variation in g. precession (wobble), comets, pertubations,
light-refraction, dispersion, spectrum (W=ROYGBIV)
Reflecting telescope
how do we measure the sky
scientific model
A tentative description which must...
1) Fit observed data
2) Make verifiable predictions
3) Should be aesthetically pleasing
Newtons modification of Keplers 3rd law allows us to determine what of celestial objects?
Which star will die faster?
A blue supergiant
Geocentric model
Earth centered, wrong model, planets and sun revolve around earth
falling without any resistance to slow you down
lowest layer of the Sun's atmosphere and the layer that gives off light
What is Nebula balanced by?
pressure and gravity
The degree of elongation of an elliptical orbit
relative energy - called electromagnetic r____ where the energy is c____ by electric and magnetic fields across the v___ of space.
radiation, carried, vaccum
Which of the following energy sources is
the most important inside the Earth today?
prime meridian
line that runs through greenwhich england, longitude of 0
Viking probes
photographed the entire planet from their orbits, while the landers touched down on the surface;
antarctic circle
Where the south pole is located.
Produced as by-products in the p-p reaction
-Small, nearly massless particles which interact very weakly with matter, so they can leave the Sun in just 8 minutes
Kepler’s Laws
Kepler's laws give an approximate description of the motion of planets around the Sun.
1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus.
2. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
3.The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
a star that suddenly becomes thousands of times brighter and then gradually fades to its original intensity.
a hot solid or highly compressed gas
continuous spectrum
equivalence principle
the effects of gravity are exactly equivalent to the effects of acceleration
Refracting Telescope
Made with lenses, lense sagging making images distroted. air bubbles,
Soler System
The groups of objects consisting of the sun and all the bodies that orbit it.
continuous spectrum
an uninterrupted band of light emitted by an incandescent solid, liquid or gas under pressure
absoulute magnitude
the measure of a stars brightness, based on the amount of light it actully gives off
what factors keep earth in orbit
inertia and gravity
The layer of the sun's atmosphere that gives off visible light is the...
the cyclic pattern of water rising and falling along ocean shorelines
Classical Mechanics
the science of applying newtons laws to the motion of objects
What is the formula for the velocity of light?
solar day
the amound of time that elapses between successive passages of the Sun across the meridian
Gamma rays are a type of ___________ radiation.
elliptical galaxy
look like round or flattened balls, contain billions of stars
What are pulsars?
Pulsars are very short consistent bursts of radio waves that are given off from a neutron star.
terrestrial Planets
4 planets closest to the sun and resembel earth (mercury, venus, earth and mars)
Movement of the Moon
travels along the Ecliptic. Sometimes in the evening sky, sometimes in the morning. Sometimes not visible at all. 27 1/3 days for moon to go around the earth. 1 lunar rotation = 1 lunar revolution.
Quasars must be small because they______
fluctuate rapidly in luminosity
scientific notation
an simple expression of a very large number
Nuclear Fusion
Happens in stars and is when 4 hydrogen atoms combine to form a helium atom
Why are the moons temperatures extreme?
There is no atmosphere.
Radiative energy
energy carried by light; the energy of a photon is Planck's constant times its frequency, or .
A particle with about the same mass as a proton, but neutral.
Alpha Centauri
the closet star to the Earth other than the sun
the portion of a shadow in which only part of the light source is covered by the shadow-making body
amino acids
which type of molecules, vital to our life, were found in Murchison and similar carbonaceous chondrites?
cosmological red shift
wavelengths of radiated light that are constantly being stretched (lengthened) as the light crosses the expanding universe
type II supernova
A supernova explosion caused by the collapse of a massive star. (p. 219)
the point in the orbit of a heavenly body, esp. the moon, or of a man-made satellite at which it is farthest from the earth.
how many times dimmer objects can someone looking through the keck telescop (10-mm diameter) see than with their unaided eye (5 mm pupl diameter)
light gatering p ratio=d_keck/d_eye=10000mm/5mm squared=2000 squared= 4 million
jovian cores are made of _____, _____, and _____ compounds.
rock, metal, hydrogen
Milky Way
a broad band of light that looks like a trail of spilled milk in the night sky. Created by the millions of faint stars that form part of our galaxy.
Black body radiation curve
-the bodies emit radiation in all parts of the em spectrum
-the hotter the object, the shorter the wavelength at which its curve is peaked.
The magnetic fields of the Earth and Jupiter
are believed to be produced by
the dynamo mechanism
What is a sunspot
Earth sized dark blemish on sun's surface. Dark color of sunspot indicates has lower temperature than its' surrounding
a group of stars that forms a shape or pattern
Where will stars that have cool surface temperatures appear on the HR-Diagram?
On the right side
mars is smaller then venus
mars appears fainter than venus from earth, why?
focus (of an ellipse)
The two points inside an ellipse, the sum of whose distances from any point of the ellipse in constant.
Pope Gregory XIII
dropped 10 days from the year 1582 and other minor changes for our present calendar.
When Copernicus first created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why not?
Copernicus misjudged the distances between the planets.
Copernicus used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets.
What process is responsible for the large-scale features on the Earth's surface (mountains, oceanic trenches, and so forth)?
contential drift and plate tectonics, movement together makes mountains and separating causes trenches.
an orbiting planet has what energy
kinetic energy (moving around the sun) and gravitational potential energy (because it would fall towards the sun if it stppd orbiting)
be familiar with the effects of being near a black hole
time dilation, gravitational sift, tidal forces
What is the radiative zone?
Part of the sun where energy is transported out and where gamma rays change to light rays
There seems to be an upper limit to the size of a star because
The proto-stellar cloud collapse generates a radiation pressure that disperses the cloud
Which of the following best describes how modern astronomers view astrology?
Astrology played an important part in the development of astronomy in ancient times, but it is not a science by modern standards.
What is the earth like in March and September?
Neither hemisphere is pointed toward or away during an equinox.
name the color of stars from largest to smallest
Red giant, red orange, yellow, white, blue
It did not account for the observed positions of the planets any more accurately than Ptolemy.
What were some of the objections to the Copernican system?
Employ the concept of escape speed to explain why the Moon has no atmosphere
the larger an object is the larger the speed needed to escape. moons escape speed is only 2.4 km/ s compared to 11.2 km/s earth
190-120 BC
Right Ascension
springs tides
20% higher
earth is the center
no moons
mercury & venus
Compares mass to volume
The latin word for moon
# of crest per second
means earth centered solar system
outer/gaseous planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
light created when particles from solar flares interact with the Earth's atmosphere near the polar regions
Wiens law Formula
/\peak= 2900um*k
Large dark appearing regions ranging in size, most common type of solar magnetic activity. they are darker than surrounding gas because they are cooler
a binary star has ___ stars
the smallest possible amount of electromagnetic energy of a particular wavelength
At inferior conjunction, the planet can be seen passing over the Sun's surface
What is light?
Light is electromagnetic radiation,
not all light is visible,
magnify the image and make it convenient to view
main sequence
...the area on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram where the majority of stars are found
. The primary transport system for heat to get from the core of our Sun to the outside as evidence by its "granular" appearance
rich clusters
large fraction of elliptical galaxies - virgo
building blocks of an atom
protons, neutron, electrons
transition zone
region between the Sun's chromosphere and corona where the temperature skyrockets to about 1 million K.
What planet is 7th from the sun?
the chromosphere of the sun is ___________ than the photosphere
curved path of a satellite that results from a combination of the satellite's forward movement and the gravitational pull of Earth
the amount of matter in an object
deep red, seen during a total eclipse
an imaginary line that passes through earth's center and the north and south ploes, about whcih earth rotates
Most Comets will eventually ________ .
completely sublimate
A relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star.
the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
the point where a planet is furthest from the Sun
Radar Ranging
a system that uses reflected radio waves to determine the velocity and location of objects
If the average density of the Universe is less than the critical density, the Universe is open
Observations of binary stars have helped astronomers to determine which important stellar parameter?
The stellar mass
Harvest Moon
harvest crops, tilted away, full and lots of light because moon is bigger
There are (blank) lunar cycles in one year!
Resolving Power
RP = 1.22 | f / d
One ___ of all known TNOs are Plutinos.
gas giants
largest four planets in the solar system (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) made largely of dense gaseous atmosphere.
dwarf planet
A body with characteristics similar to those of a classical planet except that it has not cleared smaller bodies from the neighboring regions around its orbit.
Spiral Galaxies...
Contains over 200 billion stars. Our Sun orbits the center of our galaxy once every 250 million years. It has already gone around over 18 times. Contains about 500 billion solar masses of material.
light year
measuring unit based on distance light travels in one year
Van Allen Belt
Protects living things from cosmic and solar radiation
how many galaxy are in the visible universe
100 billion
type I supernova
a supernova occurring after a white dwarf accretes enough mass from a companion star to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit.
magnetic interaction and reconnection of coronal loops
what triggers a solar flare?
approximate number of max daylight hours in BG? when does it occur
14+ hours, summer solstice
closed universe theory
theory that the universe will collapse in on itself (AKA,the big crunch)
Sun Spots
Areas on the Sun's surface that are cooler and less bright than surrounding areas, are caused by the Sun's magnetic field, and occur in cycles
Elliptical Focus
The two points in an ellipse that define the curve
the darkest part of a shadow during an eclipse
Massive Star Supernova Explosion
type II one large star explosion
what does the moon pull on?
everything on the earth
increase in density
most responsible for particles in a gas cloud becoming a protostar
The sun takes up ______ of the mass of the solar system.
size and density, volcanoes and mountains
Why is Venus "Earth's twin?
A very thin layer of rock that is the outer most layer of all terrestrial planets.
impact crater
A round pit left behind on the surface of a planet or other body in space after a smaller object strikes the surface
absolute magnitude
measure of the amount of light a star actually gives off
Examples of Irregular Galaxies? 2
1. Catch all classification for galaxies which dont fit into the other classifications.
2. Some may result from collision of previously normal galaxies.
sidereal day
time it takes for Earth to make on complete rotation with respect to a star (4 minutes shorter then mean solar day)
How many stars are in our solar system?
One, our Sun
When an atom changes from a lower to a higher energy level, the process is called
less other elements in interstellar medium due to...
iron, magnesium and other elements "locked up" in interstellar dust grains
If two stars in a binary system pass alternately in front of each other as seen from Earth we have
an eclipsing binary
The synodic period of Mars, measured from opposition to the next opposition, is:
slightly more than two years
giant impact theory
the theory of the origin of the Moon that holds that the Moon formed from debris blasted into orbit when the Earth was struck by a Mars sized body
(1) Given the condensation temperatures for the four main components of planets (metal, rock, ice and gas) and an indication of the temperature in various parts of the solar nebula disk, be able to identify and explain which components you would expect to
Hydrogen and helium gas make up about 98% of the solar nebula's mass and does not condense. Therefore most of the nebula remains gaseous. The other materials can, however, condense into solid materials whenever the temperature allows. Close to the sun, where temperatures can reach and upwards of 1600 K, it's too hot for anything to condense down to anything other than gas. Near Mercury's orbit, it is possible for somethings to condense into tiny, solid particles, but the other types of rock and hydrogen compounds remain gaseous.(500-1300K) Around Venus, Earth, and Mars more types of rock and metal condense. Around the asteroid belt area, temperatures are perfect for dark, carbon-rich minerals to condense along with minerals containing small amounts of water. The frost line (-150 K) marks the boundary where it is possible for hydrogen compounds to condense into ices. This line is between the orbits of mars and jupiter. Everything beyond that is made of mostly metal and ice, since it is more easily formed in that area of the solar system.
list the regions of the spectrum from hi freq to low freq
Gamma, Xray, UV, V, IR,Radio
Newton's version of Kepler's third law
how can you determine the sun's mass?
Planets with a Magnetic Field
1) Mercury
2) Earth
3) Jupiter
4) Saturn
5) Uranus
6) Neptune
What causes the high volcanic activity of Io?
The strong tidal force from Jupiter and Europa that constantly distorts Io's shape
What happens when the moon revoles faster
its revolution gets ahead of its rotation and we can see a bit past the wedge edge
yes, rare chemicals on earth such as uranium and thorium are popular on the moon
are the moon and earth similar chemically? how?
are caused by the changes in energy of the sun
what are the cause of seasons
A rocket is pushed forward as a reaction,,
the expelling of hot gases through the nozzle at the rear
Travel time for light from Moon to Earth, Sun to Earth, Sun to 100 AU
1 second from Moon to Earth, 8 minutes from sun to earth, 833 minutes from Sun to 100 AU, many to millions of years from stars to earth
Jupiter, Saturn
has nine rings
called the veiled planet
Super Giant
die off quickly
what is jupiters temperature
suns surface temp
5,000 degrees C
why does uranus appear green
speed of light
2.998 x 10^8m/s
First man in space
Yuri Gagarin
What is located at 180 longitude
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Circumference of the Earth
60 minutes, 1/24 of a day
direction of the moons revolution
counter clockwise
focal length
distance between lens and focus
how star dies
reaction becomes unstable, cant generate energy, iron absorbs
rocky objects revolving around the sun the at are too small and numerous to be considered planets
Blue arcs
Images of young, background galaxies, warped by the gravitational field of a foreground galaxy cluster
(integer x plank's constant x frequency) n x h x nu
delta E
Glaciers that move over older moraines form the material into landforms
red-giant instability
buffeted bt helium-shell flashes from within, and subject to the destabilizing influence of recombination, the outer layer of a red giant become unstable and enter into a glowing pulsations
a technology originally designed for a particular purpose, such as space technology, that has made its way into everyday use.
all of space and everything in it
Apogee Distance (Earth farthest away from Moon)
252,000 miles
Optical instrument that acts like a prism to separate light into it's basic component colours
Each of four divisions of the year marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours. This is caused by the tilt of the Earth (23.5Degrees) relative to the orbital plane.
The name given to the Gas Giants/Outer Plants
HR Diagram
diagram of stars by temperature and magnitude (brightness)
brown dwarf
"Failed" star; Star not massive enough to sustain nuclear fusion.
Cassinie division
gap in the ring caused from gravitational pull by moon
East Point
The point on the eastern horizon exactly halfway between the north point and the south point; exactly east.
differential rotation
the motion of the sun... different parts of the sun rotate at different rates
Issac Newton
The great English scientist who helped to bring together Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo's breakthroughs under a single theory of motion. He was certain that all physical objects were affected by the same forces. His greatest discovery was that the same force ruled the motions of the planets, the pendulum, and all matter on earth and in space. According to his law of gravitation, every object in the universe attracts every other object
Big bang
the name for the only seriously considered theory of the universe
Tully-Fisher relation
correlation between the width of the 21-centimeter line of a spiral galaxy and its absolute magnitude
How bright is the North star
46th brightest star
what determines the color of light on the electromagnetic spectum
Position of the moon during full moon and new moon which is in alignment with Earth and the Sun. 2/3+1/3=3/3
stellar model
A table of numbers representing the conditions in various layers within a star. (p. 189)
A device that can sense the radiation in the wavelength regions chosen
diffraction fringe
around every point of light in the image and you cannot see any detail smaller than the fringe
solar wind
an ionized gas emitted from the Sun continuously, peaks in intensity with solar flare and prominence activity.
general theory of relativity
a description of spacetime formulated by Einstein explaining how gravity affects the geometry of space and the flow of time
How is day and night caused?
The earth is moving
the fracion of the lighted side of the moon that you see gets smaller each day
Where do Latitude lines run?
They run East and West
gas giant
the Jovian planets made of frozen gas and much larger than terrestrial planets
Light as a particle.
Newton wasn't completely wrong. A compete understanding of light requires and interpretation based on both &quot;wave&quot; and &quot;particle&quot; phenomena. A particle of light is called a 'photon'. Each photon carries a specific amount of energy that is 
proportion to the frequency E=hf
● 'h' is Planck's constant
●The particle nature of light is most important when it 
interacts with matter.
stars die when
they run out of elements that can undergo nuclear fusion
Emission lines are
used to identify the type of gas giving off the light
Leap Year
-to compensate for the 1/4 of the 365 1/4 days that makes up the year, an extra day every 4 years is added to February giving it 29 days instead of 28
A Lunar Eclipse
Earth's shadow cast on the moon causes this?
. Epicycles were used in Ptolemy's model to explain
why retrograde motion occurs
L dwarf
a main sequence star cooler than an M star
what is the average live span of a star
10 billion years
What is the "BIG BANGTheory"?
The theory that states that the universe formed by a huge explosion about 10-15 billion years ago.
galaxies on the average are seperated by
a few million light years
Where did the Oort Cloud objects get their angular momentum?
from Uranus and Neptune
only one type of radiation
the light that reaches us from the stars and planets is
Which of these statements is true about terrestrial planets?
only earth and mars have moons
Newton's first law of motion
states that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless acted on by a force
Why is the sidereal and synodic months of different lengths?
The Earth revolves around the Sun
What are some characteristics of the moon?
Dry and airless compared to Earth. Humans need to wear spacesuits to be protected from sunburn, extreme temperatures, and to supply air. There is no liquid water, but there are patches of ice near the poles that are shielded from the moon.
25. What is the most common type of elliptical galaxy?
Dwarf Elliptical- 1000s ly across
resolution is a function of ______ of primary and ______ of light imaged
diameter of primary & wavelength of light imaged
In any particular place on Earth, certain constellations are visible in the evening only at certain times of the year because _________.
our evening view of space depends on where Earth is located in its orbit around the Sun
How doe we know that nucleosynthesis is actually occurring?
By observing the light curve of Type I SN in a compared to calculated emission from the radioactive decay of nickel 56 and cobalt 56.
Why do we see different phases of the moon?
Light from the sun illuminates 1/2 of the moon at all times (except in lunar eclipses). We can only see part of the lit portion (depending on where the moon is in orbit).
no atmosphere
law of gravity
Average Density
1410 kg/m^3
large rocks in space
the symbol for Fluorine
Full moon
Full moon lit
early beginning of a star
refractor telescope
focuses light using lenses
what size are white dwarfs
How hot is Murcury?
450 degrees.
alpha centarui to earth
4.3 yrs
proto stars
center of large spinning disk
atmospheres interact with _______, modifying atmospheric composition.
surface materials
Blackbodies produce light based on ____?
Galactic Recycling
Stars forming from Nebular Clouds
the attractive force between two objects; its magnitude depends on their masses and the distance between them
globular cluster
a large, round, densely-packed grouping of older stars.
the creation of nuclei of elements inside stars
the opening between two points that meet at a point
Characteristic of inner planet
rocky crust and warm
earths tilt, revolution, paralellism
Largest moon in the Solar System?
- Ganymede
system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year
The only asteroid that is classified as a dwarf planet.
Both Jupiter and Saturn
all of the above
His _________ third law relating the size of a planet's orbit to its sidereal orbital period, defined as the time needed for the planet to complete one circuit around the Sun. Third law states: III. The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semi- major axis.
During which season there is least chance to see constellation Orion?
penumbral eclipse
the moon passes only through earths penumbra (most common)
How does the Sun generate energy today?
nuclear fusion
'big bang theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
oort cloud
spherical cloud of comets around the sun
apparent magnitude
how bright a star appears from Earth
periodic table
a listing of the chemical elements according to their properties; created by D. Mendeleev.
Gas Giant Planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, made of gas.
venus pressure
about 90 times earths. highest of terrestrial planets
Sun mostly made up of (2)
hydrogen then helium
Dark Matter
matter that does not give off electromagnetic radiation
Emission Nebula
Red color comes from hydrogen formed by UV radiation from nearby stars
Escape velocity
Velocity needed to escape an objects gravitational pull
to pass into or through every part of:
point at which the image is brought into focus
focal point
What lunar phase comes after a 3rd quarter?
Wanig Crescent
15 million K
temperature of Sun's core (can sustain nuclear fusion)
During a multistage rocket, what is the only section to reach the rockets destination
a third stage
Summer Solstice
The point on the ecliptic where the Sun is farthest north of the celestial equator; the day with the largest number of daylight hours in the northern hemisphere, around June 21.
goals of apollo
Achieve preeminence in space for the United States
Carry out a program of scientific exploration of the moon
Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment
Mare basalt
the rock that makes up the lunar maria
Schwarzschild radius
The radius around a sphere in space that will pull anything in if it crosses the radius.
Kepler's First Law
a rule of planetary motion, inferred by Johannes Kepler, stating that planets move in orbits of elliptical shapes with the sun at one focus
Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun?
phases of Venus.
The core of a ___ mass star is carbon, perhaps with some oxygen and nitrogen. All core helium has been used up, so there's no more fusion in the core.
from comet ion tails
how was the solar wind first inferred/predicted?
Mars is also known as the "______ planet"
the RED planet
What do ocean tides result from?
Gravatational attraction exerted upon Earth by the moon and to the lesser extent the sun
What is the Doppler Effect?
Apparent shift in wavelength of light
Mira is a long-period pulsating variable (Sect. 19-6) , a class of stars with the following properties
high luminosity, low surface temperature. Some are periodic, others are irregular pulsators.These stars are cool red giants varying in brightness by 5 magnitudes or more. Their periods are long: months to years and, while Mira itself is quite regular and periodic, most are somewhat irregular.
A lunar eclipse can only occur if the moon passes a node near what moon phase.
full moon
why the earth experiences seasons
The tilt of the Earth's rotational axis by 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular
Acceleration of Gravity (g)
(1) falling objects fall at same rate (2) on earth g=10m/s2 (3) g is same for all objects
luminosity-temperature-radius relationship
if any two are known, the third can be calculated
What causes Earth's magnetic field?
The rotation of the planet coupled with the electrically conducting effect of liquid metal at the core.
Order from smallest to largest?sun, earth,moon , solar system, milkey way galaxy, and universe
moon, earth, sun, solar system, milkey way galaxy, and universe
what is the horizon problem
directiosn in sky only 2 degreed apart so they could have never been casually connected and yet are almost at the same temperature
Where is all the mass of a black hole?
at the central singularity
What does the technique of interferometry allow?
It allows two or more telescopes to obtain the angular resolution of a single telescope much larger than any of the individual telescopes.
Your universal adress from largest to smallest..
Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, the Universe
tilt of sun from celestial equator
23.5 degrees, same as tilt of earth's axis relative to its orbit
Keplar's 1st Law, Law of Ellipses
Law states that the orbit of a planet is an ellipse where one focus of the ellipse is the sun
From steffan's law, if one star is more luminous than the other but the are the same size, what can we tell...
the brighter star must be hotter. (higher temperature)
The ancient Greeks get a lot of attention for their contributions to science because _________.
they were the first people known to try to explain nature with models based on reason and mathematics, without resort to the supernatural
List and explain two of the five major tests of General Relativity
Redshift- as an object moves away from the observer at high speed the light from the object appears redder
Time dilation- observable stretching or slowing of time in a frame of reference moving past the observer at a speed approaching the speed of light.
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