Astronomy Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
scientific argument
Eris's moon
Lunar Month
29.53 days
Newton Law 2
sunlight is completely blocked
Radius of earth
4000 miles
moving completely around another object
longest and least powerful wave
egyptian, mathematician, made epicycle system to explain planetary motion
Canis Major
constellation: the greater dog
Physics is the same everywhere
electrical device designed to receive a specific signal and automatically transmit a specific reply
Natural or artificial bodies that orbit planets are called........
Gravitational Force Law
F=(G * M1* M2)/d^2
time between passage of successive crests
waves that cause skin cancer
ultra-violet waves
Planck's Constant
the constant of proportionality between the energy of of a photon and the frequency of the photon. This constant defines how much energy a single photon of a given frequency or wavelength has. Value: h=6.63 x 10^-34 joule-second
number of galaxies in universe
100 billion
_________ has 238 protons and neutrons.Decays into lead.
outer part seen only during an eclipse, streams of particles called solar wind leave the sun
giant star
lg., cooled, high luminosity, star upper right side of H-R (10-100x bigger dia. than sun)
magnitude scale
The astronomical brightness scale; the larger the number, the fainter the star
does not have an atmosphere to influence it's surface temperature, Wide range of temperatures(Noon, 400K = 127C = 260F, Night or in the shade, 100K = -173C = -280F), Any water that may have existed would have evaporated and escaped, ice in polar regions possibly detected by Clementine
often the god that symbolized the sun
geocentric cosmology
Earth centered cosmolgy. eg. plantes rotate around earth
Imaginary line about which the Earth spins
What are stars that increase in brightness and then get dim called?
Neutron Star
Extremely small and made of neurons
the shift in an object's position caused by the observer's motion
Long narrow depression in the Moon's Surface
Red Shift
(Z)= object moving away from us
cosmic rays
Particles such as electrons, protons, and atomic nuclei that zip through interstellar space at close to the speed of light.
Point right above the celestial sphere for any observer
celestial equator
the intersection of the celestial sphere with the plane that passes through he Earth's equator, circles the sky on the celestial sphere, halfway between the celestial poles, lies right above earth's equator
magnification of telescope (equation)
magnification=focal length of objective / focal length of eyepiece
one fourth of the moon's monthly revolution
general relativity
mass bends space time and particles travel a straight line through curved space
Heliocentric Model
the model where Earth and other planets orbit the sun
heliocentric cosmology
a theory of the formation and evolution of the solar system with the sun at the center
The extra mass from Hydrogen fusing to make helium turns into?
Spiral Galaxy
a galaxy having a spiral structure; arms containing younger stars spiral out from old stars at the center
This person started the use of the heliocentric model in more modern times
the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place
Event Horizon
The surface of an imaginary sphere having a radius equal to Rs.
the more distant the galaxy, the ___ it appears to be racing away
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
A graph of relating stellar brightness to the color of light emitted by a star
light year
the distance light travels in one year
the thin, curved shape of the moon when its at its smallest
Limb Darkness
Edges of sun that are darker looking
How much deuterium has the sun used
+/- 50%
Reasons for seasons
the earth's axis tilt causes seasons
Vernal Equinox
Occurs in March and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern hemisphere
an arch drawn on the celestial sphere that goes through the southern celestial.
Oort Cloud
spherical shell of comet nuclei whose orbits lie in realm out past the planets in SS.
having or representing the earth as a center:
occur when the Sun is at its maximum northern or southern declination along the Ecliptic (from latin, means sun stands) happens twice a year in June & December
visible light and radio waves
What types of electromagnetic radiation from space will reach the surface of Earth without being significantly absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere?
the path of an object as it revolves around another in space
Gamma Ray Wavelengths-
-A current gamma ray telescope is targeting gamma ray burst believed to be coming from supernova in distant galaxies.
-Gamma Ray telescopes can not produce images of the source--they on only count photons
-Gamma ray telescopes must be placed in orbit because the atmosphere absorbs gamma rays
Our Sun (1 Solar Mass) produces ______ of its fusion energy using the CNO Cycle
a little
solar eclipse
the passing of the moon between earth and sun
Pattern of stars in the sky that tell a story
Creation of the Moon
Scientists theorize that a planet sized object collided with Earth to form the moon.
Tropical Year
Time from one vernal equinox to the next.
rotation curve
helps determine the mass of the galaxy by finding the rotation rate of the galaxy at various distances
- orbital speed rises slightly w/ greater distance because of the mass lying within the orbit is larger than when closer in
Ptolemaic model
the theory of the heavens devised by Claudius Ptolemy
a large cloud of gas and dust spread out in an immense volume
T v. J comparison- temperature
T = warmerJ = colder
How do astronomers learn about the universe?
1. light
2. forces
Tropic Of Cancer
a line of latitude about 23.5 degrees North of the equator
The synodic period of Mar
The time between two succesive superior conjunctions of Mars is equal to
Kepler's 3rd law
The larger the orbit the longer its orbital period
the axis tilt is pointed almost directly at
the north star (polaris)
Inverse-Square Law
The intensity of a beam of EMR changes by a factor of 1/(Δd)² (ten times closer=100 times brighter)
A Lunar Eclipse
Earth's shadow cast on the moon causes this?
mass-luminosity relation
The more massive a star is, the more luminous it is. (p. 162)
What is responsible for the greenish color in the Orion nebula?
A forbidden transition in oxygen
End of a high mass star
high density core resists further collapse causing the infalling matter to bounce off the core, resulting in a supernova explosion.
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
three laws, discovered by Kepler, that describe the motions of the planets around the Sun
a centauri has a heliocentric parallax of 0.76 arc seconds... How far is this star in light years?

solution: 1/helioc pa arcsec * 3.26= distance in light years
so 1/0.76 * 3.26 LY= 4.29 LY
It creates 4 seasons
How does the tilt of earth toward the sun affect each hemisphere?
a white dwarf is typically the size of what and what in nature
the earth and metallic
Big-Band nucleosynthesis: (a) took place just a few minutes after the big bang. (b) formed most of the iron in the universe. (c) is still occurring. (d) can be seen in the Hubble Deep Field.
(a) took place just a few minutes after the big bang.
Why does star formation seem to be taking place primarily within the spiral arms of the galaxy?
The differential rotation of the galaxy collects the free Hydrogen into Giant Molecular Clouds within the arms
The Second Law of Planetary Motion
As a planet moves out around its orbit, a line between it and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time (different speed of a planet)
The escape velocity of an object depends on
the mass of that object and the distance from the center of the object and the escaping object.
the H(y) line has a wavelength of 434 nm when observed int he lab. the H(y) line appears in a stars spectrum at 434.5nm. what is the radial velocity?
346 km/sec away from the observer
What does the color of the stars we see tell us about them?
their age, elements of matter, size, temp, brightness
why do planets tend to follow the ecliptic?
because the solar system is on the same plane, more or less.
which of the following is the reason for the solar day being longer than the siderial day?
is the sun on e of the stars, what is the difference, location location location, what do we do when we measure it, we turn and move too\
morning stars
1st planet
Moon's features
Maria, Highlands
used to measure time
explained hydrogen spectal lines
A liquid's resistance to flowing
radiometric dating
method to date materials
adj. temporary, impermanent
n. provisional, temporary, impermanent
Hans Lippershey
Who invented the telescope?
Meteor that reaches Earth's surface.
Small, rocky solar-system bodies, most of which are found orbiting the sun in a region between Mars and Jupiter.
Jupiter Valhalla crater basin frozen shockwaves
surface of water ice, craters, lineae
neap tides
thelower-than-average tides on Earth that occur at first-and third-quarter moon, when the tidal forces from the Sun and Moon oppose one another.
(lambda) distance between two crests or two troughs
Core contracts and the temperature raises
the sttractive force between 2 objects; its magnatude depends on their masses and the distance between them
Low-mass atomic particle carrying a negative charge. (p. 104)
any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star
a huge rotating collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars, planets and other celestial objects
scientific method
The reasoning style by which scientists test theories against evidence to understand how nature works
dense (60% of sun's mass) where nuclear fusion (heat production process) takes place
True or False: Oort cloud comets are
so far from the sun that the gravity of
neighboring stars can alter their orbit.
the process or an act of emitting
more than half of moon phase showing
What type of universe expands and comes back together repeatedly?
a gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun- Lower atmosphere!!
A fixed circle in the earth-centered universe along which a smaller circle moves carrying a planet, the sun, or the moon
Number of Eclipses of Earth
Four per year
Star Associations
Groups of stars that drift apart
spiral, elliptical, and irregular
3 types of galaxies
average distance from the sun in Astronomical Units
astronomical time unit based on the Earth's orbit
Kepler's third law
-P[squared] is proportional to r[cubed]
-but actually an equality if P is measured in years
where p is the period and r is the radius of the orbit
-means planets with smaller orbits move more rapidly
a shift toward shorter wavelengths of the spectral lines of a celestial object, caused by the motion of the object toward the observer.
solar granulation
bright, hot rising towards the surface and dark, cool falls towards the center
retrograde motion
the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars
radio telescope
a telescope designed to detect radio waves
How many Hydrogen atoms does it take to make one helium?
Hydrostatic equilibrium
occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient force in the opposite direction.
The Zodiac is the set of constellations that contains
The ecliptic
closest to the sun and has no atmoshpere
The Expanding Universe
It's not galaxies moving through space. Space is expanding, carrying the galaxies along.
gravitational encounter
phenomenon that when two objects pass near enough to each other they can feel the effects of each other's gravity and hence exchange orbital energy
What is moonlight?
Light that reflects from the sun.
the universe is 1__ b_____ years old
4, billion
Ionized Gas
what the sun's core is made up.
Black Body
ideal object that absorbs all the radiation falling upon it and re-emits it into a characteristic curve
Convective zone
The region in which energy is transported outward by convection. It incorporates 70% of the radius of the Sun. Convection works because heated fluids rise (lower densities) cooler fluids fall, (Higher densities).
what hemisphere is facing the earth
the same hemisphere
Autumnal Equinox
the equinox that occurs on september 22 or 23 in the northern hemisphere and on march 21 or 22 in the southern hemisphere
Wax vs Wane
Wax - increasing illumination w/ time

Wane - decreasing illumination w/ time
degrees and minutes
are divided into 60 parts for historical reasons(=Babylonians) 60 is divisible by 2,3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 15, 20, & 30
The density of the Sun is most similar to that of
binary star
a system of two stars that revolve around each other
Gas giants atmosphere is measured:
from the 100-Millibar pressure level
waxing moon
apperence of the lighted side of the moon increasing
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
How do people tell whiether the universe ius expanding or shrinking
A Spectra scope
reflecting telescope
a telescope that uses a curved mirror to collect and focus light
1 mile thick, 4000 miles edge to edge
jupiter's ring
global positioning system
a group of satellites that work together to determine the positions of given objects on the surface of earth
space shuttle
a spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to Earth, and then be used for the same purpose
lunar eclipse
the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when earth is directly between the sun and the moon
Superior Conjunction?
When a body passes behind the Sun, away from Earth.
the earth is closer to the sun during winter in the northern hemisphere
Antarctic Circle
a line of latitude north of the south pole 66.5 south
The two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator
Geometry of an ellipse
described by 2 numbers- the semi-major axis( which is half the longest diameter of the ellipse) & the eccentricity which tells us the shape of the ellipse
How to determine the temperature of a star
determine λpeak--Wien's Law
Travel at speeds of 35 to 95 km per second and burn up in the earth'stmosphere
Why is there no Liguid water on Mars today?
to cold
What's important about studying space?
It's give you more information about the uninverse and the history of our planet.
Time Zone
the way the Earth is divided up so it is daylight at the correct times
what is a neap tide
the difference between high and low tides is less
a new moon is quite near the Sun in the sky
full moon
People (last name only) Galileo
- Four large moons of Jupiter
- Phases of Venus
- Supported sun centered model
Characteristics of the moon
1/4 of the diameter of the earth. Less dense than earth. 1/6 gravity of earth. If u go to the moon ur weight changes by 1/6 but your mass stays the same. If you can lift 100 lbs here, you can lift 600 lbs there. If you weight 200 lbs here, you weigh 1200 lbs on the moon. No atmosphere or weather. Temperature ranges from 100 degrees celsius to -175 degrees celsius. No bodies of water, however ice has been found in the lunar soil at the moon's poles.
Galileo challenged the idea that objects in the heavens were perfect by _________.
observing sunspots on the Sun and mountains on the Moon
This shape could be a: (a) partial lunar eclipse. (b) partial solar eclipse. (c) phase of the moon. (d) any of the above
(c) phase of the moon
For the Sun the fusion occurs
in the core where the temperature is about 15 million K
white dwarfs are so called because
they are both very hot and very small
Absorption line due to interstellar gas
One of the dark lines in some stellar spectra that are formed by interstellar gas.
What is the Local Group? 2
1. 45 galaxies within 1 Mpc of the Milky Way Galaxy.
2. A few spirals, most dwarf elliptical and Irregular galaxies.
When the Earth is near perihelion and the moon is near apogee
We see an annular solar eclipse (ring still present)
If a star is observed from Earth to have a parallax of 0.25 seconds of arc, what would the parallax be if the star were observed from telescopes in Saturn's orbit, which is 10 times larger?
10 times larger, 2.5 seconds of arc
what is the inner part of a star like? the outer part?
the inner part is very hot and emits continuous radiation, while the outer layers are cooler and absorb certain wavelengths
Coulomb barrier
jovian planet
Blue star
higher mass
Head of comet
Spinning on an axis
Pertaining to the moon.
unknown composition of this planet
strong force
binds protons and neutrons
closest distance to the sun
The probe that explored Jupiter
a device for photographing a spectrum
thermal energy
subcategory of energy, representing the collective kinetic energy of the many individual particles (atoms and molecules) moving randomly within a substance
focal point
focus at a particular spot
Coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth's surface
a discrete unit of electromagnetic energy.
credidted with inventing trig and creating first star catalog
First American woman in space
Sally Ride
Wien's Law
• Relationship between color/type of light of object and temperature of object.
o Colder= redder
o Hotter= Bluer
o Due to wavelength and energy.
a device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer
THe angular distance north and south of the equator
how much matter is in an object
Spectral types - M
0 through 9
2,500-3,500 K
where is energy produced in the sun?
Igneous Activity occurs?
intrusive (underground) or volcanic (surface)
When material is heated and moves taking the heat energy with it.
The application of physical laws to the understanding of planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe as a whole
p^2 :: a^3
The proportionality showing the relationship between a planet's period and the semimajor axis
The variation in angle that occurs when viewing a nearby object from different locations
Describes a galaxy whose spiral arms have a woolly or fluffy appearance. (p. 272)
the point on the celestial sphere directly beneath a given position or observer and diametrically opposite the zenith.
electric fields
alterations of space due to the existence of electric charges
a change in the direction or magnitude of a velocity
The larger part of the moon's shadow that is less dark.
4th layer
The photosphere is the visible layer of the sun. It is the...
a unit of distance equal to the distance light travels in one year, a light-year is roughly 6 trillion miles
Terrestrial Planets
One of the highly dense planets nearest to the sun; Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Earth
helium fusion
occurs when nuclei slam into one another at much higher speeds than those needed for hydrogen fusion; converts 3 helium nuclei into 1 carbon nucleus
the particular pair of alleles that an individual inherits for a specific trait
the different shapes of the moon you see from Earth
Project Gemini
early U.S. space program where one Gemini astronaut team connected with another spacecraft in orbit; also studied the effects of space travel on the human body
Dwarf Planets
A body with characteristics similar to those of a classical planet except that it has not cleared smaller bodies from neighboring regions around its orbit
In the southern hemisphere, day and night are of equal duration on about
March 21.
a curve on which all points are equidistant from the center
the brightness of a star depends on both its size and temerature.
A unit of energy equivalent to the force of 1 newton acting over a distance of 1 meter: 1 joule per second equals 1 watt of power
In a supernova type II, most of the total energy emitted is in the form of...
Elliptical Galaxy
A galaxy shaped like a flattened ball, containing only old stars.
semimajor axis
the longest dimension of an ellipse is the major axis; this is one-half of that length
the huge sheet of galaxies that spans 70 x 200 Mpc is called
Great Wall
solar flare
an explosion of hydrogen gas from the sun's surface that occurs when loops in sunspot regions suddenly connect
stellar parallax
the apparent shift in a nearby star's position on the celestial sphere resulting from the Earth's orbit around the Sun.
Arabidopsis: Achievement
The first space plant to flower and produce in the zero gravity of space
Big Bang Theory
This states that the universe was created by a massive explosion about 10-15 billion years ago
the angle between an object in the sky and the horizon
True or False
Pluto is not always the farthest planet from the sun
carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle
A series of nuclear reactions that use carbon as a catalyst to combine four hydrogen atoms to make one helium atom plus energy. Effective in stars more massive than the sun. (p. 183)
examples of revolving
earth around sun; moon around earth; running track, race cars
source of energy in active galaxies
supermassive black hole devouring material
Chandrasekhar Limit
The maximum mass of a white dwarf is 1.4 solar masses
Laws of Gravity
the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Fraunhofer lines
a set of dark lines in the otherwise continuous solar spectrum
what is stefan-boltzmann law?
per unit surface area, hot opaque objects (black bodies) emit much more energy than cold opaque objects
H II Regions
A region of interstellar gas that has been ionized by UV radiation from nearby hot massive stars
Synchronous rotation
When one side of a body always faces the planet it revolves around.
What is an orbit?
Earth's path as it revolves around the sun.
we loose the magnetic field forever
What happens if the core cools?
poor cluster (of galaxies)
cluster of galaxies with only a few members
annular eclipse
only a thin outer disk of the sun can be seen
spring tide
the large rise and fall of the tide at or soon after the new or the full moon.
what do the outer galilean moons of jupiter consist of?
rock with a little water
are identical to its absorption lines
The wavelengths of the emission lines produced by an element
what is kepler's first law?
his first law states that every planet revolves around the sun in an orbit that is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.
how was the position of neptune predicted
anomolies observed in the orbit of uranus
Kepler's second law of planetary motion
a planet moves so that an imaginary line connecting the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time
What is the definition of celestial pole?
The North celestial pole and the South celestial poles is located above the North and South pole respectively. The poles specify the axis of the daily rotation of the celestial sphere.
large and small comets and asteroids, meteoroids, and grains of dust
Which of the following falls into the category of interplanetary debris?
Which of the following puzzles in the solar system cannot be explained by a giant impact event?
The orbit of Triton in the opposite direction to Neptune's rotation.
Newton's first law of motion about inertia, basically says that: (a) once a person has made up her mind, she won't change it. (b) it's not possible to accelerate while going uphill. (c) it takes a force to change a motion. (d) the gravitational force exer
(c) it takes a force to change a motion
What is the proton-proton chain by which the sun generates energy?
1H + 1H =2H + e^+ + v2H + 1H = 3He + y3He + 3He = 4He + 2^1HAll the preceeding numbers are superscripted except the 2 on the last line
our star
constellation: the scale
the second largest moon
formed from silt deposits
Mercury's Atmosphere
Has no atmophere
Venus has a _____ rotation
the study of ancient observatories
solar eclipses
moon shadow crosses earths
thick atmospheres protect planetary surface from _________.
solar wind
ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light but longer than those of X rays.
Tidal Force
A differential gravitational force acting on two sides of an object that tends to deform that object. (Gravity is stronger on your head than in your feet so you are squeezed out into spaghetti).
huge cloud-like structures produces by ionized chromospheric gases
Hawking radiation
radiation from a black hole
mental picture of how something works
to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction:
vernal equinoz
spring equinox, occurs around march 21
The constellations that fall along the ecliptic. It translates from Greek as "circle of animals."
system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and beginning
space debris made of rock and ice
lunar surface
half is illuminated at all times
Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram
Shows the relationship between the absolute magnitude and temperature of stars
asteroid belts
Where do most meteorites come from?
Who's laws of planetary motion are: zero-mass object orbiting the Sun
1.The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
2.A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
3.The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
The bright orange/red star on this picture is one of the famous stars from Winter Hexagon:
Sunlight reflected by Earth that makes the otherwise dark part of the Moon glow faintly is called?
angular distance
angle that appears to separate pairs of objects in the sky
geocentric model
earth is center of universe, all heavenly bodies revolve around earth
The geology of Venus appears to be dominated by
close to the sun, small, mostly solid, low mass, slow rotation, no rings, high density, thin atmosphere, and few moons
on the photosphere of the Sun are caused by convection currents (thermal columns, Bénard cells) of plasma within the Sun's convective zone.
Universal Time
Time in Greenwich England, the time used by astronomers to describe when something will happen
Total elapsed time for 1 solar mass star is ______ million years.
Continental Drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
Omega Cen
in Centauri; barely visible in tx; large apparent size (1 degree); mostly in southern sky
circumpolar stars
stars which never set below the horizon
Irregular galaxy
no recognizable shape; may have been involved in a collision with other galaxies
mercury unusual formation
jumbled terrain on opposite from caloris basin
25, 30
the solar equator makes one rotation every ___ days, while the solar poles in ___ days
big bang
the initial explosion that resulted in the formation and expansion of the universe.
Close Binary Star Systems- Detached
Each within Roche lobe
Prediction of Neptune
Prediction of Newtonian gravity by Urban Leverrier and John Coach Adams
sky map
Shows entire sky as viewed from given location at specified date and time and used to locate stars and other objects in sky
full moon
phase that occurs when all of the Moon's surface facing Earth reflects light
critical density
matter needed to open or close the univers
a deviation of the orbit of the solar system body from a perfect ellipse due to the gravitational attraction of one of the planets
cosmic background radiation
leftover thermal energy from the big bang
meteor v. meteorite
meteor: on its way to Earth
Meteorite: has hit the Earth
Total Lunar Eclipse
Occurs when the Moon passes through Earth's shadow (umbra)
stong, weak nuclear force
what are the two nuclear forces?
Superior conjunction
when earth and inferior planet line up on opposite sides of the sun
Orbital Eccentricity
a measure of the flatness of an ellipse, equal to the distance between the two foci divided by the length of the major axis. Circle= 0 and ellipse= 1.
Red Giant
a large reddish star late in its life cycle. (10 or more times bigger than the sun)
How far are we from the center of the galaxy in light-years?
1) intense, sporadic, non-recurrent storms 2) moderate 27-day recurrent storms
the two varieties of geometric storms
New Moon
When the moon is between Earth and the sun.
The name of the shape of the oval path that planets orbit around the sun.
how much time elapses between each of the phases
about a week
The solution to the "solar neutrino problem" (less electron neutrinos detected than expected) is that
electron neutrinos change ("oscillate") to other types as they travel to us
The distance traveled by light in 1 year is called?
Light year (ly)
Newton's second law of motion
the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force applied to it and inversely proportional of the mass of the object; F = mass times acceleration
a dark area of gas on the sun that is cooler than surrounding gases
First Quarter Moon
the phase of the moon in which only the western half of the moon, as viewed from earth, is illuminated by the sun. it occurs about a week after a new moon
What are refracting telescopes and what are their deficiencies?
Regular telescopes with lenses. Their deficiencies include; Absorption, Clarity, Inverted Image, CA, Expensive, Heavy, Warped Easily, Max Size ~1 Meter.
what are the two largest moons in the solar system
(jupiter) ganymeme, (saturn) titon
What do massive objects do according to the theory of relativity?
curve space and space-time which determines the path of light rays or particles.
Magnetic fields are an important factor in star formation because it
allows material to slide in along field lines and slows down the rotation allowing matter to fall in further
Everything looks red through a red filter because
The filter transmits red light and absorbs other colors.
the sixth stage of the cycle, can see three fourths of moon
What is a waning gibbous
What is the origin of lobes often observed on opposite sides of radio galaxies?
High speed electrons colliding with gas surrounding the galaxy
List at least one unique or significant characteristic of each outer planet. In other words, what is each planet's "claim to fame?"
Has the most moons
4 of which, the Galilean moons, are visible with a small telescope
Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system (it's bigger than Mercury! (in diameter, not mass - it's less dense than Mercury))
Largest planet
Strongest magnetosphere (magnetic field surrounding it) of any planet in the solar system
Large, turbulent storms near its equator (Such as the Great Red Spot)
Has rings (although they are faint)
Thick system of nine rings (visible with a small telescope)
Has many moons
Its largest moon, Titan, is the second largest moon in the solar system.
Titan is the only moon in the solar system that has its own (significant) atmosphere.
Rotates on its side (tilt of its axis is 98 degrees), making its rings look like an archery target and its moons circle it like clock hands
Atmosphere is icier and colder than Jupiter's or Saturn's (composition is similar to Neptune)
Has many moons
Has a magnetosphere
First planet discovered with a telescope (visible to the naked eye, but so faint it wasn't considered a planet)
Farthest planet from the Sun
Atmosphere is icier than Jupiter's or Saturn's (composition is similar to Uranus)
Has the fewest moons of the gas giants, but still many more than the inner planets
Has rings
Has a magnetosphere
Only planet not visible to the naked eye
First planet that was predicted mathematically before it was observed!
Why is the Greenhouse effect actually a good thing?
It keeps the earth warm enough to sustain water which in return sustains life.
rotation curve of our galaxy indicates that objects in the galaxy orbit the galatic center primarily under the gravitational influence of
a massive black hole at the center of the galaxy
What do we mean by the orbital energy of an orbiting object (such as a planet, moon, or satellite)?
Orbital energy is the sum of the object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy as it moves through its orbit.
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