Vocab The Civil Rights Movement Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Freedom Rides
14 amendment 1868
University of Alabama
Letters from Birmingham jail
Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee. Conducted non-violent protests. Continued the Freedom Rides from Nashville, Tennessee.
Betty Friedan
Who founded NOW?
de jure segregation
Segregation by Law
Selma March
March for voting rights
an organization terrorizing AF. Americans oranyone who would help them
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama, segregationist
Voting Rights Act of 1965
place where Malcolm X got shot
Orval Faubus
governor of Arkansas in 1957
Andrew Young
Became Georgia's first African American member of Congress
joseph mcCarthy
United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
a way of not fighting physically
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Separation of people because of race.
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Making things equal
getting people out of poverty
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Birmingham police commissioner who arrested over 900 marching kids and directed the fire station to blast them with fire hoses and let police dogs loose on them.
Kerner Commission
President Johnson appointed to stude causes of urban violence, and named the main cause white racism but Johnson ignored
Elijah Muhammed
Nation of Islam/Black Muslims are taught to follow the teachings of this man
Harry Truman
created 10-point civil rights program, believed in political, not social, equality for blacks,
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
a protest stategy started by SNCC where blacks sat at white-only lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served
strict separation of the races in schools, theaters, restaurants, and other public places.
de facto segregation
Segregation by unwritten custom ortradtion.
Between, among, or involving people of diffrent races
Supreme Court Cases Sweatt v Painter, McLaurin v Oklahoma State Regents
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
Thurgood Marshall
an African American lawyer form Baltimore, Maryland, headed the legal team that mounted tthis challenge
Ku Klux Klan
a white supremacist organization claiming lineal descent from the original KKK, which began after the Civil War of the 1860s
Tenant Farming
Workers supply own tools and rent farmland for cash.
57. de jure
racial separation forced by specific laws
to free someone from being control by another
Rosa Parks
secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. On December 1st, 1955 Parks was riding the bus and a white man got on. Parks refused to move to the back of the bus so she was arrested. She Sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Jackie Robinson
First Black baseball player in Major League Baseball
White Citizens Council (Montgomery)
White, ultra-racist organization that sprang up in the South to fight desegregation. Formed by a former football hero of Mississippi University Robert Patterson. Known as the "white collar Klan" or the "reading and writing Klan" because it was formed by many affluent white businessmen. By 1956, it had 85,000 members in Mississippi and Alabama. Played a key role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Lost its power due to the emerging Civil Rights movement and court orders that consistently desegregated Southern society.
Malcolm X
converted to islam, believed in black power adn violence when necessary, all about self defence, assassinated in 1965 by Talmadge Hayer
James Meredith
Walked from Memphis -> Mississippi to call att. to civil rights.
= Non- violent protest
government by the people and for the people
Black Power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
jim crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Children's March
May 2, 1963, the children of Birmingham, Alabama marched in the streets to challenge segregation, Commissioner Bull Connor brought dogs and fire hoses to stop the marchers
JFK horrified by Commissioner's actions
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Voting Rights Act
1965 act that allowed federal officials to register voters in places where local officials were blocking registration by African Americans. It also effectively eliminated literacy tests and other barriers.
affirmative action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Plessy v. Ferguson
supreme court ruling that segregation is legal and didnt violate 14th amendment
Ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1986)
Separate but equal
James Meredith, an Africain Americain, tried to enroll in what University?
University of Mississippi
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Plan for African Americans to refuse to use the bus system until companies agreed to change segregation policies
National Urban League
allied closely with the NAACP; wanted to end discrimination in housing and employment; increased job opportunities; aided African Americans moving from south to north
James Earl Ray
he was found guilty of MLKs murder
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
an independent federal agency created under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, to police a program to eliminate discrimination in employment based on race, color, age, sex, national origin, religion, or mental or physical handicap.
Greensboro Sit in
February 1, 1960 in Greensboro, NC, four African American college students including Franklin McCain, sat at an all white lunch counter at Woolworths in Greensboro, NC for days until they were served. They were protesting segregated lunch counters.
University of Mississippi
1962, James Meredith applied and was rejected because he was black, sued and his case won in the Supreme Court but Governor Ross Barnett said he wouldn't be admitted anyway, led to a riot, Meredith finally was admitted and graduated from the college
Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
Malcom X
A leader of Nation of Islam. Inlike Martin Luther King Jr. He insited on voiclence
Civil Rights Act 1964
USCRC had power to investigate violations of civil rights
Chaney, Goodwin, and Schwerner
Young workers during freedom summer who were killed in the summer of 1964
March on Washington
August 1963 freedom buses and trains brought marchers form all over the country to Washington DC; pressured Congress to pass Civil Rights Bill
Little Rock Nine
On September 4th 1957 nine African American students wanted to attend high school but were stopped by the national guard. President Eisenhower had the army get them into the school
Sit-ins, freedom rides
Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.
The second reconstruction
- 1957-1970
- civil rights act of 1964
- Outlawed segregation in public
- Creates equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)
- Signed by lyndon b johnson
Little Rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Linda Brown
wanted to go to an all white school closer to her house; challenged the segregation rule by taking her issue to court with Brown V. Board of education.
Martin Luther King Jr.
a minister that believed in nonviolent marched and campaigns; tried to get the civil rights acts passed.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
Project C/ Protest in Birmingham
movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama.
Plessy vs Ferguson
US Supreme Court decision in 1896 that stated "separate, but equal"
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Sweatt v. Painter, 1950
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
Little Rock Crisis
A school in which 6 African Americans were not welcomed and the location of an important protest.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote. DATE
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
44. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin
leaders of SCLC who organized a demonstration in the nation's capitol; wanted to alert Congress and the people to the need for stronger civil rights that was being stalled in Congress
Martin Luther King Jr
Born in Atlanta in 1929. Son of a minister. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctor's degree in theology from Boston University. Started the black civil rights movement. Also gave the "I Have A Dream" speech
What was one thing that the civil rights bill porhibit?
prohibited discrimination in public accommodations
discuss the events and impact of bloody sunday
only 2% of Af Americans were registered to vote even though they made up half of the states population. 525 people planned to march from Seima to Montgomery, AZ for fair voting rights, Alabama state troopers demanded the marchers stopped, the marchers were tear gassed, spat on, trampled by horses,clubbed, media reports brought national attention to event..Impact:voting, cibil rights act of 1965 outlawed the discrimminatory acts to prevent a person from voting
What were some things the kids practiced for the sit-ins?
To take harsh verbal abuse and NOT react, also the fetal position for physical abuse.
In ____ in the case of ____, the Supreme Court ruled that all schools in the U.S. must be ____ .
1954, Brow vs. Board of Education, desegregated
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