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Terms Definitions
China Hearth of rice
Mesoamerica Hearth of corn
Peru Hearth of the potato
fallow where nothing is planted
combine Today-____________-cuts and threshes wheat
salinization build-up of salt in soil
agriculture deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to produce food (and profit)
Grain Seed of a cereal grass
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Subsistence agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
horticulture growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Slash-and-Burn agriculture another name for shifting cultivation
South America Hearth of the guinea pig
peasants, livestock enclosure system forces ___________ off the land and increase _____________
dog the first animal to be domesticated
Truck Farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or the exchange of commodities
Hull The outer covering of a seed
Pasture Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
Vegetative planting Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
intertillage growing several crops in a small area
plow; steam engine; tractor 2nd Agricultural Revolution successfully marketed iron _____; ________ ________ led to the invention of ___________
Cereal Grain A grass yielding grain for food
Swidden A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Spring wheat Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Chaff Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Paddy Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
von Thünen Who wrote "The Isolated State" in 1826?
population more food was grown in the 2nd Agricultural Revolution to meet demands of the growing ___________
mechanization, chemical, refrigeration, genetically, agribusiness, manufacturing Six ways the 3rd Agricultural Revolution is different than the 2nd: EXTREME _____________, __________ farming, _____________ of meats, milk, and veggies, ___________ modified foods, _____________, globalization of food _____________
milkshed a region producing milk for a specific community
permanent settlement, animal In transhumance humans have a ______________ ______________ and the _________ moves (may be daily, weekly, or seasonal)
oil What is often used to make synthetic fertilizers?
cultivation=care, domestication=change evolutionary path The difference between cultivation and domestication?
Thresh To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
Reaper A machine that cuts grain standing in the field
Winnow To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
commercial farming type of farming where farmers grow for sale/profit
quinary sector the sub section of the tertiary sector that deals with higher education/research
food, urbanization, transportation, subsistence, commercial Effects of the 2nd Agricultural Revolution: more ______ grown; encourages _______________; improvements in _______________; ______________ farming->_____________ farming
2nd Agricultural Revolution Which came first: the 2nd Agricultural Revolution or the Industrial Revolution?
Intensive Subsistence Farming high input of capital, fertilizers and labor-every square inch of land is used; people maximize labor and expense to increase output on available farm land
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
end world hunger What was the goal of the green revolution?
densely populated countries, mostly in Asia Where is intensive subsistence agriculture practiced in the world?
population, yield, rice, wheat, corn, potato Positive consequences of the Green Revolution: positive way to deal with increasing _______________ presures; higher _______ crops-especially the big four: ______, ______, ______, ________
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