Atmosphere 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Exosphere
outermost layer
Celsius
(C) freezing=0, boiling=100
Meteorology
Study of the atmosphere.
Formation of Ozone
SEE notes
1st layer of the atmosphere
troposphere
ionosphere
borders the mesosphere and thermosphere. its filled with ions (charged particles). It reflects am radio waves, northern light occurs here.
altocumulus
H20 droplets, some ice crystals
white-grey, looks like waves, seperated by blue patches of sky
sun may have corona
small amounts of precipitation
geostrophic balance
Coriolis force=pressure-gradient force p.182
Troposphere
atmospheric layer closest to the Earth's surface where nearly all weather's occurs
Mesopause
upper boundary of the mesosphere, marked by an increase in temperature
albedo
percent of solar radiation reflected by a surface
Collisions between particles in the ionosphere create a lot of _____, some of which is converted to light.
energy
Cumulonimbus
tall, dense, and involved in thunderstorms
specific heat (relative values for water and air)
...
Review notes from class---
Layers of the Earth Foldable
Green house Effect
The Ait Around Us
...
Stratosphere
lies above the troposphere; colder and drier than air in the troposphere
conduction
the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into one another - molecules in warmer objects move faster than molecules in cooler objects
mesosphere
the third layer of the atmosphere; protects Earth's surface from most meteoroids
mesophere
coldest layer of the atmosphere that extends upward from the stratosphere to an altitude of about 80 km
atmosphere
The envelope of gases that surrounds the planet
Burning rocks in the atmosphere are called _____ ("falling stars").
meteors
orographic, frontal uplift
(effective for condensation)
- warm, moist air forced to rise due to mountains or cold dense air at a front
air pressure
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere
barometer
An instrument used to measure changes in altitude.
Thermosphere
350 Miles ThickThins out into space, no definite boundary.Intense high temp in sparse pockets of air that are scattered throughout.
Condvetion
is the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules collide.
Water vapor
A source for clouds rain and snow
polar easterlies
prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60 and 90 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
cold
A __________ front forms when a cold air mass advances and pushes under a warm air mass.
corona
a bright ring of light that appears when the moon is seen through a thin veil of clouds composed of tiny spherical water droplets
what is the MAIN reason that Palm Springs and the top of Mount San Jacinto have different temperatures? (Latitude, altitude, ocean currents, surface type, vegetation) (4)-
Altitude
radiation
energy that is transferred in the form of rays or waves
what is the 3rd layer of the atmosphere?
Mesosphere
ozone layer
a layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun
The intensity of snowfall is based on ________.
1000mb
diffuse radiation
radiation that has been scattered by dust or gas
ions
atoms and molecules that have lost (or gained) one or more electrons
decreases
As the density of air decreases, its pressure____.
jet stream
bands of high speed winds above Earth's surface
A warm, dry air mass will have (lower/higher) pressure than an equally warm, humid air mass.
higher
thermal conduction
the transfer of energy as heat through a material
air pressure * as you move away from earth's surface?
decrease
list the layers of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere
greenhouse effect
the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide water vapor and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate thermal radiation
Montreal protocal
An agreement between the US and other countries to phase out the use of chemical compounds that destroy atmospheric ozone
convection cell
a looping pattern of flowing air; a convection current
Air Masses
temperature & moisture, A huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure throughout it is called an air mass.
What is weather?
the state or condition of the atmosphere at a particular location for a short period of time.
How does the temperature of a substance change when it reflects energy?
Temperature stays the same
land breeze
movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denserair from land forces up warmer airover the sea
Earth's Early Atmosphere
• Originally, mostly H and He. Light atoms from the solar nebula.
• What happened to primary atmosphere?
• lots of Solar energy>heated H and He atoms >
>faster motion > escaped Earth's gravity
• Solar wind "blew" away light elements (H and He)
relative humidity
the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the maximum amount of water vapor the air could hold at the given conditions of temperature and pressure
What are the four layers of the atmosphere starting with sea level?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
What are the two gases that make up the atmosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
Dry Climates zone B
30% of earths land surface hot or cold desserts or steppes
the land heats and cools more quickly than water
Why sea and land breezes happen.
Which of the following statements best explains why dew forms on an object?
An object is colder than dew point temperature of air surrounding it, causing water vapor to condense as liquid onto the object
On an upper-level map (such as a 500mb map) the wind tends to blow...
parallel to the contour lines (whether curved or straight)
Temperature at Stratopause
0°C
wind vane
measures wind direction
Percent of atmosphere that's Oxygen
20%
jet streams
If the location of _________________are known it helps meteorologists forecast weather
ozone
The stratosphere helps protect Earth from too much ultraviolet radiation because this layer of the atmosphere contains:
stratopause
marks the upper boundary of the stratosphere
Hadley Cells
convection currents 0-30 degrees north and south of the equator
outgassing
carbon was released into Earth's early atmosphere through ...
Infiltration
water goes down the ground through permeable rock
scattering
the process by which small particles in the atmosphere deflect radiation from its path into different directions
glaciation
the process of covering the earth with glaciers or masses of ice
air mass
air that moves in a prediciable pattern which affects weather
convection cells
large circular patterns air travels in are called ____________
temperature
the average amount of energy of motion of each particle of a substance
what do we burn to make energy
fossil fuels
atmospheric pressure
force exerted by the weight of the air; as altitude (height above earth's surface) increases, atmospheric pressure decreased because air is less dense, and vice versa (altitude decreases, pressure increases)
what type of front is formed when two cold air masses meet and force warm air up
occluded front
where is the maximum heating from sun?
wherever the sun's rays strike the surface perpendicularly
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