Weather and Climate Flashcards

Terms Definitions
exosphere
space
MOS
-model output statistics
-computer model analogue method statistics
infiltrate
soak to the ground
isotherm
connects points of equal temp.
tropopause
boundary that separates troposphere from stratosphere
isallobar
lines of equal pressure change
La Nina
-unusually strong regular conditions
nonsupercell tornadoes/gustnadoes/landspouts
nonsupercell tornadoes- tornadoes that do not occur in association with a pre-existing wall cloud (or a mid-level mesocyclone)
-they may occur with intense multicell storms as well as with ordinary cell thunderstorms, even relatively weak ones
-some start at the cloud, some begin at the ground
 
gustnadoes - tornadoes that form along a gust front
-relatively weak tornadoes normally are short lived and rarely inflict significant damage
 
landspouts - rather weak, short lived tornadoes that occur with rapidly building cumulus congestus clouds
-these commonly form over east central colorado
-look like water spouts
The highest temperatures are typically found in the:
thermosphere
Directional divergence
Horizontal spreading of the airstream
temperature records
58 - libya89 - antarctica
1891
-civilian US weather Bureau-it was against the law to use the word tornado in the 1950s because it would scare people
precipitation
falling stuff. Example rain, sleet, snow etc.
CAT
clear air turbulence
-eddies formed in clear air
front-
-the transition zone between two air masses of different densities
 
**the upward extention of a  front is referred to as a frontal surface, or a frontal zone
 
-fronts are generally associated with lower pressure and they separate different air masses
steady state/trend forecast
-principle involved here is that surface weather systems tend to move in the same direction and at approximately the same speed as they have been moving, providing no evidence exists to indicate otherwise
 
-ie. a cold front is going at a certain speed... when will it pass city X?
tornado lifecycle
-dust-whirl stage - first step... light damage
 
then mature stage - damage is most severe... greatest width and most vertical
 
decay stage - finds the tornado stretched into the shape of a rope... becomes greatly contorted before it finally dissipates
The atmosphere is held in place by:
gravity
Hurricane spiral bands
primarily stratus & nimbostratus clouds with light rain to moderate * often find T-storms* largest part of a storm in terms of areal coverage
thermal belts
-warm hillsides (cold air drains downwards)
-vally bottoms usually not only colder by also more polluted
atmospheric window
-area where atmosphere does not reabsorb wavelengths from earth but allows them to pass into space
 
i.e. b/w 8-11 micrometer wavelengths pass through CO2 and water vapour
latent heat
or "hidden" heat
-heat energy required to change a substance from one state to another
 
-evaporation in a cooling process (absorbs heat which becomes latent)
-condensation is a warming process (releases latent heat
water vapor
most important element in the atmospherevaries from 4% near the equator and 0% at the poles
atmospheric stability
state of equilibrium of the atmosphere-stable equilibrium-unstable equilibrium
hadley cell
-cell of circulation driven by sun
meridional
-wind-flow pattern where wind flows in large looping meanders, following North-South trajectory
meteogram/ soundings
METEOGRAM
-a chart that shows how one or more weather variables has changed at a station over a given period of time
 
SOUNDINGS
-another aid in weather forecasting is the use of soundings, a two-dimensional vertical profile of temperature, dew points, and winds.
-can be especially helpful when making a short-range forecast that covers a relatively small area
NEXRAD
-the network of more than 150 doppler radar units deployed at selected weather stations within the continental USA
gust front
-represents the leading edge of cold air ariginating inside a thunderstorm
6. Typical Temperate
32-58 N/S
four seasons of equal length
precipitation= summer max and autumn min
no dry season
Jet Stream
* narrow ribbons of high speed geostrophic winds & are part of the general Westerlies flow* they occur in the mid-latitudes & can attain high wind speeds* they're not stationary & show a Zonal/Meridional pattern
Cumulus stage (thunderstorms)
initial build-up of cumulus clouds fueled by updrafts of warm, moist air cooling adiabatically* updrafts are dominant in this stage
convection
-transfer of heat by mass movement of a fluid (such as air or water)
-these types of medium move freely and currents exist within
-convection also is a word for vertical exchage of heat (when ground warms air, it rises)
Climate
The temperture over a period of time in an general area
four ways to transfer energy
conduction, convection, advection, radiation1. Conduction-not all materials are conducted. Transfer energy (hot>cold) through material.not very important for meteorology 2.convection-very important for meteorology-it's the vertical transfer of heat through particles resulting in thunderstorms3. Advection-the horizontal transfer of energy4. Radiation- transfer of heat from the sun (short wave-solar, longwave-terrestrial)
Latitutional heat balance
worldwide average short wave (solar) radiation is balanced by average longwave (terrestrial) radiation this is not true of each latitude north and south.-At 36° latitude or below or short wave radiation is received and lost -36° latitude above the opposite is truethe Earth's atmosphere and to a lesser extent the oceans help transfer colder air to the polls*** 30-50° is the "war zone" Battle of the atmospheres
dust devil
-spinning vortica commonly seen on hot days in dry areas
-heated surface, air rises, then is spinned by wind
-can spin in either direction
anticyclones/mid-lat cyclones
ANTI- centers of high pressure
MID LAT - centers of low pressure, also called depressions, or extratropical cyclones
jet streak
-a region of high wind speed that moves through the axis of a jet stream
-also called a jet maximum
 
-occurs when deep troughs and ridges exist in wavy jetstreams aloft
 
-produces regions of strong convergence and divergence
 
**creates an area where air from the low pressure system is being removed faster than can be replaced.... greatly increases strength....
**additionally, supplies air to surface anticyclone
 
 
-this is why mid lat cyclonic storms are better developed adnd move more quickly during the coldest months (polar jet stream is strongest and moves farthest south)
shelf cloud
-may be formed when warm, moist air rises along the forward edge of the gust front
-especially prevalent when the atmosphere is ver stable near base of thunderstorm
-**a dense arch-shaped ominous-looking cloud that often forms along the leading edge of a thundersotorm's gust front
-also called ARCUS CLOUD
multi-cell storm
-cluster of cells at various stages of cycle
3. Subtropical Arid
15-35 N/S
no real wet season, erratic precipitation
short winter
Wave cyclones
* may develop in conjunction with or along the polar front* low pressure cells and fronts are the primary structure of a mid-latitude wave cyclone
milibar vs surface charts
milibar - winds, atmospheric action (shows westerlies, ridges, troughs, jetstreams etc)
1milibar = approx 10m elevation (total =5km)
surface - what is happening on the ground (shows high/low pressure zones, cold and warm fronts storms, etc,)
visible region
-part of EMS that we can see (400-700nm wl)
-sun emits max amount of radiation @ visible light (greatest intensity/rate, not greatest size)
 
-violet=shortest wl of visible light (any shorter would yield UV light)
-red=longest =longer would yield infrared
 
-earth emits mostly longwave infrared
-sun emits mostly shortwave
adiabatic and diabatic processes
adiabatic- when parcel of air cools(expands)or warms (compresses) with NO change in atmospherediabatic...including changes in the atmosphere
pressure systems to know
JULY
Bermuda High/Pacific High - ocean high pressure zones that remain constant all year
 
Icelandic low/Aleutian low - cyclonic low pessure zones activity represent where numerous storms tend to converge
 
JANUARY
Siberian High -formed by very intense cooling of land
polar front theory
-a theory developped by a group of Scandinavian meteorologists that explains the formation, development, and overall life history of cyclonic storms that form along the polar front
 
-because the mid-latitude cyclone forms and moves along the polar front in a wave-like manner, the developing storm is referred to as a WAVE CYCLONE
 
**the polar front itself tends to develop into a series of loops, and the apex of each is a cyclone
death tolls for hurricanes
-until 2005, annual death toll from hurricanes in USA averaged less than 50 persons..... mostly due to flooding
 
-in hurricane katrina, more than 1300 people died
Hurricane watch vs. warning
* watch: an approaching storm will make landfall within 24-36 hours* warning: an approaching storm will make landfall in less than 24 hours* tropical storm watch & warning: have the same time periods, but are issued for those areas likely to be affected by tropical storm force winds & not the hurricane force winds
Air Masses
An immense body of air, some 1600+ km across and 1-3 km thick, with relatively homogeneous physical properties (density, T, & moisture) at a given altitude
Diffluence & Confluence
* this is the change in the horizontal component of moving air. * Diffluence - air being spread apart (on the rough upslope)* Confluence - air being forced closer together (on the trough downslope)
Criteria for Source Regions
1) large & physically uniform area2) characterized by a general stagnation of atmospheric circulation
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
shifting of SSTs between the northern & western Pacific & the easter tropical Pacific ocean* has a warm phase (high SST's in the eastern tropical Pacific) & a cold phase (low SST's in the eastern tropical Pacific)* may also affect El Nino events, at times enhancing these impacts
kelvin scale vs celcius
-T-scale that begins @ absolute zero (no negatives)
 
-pure H2O freezes @ 0 and boils @100
 
C=5/9(F-32)
K=C+273
wind direction
-stated in terms of FROM WHERE IS IT COMING
movement of the earth
Earth rotation-Earth spins on its axis once every 24 hours and is responsible for day in night-orbital rotation responsible for the earths orbit around the sun every 365 1/2 days.responsible for the seasons
What is another name for the equatorial low?
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
back door cold front
-cold fronts that move in from the east, or northeast, are called this
-typically, as the front passes, westerly surface winds shift to easterly or northeasterly, and temperatures drop
The atmosphere is a mixture of:
gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture.
Tropical cyclone season
* peak time in Sept.* depends on the area ~ Atlantic Ocean: June 1-Nov 30 ~ Eastern Pacific Ocean: June 1-Oct 31 ~ Western Pacific Ocean: June 1-Dec 31 (NH); Jan 1-Mar 31 (SH)
land water effects on temp
- continentality- water warms up and cools dowm more slowly than land- EX. more moderate temps in San Fran than St. Louis
Warm Front
A warm front is the place where a warm air mass replaces a cool air mass.
altitude of the sun
More of an angle determines the number of "atmospheres" that the suns rays must traverse.90° overhead – ( 1 atmosphere)-most direct rays30°above horizon-(2 atmospheres)5 to 10° above horizon- ( 11 atmospheres)
Santa Ana Wind
-warm dry wind that blows from east or north-east into southern california
-caused by high  pressure zone in dsert ... it pushed hot winds
-again, compressional heating as it decends
-sets stage for serious brush fires
Hurricane Category wind speeds
* Cat. 1: 74-95* Cat. 2: 96-110* Cat. 3: 111-130* Cat. 4: 131-155* Cat. 5: >155
formula for Fahrenheit to Celsius
C = F -32 divided by 1.8
What weather effects does El Nino have?
Peru and Ecuador experience floods where Indonesia experience droughts. The number of hurricanes in America decrease.
ocean currents and its effects on temp
- help transport energy- coastal areas near warm water have warmer temps
Criteria for a wave cyclone to form (3)
* Cyclonic flow must be established* Vorticity* Happens in the area of a jet stream or low pressure trough & is strengthened downwind of the trough
What are the part of the life cycle of a mid latitude cyclone?
Cyclogensis, open-wave, occlusion and dissipation.
Stages of the Wave Cyclone Life Cycle (6)
* usually last a week or less from stage 1-61) air masses, a cold and a warm are set-up along a front and move parallel to it2) a wave forms and warm air starts to move poleward while cold are moves equator-ward3) cyclonic (counter-clockwise) circulation develops, with general convergence at the surface and uplifting; warm air overrides the cold air (FRONTAL WEDGING)afterward Cold Front & Warm Front established 4) cold front moving faster than warm front and begin to overtake it; OCCLUSION begins, forming an OCCLUDED FRONT5) full development of an Occluded front and maximum intensity of the wave cyclone; steep pressure gradient and strong winds6) pressure gradient weakens, energy exhausted & system dissipates
common GHGs
H2O
CO2
CH4
N2O
O3
CFCs
AWIPS
-Asdaves Weather Interactive Processing System
-coomunication system used by the National Weather Service
 
-has data communications, storage, processing, and display capabilities
 
-ASOS is designed to provide continuous information about wind, temperature, pressure, cloud-base, height, etc at ariports
 
-much of this information is process with algoritms (pre-determined formulas) before it reaches the forcaster
1990s
weather observation- ASOS-report hourly observations of weather use by meteorologist in airports
temperature
-measures hot and cold
sublimation
-ice converted directly to vapour
1846
4 cup anemometermeasures wind speed
farrel cell
the middle cell (30-60)
Ivan
-2004
-stron category 3
-5 meter storm surge
-hit land, did damage, went back to gulf and regained strength, then hit land again
lightning/thunder
-discharge of energy (within cloud, from one to another, etc)
-can heat air to 30 000 C (5 X hotter than surface of the sun)
-thunder is the shock wave as air expands explosively
-can judge distance of lightning by approx 5 seconds per mile
 
sonic boom- occasionally mistaken for thunder
-produced when an aircraft exceeds sound speed
1. Equitorial
12N-12S
abundant rain, no dry season
Thunderstorm
a storm characterized by a cumulonimbus (Cn) cloud & accompanied by lightning & thunder* of relatively short duration, a few hours* accompanied by strong wind gusts, heavy rain, sometimes hail, & tornadoes* great instability & vertical development
scattering
-when sunlight strikes very small objects such as air molecules and dus particles, the light is deflected in all directions
-reason for sunsets, as only long wavelengths survive the journey through such a thick chunk of atmosphere
mesosphere
-above stratosphere - air extremely thin and low pressure
-top is coldest part of atmosphere (-90)
1664
-hygrometeris developed by Foley and da Vinci-measures humidity
Fahrenheit
developed in 1714 by Daniel Fahrenheit_based on Mercury and the glass barometer based on the zero point32° – freezing point98.6°-human temperature212° boiling point
isobars
-lines connecting points of equal pressure... 1000mb is base.. drawn at interval of 4mb
 
******near earth's surface, atmospheric pressure decreass approximately 10mb for every 100m increase in elevation (1 inch Hg per 1000ft)
analogue method
-yet another form of weather forecasting
-basically, this method relies on the fact that existing features on a weather chart may strongly resemble features that produced certain weather conditions sometime in the past
 
-forecaster uses pattern recognition
 
-this method is used to predict maximum temperature, among other things
stationary front-
-has essentially no movement
-on a colored weather map, it is drawn as an alternating red and blue line
 
-semicircles face toward colder air on the red line and triangles point toward warmer air on the blue line
ways of learning about a hurricane
-satellites
-buoys
-reconnaisance aircraft
 
 
-use ensemble forcasting for path prediction
8. Boreal
45-70 N/S
short summers, very cold long winters
mean temp. 10 C
All the factors to produce NEGATIVE VORTICITY (divergence, speed convergence, diffluence) are on the _________ of the _________.
upslopetrough
conduction
-transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance
-air is an extremely poor conductor of heat
radiation inversion
-measured increase in air temperature just above the ground
-occurs mostly at night and when calm
how we measure humidity
slinger wet/dry hair hygrometerselectric hydrogmetersinfared hydrogmeter-sattelitees
atmosphere
-dealing with the gases that surround the Earth and other planets-mostly nitrogen and oxygen gases
clouds
10 kinds (2 precipitate)-they are key elements in forecasting. Biggest indicators for weather.. Developed by Aristotle
1920
– air mass theory developed by Norwegians-"fronts" became part of whether
Katabatic wind
-downslope winds much stronger than mountain breezes
-very cold snowy air triggered to flow downhill
-can be extremely strong, usually high initial potential energy
eye
the area of broken clouds at the center
-within eye, winds are light and clouds are mainly broken... the surface air pressure is very low... nearly 955mb
 
***average diameter is about 500km for a hurricane
5m. West-Coast type: "Marine W-Coast"
40-60 N/S
cool summers
high precipitation totals, winter precip. max
Water
* originally formed within the Earth & brought to surface by out-gassing or de-gassing * covers 71% of the earth by area
4 Types of Fronts
* Cold* Warm* Stationary* Occluded
heating/cooling degree days
HDD-based on the assumption that people will begin to use their furnaces when T drops below 65F
-i.e if it is 64F average during day, then this is 1 heating degree day
-helps to estimate the amount of fuel use
 
CDD-when T rises above 65F
early atmostphere
-hydrogen and helium mostly at first, along with hydrogen compounds (CH4, NH3)
-outgassing occured to great extent..
-over time, rain fell and CO2 dissolved into oceans
-O2 came slowly as sun's rays sply H2O molecules
Weather
Weather is the word used for the overall climate at any given time. Examples include Warm,wet , dry and windy.
formula for celcius to farenheight
f= 32+(1.8 x C)
evaporation
the evaporation of water is a cooling process.-heat is hidden away in water vapor-Evaporation= absorbed latent heat
contour lines/isotherms
-lines that connect points of equal elevation
-contour lines of low height = low pressure
-high height = high pressure
-typically decrease in value from north ot south
 
ISOTHERMS- lines of equal temperature... show ridges and troughs
Saffir-Simpson scale
-a scale based on actual conditions at some time during the life of a storm
-developped in an effort to estimate the possible damage a hurrican'es sustained winds and storm surge could do to a coastal area
-ranges 1-5, major hurricanes are classified as category 3+
dryline
-a narrow zone where there is a sharp horizontal change in moisture... mostly observed in mid-west USA
-thunderstorms may form just east of these boundaries
distribution of thunderstorms
-estimated 50 thousand occur each day in the world
-not found often in dry climates... more of an equatorial thing
-FLorida gets most... radiates less and less outwards (center = gulf coast)
-most hail found in central west area
-this is because enar florida it is too warm and near sea for hail and it melts before reaching the ground
 
-hail survives best when dry!! (evaporative cooling)
streamlines/tropical wave/easterly wave
streamlines - lines that show the windflow pattern
- useful because they show wheresurface air converges and diverges
 
-tropical/easterly wave -a migratory wave-like disturbance in the tropical easterlies. Tropical waves occasionally intensify into tropical cyclones... also called easterly waves
-travel from east to west and have wavelengths on the order of 2500km
7. Temperate Continental
30-56 N/S
hot summers and cold winters (four seasons)
less precipitation, drought in late summer/winter
 
Source Regions
area in which air mass originates* it determines initial characteristics of the air mass (cold vs. warm, dry vs. humid)
greenhouse effect
-air temp over last century has risen by 0.6C
-water vapour = 60% of effect
-CO2 = 26% of effect
-greenhouse effect is not actually like a greenhouse!
-rapid T increase due to positive feedback...
clouds are negative feedback
uses for temperature data
hourly temperatures, max and min daily, record of high low, heating and cooling growing degree days, daily average temperature, monthly average temp*these records are sometimes used for CSI data
What is an air mass?
An immense body of air.
subtropical highs
-high pressure and dry zones @ around 30 degrees
occluded fronts
if a cold front catches up to an overtakes a warm front, the frontal boundary created between the two aire masses is called an occluded front.... on simply an occlusion
-represented by a purple line with alternating shapes
 
COLD OCCLUSION - the air behind the occluded front is colder than the air ahead of it
 
WARM OCCLUSION - the cold front rides 'piggyback' along the sloping warm front
-the upperlevel cold front precedes the surface occluded front, whereas in a cold occlusion, the upper warm front follows the surface occluded front
 
Check out Table 8.4!!!
5e. East-Coast Type (Warm Temperate)
27-37 N/S
hot summers, max summer precipitation
5 Types of Air Masses
* Continental Arctic (cA)* Continental Polar (cP)* Continental Tropical (cT)* Maritime Polar (mP)* Maritime Tropical (mT)
Parts of a Hurricane (3)
* Eye* Eye wall* Spiral bands
diurnal temperature range
-difference b/w T at night and T during day
-humid regions have small diurnal temperature ranges
What is the symbol for cold front ?
A blue triangle
the eight elements of weather (what a meteorologist forecasts)
v-HPD CAPS!! 1.)visibility 2.)humidity-hygrometer 3.)precipitation-what's falling? 4.)wind direction-compass  5.)clouds-formation  6.)air temperature-thermometer  w 7.) atmospheric pressure-barometer-(the only invisible element 8.)wind speed-anemometer 
What are thermal principle pressure belts?
Polar high and equatorial low.
Types of Forecasts 3()
-grouped according to how far into the future the forecast extends
 
VERY SHORT RANGE FORECAST
-for up to a few hours, usually not more than 6
-also called a nowcast
-the techniques used in making such a forecast normally involve subjective interpretations of surface observations, satellite imagery and Doppler information
 
SHORT-RANGE FORECASTS
-forecsats that range from about 6 hours to a few days (2 and a half)
-uses satellite imagery, Doppler, surface weather maps, upper air winds, and pattern recognition
 
MEDIUM RANGE
-one that extends from about 3 to 8.5 days into the future
-almost entirely based on computer derived products, such as forecasts progs and statistical forecasts (MOS).
 
*any forecast that extends beyond 3 days is an extended forecast
 
LONG-RANGE FORECAST
-extends around 8.5 days.
-computer progs are available for up tot 16 days, though they are not accurate in predicting temperature and precipitation
-at best, only show broad scale weather features
 
outlooks are monthly 'forecasts' based how 'how things should be'- very general
-outlooks use that statistical analysis of teleconnections (ie. El Nino)
The 4 layers of the atmosphere from the top down are:
thermosphere, mesophere, stratosphere, troposphere
Mid-Latitude Wave Cyclone
* a low pressure cell that forms & moves along a front* counter-clockwise circulation (NH) around the cyclone tends to produce the wavelike deformation of the front
four reasons water is more moderate
1. high specific heat2. more evaporation3. mixing of warm and cold waters4. transmission to depth- energy over larger area
what is an isobar?
A line on a weather map connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure
composition of the atmosphere
permanent gases ( 98%) -nitrogen 78.08% -oxygen 20.95% -Argon .93% -neon .001%variable gases a.k.a. greenhouse gases(2%) -water vapor (0-4%) most variable -carbon dioxide -nitrous oxide -ozone -methane*these greenhouse gases let sunlight in in traps heat.
assumptions for the single cell model
1)the earth's surface is uniformly covered with water (so that differential heating between land and water does not come into play)
 
2)the sun is always directly over the equator (so that the winds will not shiftseasonally(
 
3)the easth does not rotate (so that the only force we need deal with is PGF)
La Nina's impact on global climate
* typically opposite of El Nino impacts* warmer, drier winters in SE US* cooler winters in western US & Great Plains than normal
weather affects our daily lives in...
1. Airfare – travel2. Produce – farming – food3. Pricing on items4. Our personal and daily lives
What are the jet streams that affect the US?
Polar and subtropical jet streams.
four reasons why land heats up and cools down more quickly
1. low specific heat2. no transmission3. no mixing4. less evaporation
Cold Sector (moisture, sky, & weather conditions)
dry clear air back front the cold front, intense precipitation (T-storms) alonf the cold front, cold temperatures
Where and what is the Gulf Stream?°°°
The Gulf Stream is located on the Southeast coast of the US. It is strengthened by the Westerlies and deflected to the east between 30 and 45 N.
What are Santa Ana Winds and why are they so important to the weather?
Santa Ana winds are strong dry, warm winds that sweep through California and contribute to wild fires as the dry the moisture out of everything.
...do
...degrees
mosso
choppy, rough
Amegahuru
To rain
C
Continental - dry
Mushiatsui
Hot and Humid
30%
albedo of the earth
Where does most weather occur?
Troposphere
southern hemisphere jet stream
subtropical jet
snow
cold-weather precipitation composed of white crystals or snowflakes-produced in supercooled clouds were water vapor goes to deposition to become snowflakesthey can be up to .8 inch in diameter
fare bel/brutto tempo
to be good/bad weather
cyclone
australian and indian word for tropical cyclone
Air masses.
What do prevailing winds move?
Rotation
spinning of earth about it axis
heterosphere is...
(above homosphere) lighter gases predominate (hydrogen, helium)> composition varies with altitude> no permanent gases> Very small atmospheric mass
meteorologists
scientists who study the weather, make observations and collect data. Record their findings on a weather map. Forecast future weather conditions.
wavelength
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
cloud that forms on mountain tops
lenticular cloud
Cirrus
wispy, feathery clouds made of ice crystals that form at high levels
Permafrost
layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra pg. 126
albelo
the fraction of the total radation that is reflected by a surface
stratospheric layer with a high concentration of ozone; protects Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation.
ozone layer
wind
Moving air caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface.
Trade Winds
winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude. In N. hemisphere, called northeast trades. In S. hemisphere, called southeast trades.
Altostratus
middle level, thin to thick with no halos, sun's outline visiable, grey day
watt
what unit is used to measure energy flux
weather map showing the frequency and strength of winds from different directions
wind rose
Ocean Currents
streams of water withing the ocean water that flow in a regular pattern. pg. 111
spring equinox
in the northern hemisphere the spring equinox begins on march 21st. In the north hemisphere days will increase and temperature will increase. Opposite for south hemisphere.
freezing drizzle
falls in liquid form freezes upon impact forming a coat of glaze the physical cause of this is the same as freezing rainhowever-the droplet size, as an drizzle less be less than .02 inches
Carbon Dioxide...
accounts for 0.037% of the atmosphere (330 ppm)~in recent decades the rate of carbon dioxide input to the atmosphere has exceeded the rate of removal~Concentrations greatest in early spring and lowest in late summer
mP and mT
moist air masses that are responsible for fog/drizzle in coastal regions and bring moisture to the center of the country.
Cumulonimbus
A type of cumulus cloud that is tall and gray, and associated with thunderstorms.
warm air that rises at the equator divides and flows both north and south. 30 degrees north or 30 degrees south
horse latitudes
cold front
a boundary where a cold air mass slides under a warm air mass
Rain Forest:
A forest in the tropical wet climate zone. pg. 119
Seasons
are the periods of the year that are distinguished by special climate conditions. pg. 114
What is the Ionosphere?
The ionosphere extends from upper mesopsphere into thermosphere. It has a high ion concentration
Land Breeze
flow of air from the land to the sea
The sun is never
overhead in NYS (sun only overhead between the tropics)
Tree Rings
date lines that determine the age of a tree pg. 131
What are 3 variable gases?
Water Vapor (H20), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3)
What type of a front is a moving cold air mass?
Cold front
amount of energy reciveved depends on
latitude , time of day , season
The prevailing winds that come into this region originate over southwest Asia. They move air masses across the Arabian Peninsula and into northern Africa. These air masses are drier than air masses that would move over either the Mediterranean or the Atla
Why is the Sahara the largest desert in Africa, when it surrounded by large bodies of water?
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