atom vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lithium
Li
29
copper
inert
unreactive
Radon
Rn
oxygen
8
h
hydrogen
m (prefix)
milli
10^-3
solution
A well-mixed mixture.
Noble Gas Configuration
...
Exergonic
Reactions the release energy.
Organic
a compound containing carbon
nucleus
the center of an atom
Proton
Positively {+}charged the subatomic particles
Protons and electrons are...
the same
atom
smallest particle of an element
neutral
the overall charge of an atom
Steroids
Large lipid molecules. involved in cell membrane structure. Include sex hormones and hormones regulating metabolism. Important in lipid digestion.
Neutron
Un-charged or no charged, neutral particles found in the center of an atom.
Macro
a single computer instruction that results in a series of instructions in machine language
ENERGY LEVELS
WHERE THE ELECTRONS ARE FOUND
Valence electrons
Electrons in the outermost energy levels
jj thomson
discovered electron; cathode ray tube; plum pudding model
Group
The columns of the periodic table, each group shares simmelar characteristics
What does the Nucleus contain?
Neutrons and Protons
Alkali metals
Group 1 on the periodic table
Robert Millikan
-Measured the charge of an electron
-Performed OIL DROP experiment and learned how to define electron charges (-1;+2)
electron
part of atom that moves around it
Non- metals
an element that lacks the characteristics of a metal
Atomic Theory 1.) Atoms of same element are same in size and mass 2.) All elements are made of atoms 3.) Atoms combine in simple, whole number ratios(not valid because of isotopes) 4.) different ratios give you d
Dalton
Electron acceptors
Those atoms with nearly full outer levels tend to acquire electrons to fill their orbitals.
Period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
compound
a substance made of two or more elements
What is the charge of an electron?
negative charge
Static Electricity
Electrical Charges that are not in motion
atomic number
on a periodic table electrons equal the
Alpha Particle
The term given to a particle consisting of two neutrons and two electrons, that comes from radioactive decay
chemistry
the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
lipid
any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol
basic parts of a atom ?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
How many protons are in 1 atom of "Rn"
86
Atomic mass is the average of all of the elements' ______
isotopes
advogadros number
6.022 1415 X 10^23, the number of particles in exaclty one mole of a pure substance
Dalton theory 5
atoms combine in certain ratios to form compounds
What is the total charge of 3 protons and 3 electrons?
0
Chemical Formula
way of writing the name of a compound using chemical symbols and numbers to represent the number of a certain elements atoms that are in the compound
Mass Number
The sum of the number of the protons and the Neutrons
negatively charged ion
An atom that has more electrons then protons.
what is Rutherford hypothesized
that almost all mass and all the positive charge of an atom is concentrated in an extremely tiny nucleus at the center of the atom.
What is a nucleus?
Nucleus is the very small center core of an atom.
How to solve for number of neutrons
= mass number - number of protons
after the experiment only a few of the alpha particles were deflected which meant the nucleus was very small the outer ring of the atom is electrons and the rest is empty space. Foot ball field
why is an atom comprised of mainly empty space
nickel
Ni
24
chromium
rows
periods
Antimony
Sb
H2O
water
cl
chlorine
Standard date
Current
ionic bond
transfer electrons
Average Atomic Mass
...
solutions
homogeneous mixtures of components
Mass of a Neutron
1.674927*10^-24g
isotope
different isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
subatomic particles
atoms are divided into these
Ions
Electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
Quaternary structure
Develops when separate polypeptide subunits interact to form a larger molecule. Ex: hemoglobin contains 4 globular subunits.
Metalloids
elements that possess properties of both metals and nonmetals
ernest rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
non metals
dull, poor conductors, brittle, many are gases
J. J. Thomson
-Identified the Electron in 1896
-MODEL: plum pudding model
-Showed that atoms were divisible
-Discovered that neon consisted of atoms of 2 different masses, isotopes.
weight
number of protons plus numder of neutrons equal atomic __
Metals
any of a class of elementary substances, as gold, silver, or copper, all of which are crystalline when solid and many of which are characterized by opacity, ductility, conductivity, and a unique luster when freshly fractured
Quark
a subatomic particle that makes up protons and neutrons -not electrons
Erwin Schrodinger
He developed the equation, which we use today to understand atoms. Electrons are crazy, not on a set path. Wave equation.
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
Quarks
The particles that make up protons and neutrons
element
a pure substance that consits of only one atom.
inorganic compounds
any compound that is lacking carbon atoms or ionically bound to other atoms when atoms are present
how much mass does an electron have
extremely low amount
the + charge of the nucleus and the fact that most matter is space is known as a result of the research of ...
Rutherford
Atomic Mass Unit
-tells you the mass of the atom
atomic num
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, protons&electrons
Electron's charge
- 1 (electrostatically attracted to a positively charged particle)
Energy Level
place in an atom where an electron is most likely to be found
atomic weight
the average mass of an atom of an element (average of all it's isotopes)
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
What are the three kinds of particle found in an atom?
cathode ray tube experiment
experiment done by Thomson in which he discovered the electron
Law of multiple proportions
the law that states that when two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with a given mass of the other is in the ratio of small whole numbers.
How do you get mass number?
By adding the number of protons and neutrons
What takes up the most space in an atom?
nothing the majority of an atom is empty space
Sn
Tin
Cr
Chromium metal
P
Phosphorous non metal
Ca
Chem. symbol for Calcium
0
degrees celcius of melting point
1900s
When was Ernest Rutherford around?
model
the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)
Schrodinger/Heisenberg
said electron paths cannot be predicted; electrons are found in electron cloud, not paths
Thomson
Father of the ELECTRON- proves that the atom could be divided , it has parts.
atoms
smallest particle of an element that has characteristics of an element
if an isotope of uranium, uranium-235, has 92 protons, how many protons does uranium-238 have?
92
What four elements do living things consist of?
1.Hydrogen
2.Carbon
3.Oxygen
4.Nitrogen
Aspirin
made of willow bark- a salicylic acid that reduces pain and dissolves pimples etc. keeps a healthy heart. Reduces attacks.
anion
atoms that gain an electron and then become negatively charged
molecule
small group of atoms (usually 2 ie. hydrogen) involved in sharing electrons
Molecules
Molecule of an atomconsists of one or more like atoms
example--molecule ofoxygen--O2, Molecule of hydrogen-H2
period (of elements)
-horizontal rows on the periodic table-increas by one proton and one electron-read from left to right
Atomic Mass
amount of protons and neutrons in an atom.
pH scale
indicates the degree of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, this scale is the _ _
atomic spectra
-each element has its own set of spectral lines
standard units for length, mass, volume, time, and temperature
length-meters (m). mass-grams (g). volume-liters (L). time-seconds (s). temperature-celsius degrees(c)
Alkaline Earth Metals
reactive, 2 bonds to H, Group 2, 2 more electrons than noble gases
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