Western Civ Flashcards

Terms Definitions
working class
financial and intellectual
No church services
Increasing Disparities of Wealth
When Priests get married
Fibrosis, workplace and general pollution
people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their usefulness
Who wrote Dictatus Papae?
Greggory VII
Who wrote Unam Sanctum?
Bonafisc VIII
Who wrote Summa Theologica?
Thomas Aquinas
entrepreneurs sold these to raise money
Horizontal Integration
Monopoly, buying out your competitors
men with supplemental income pooled their money, limited liability
An Anti-pope
Not recognized as a pope
Who wrote Body of Civil Law?
Natural Resources
water, timber, iron, coal (power), copper (electricity), known as raw materials
Cottage Industry
Outbuilding near their main house, small scale, handmade goods, and close ties with workers, replaced with factories
British Miracle
result of Britain's profitable new methods of manufacturing goods
Vertical Integration
non-monopoly, you buy out EVERYTHING to eliminate the middle man
Went to England, took photographs with his mind of textiles mills, brought it back
Which people conquered Russia in the 13th Century?
Thomas Becket
12th Century Archbishop of Canterbury. Killed by Henry II
Fourth Lateran Council
Pope: innocent III. Discussing Transsubstantiation in 1215. We get the 7 sacramentsform this.
people live near where work is, so more people people come to where factories are, leads to big cities
Technologically Obsolescent
something that has been replaced with technology or a machine
Laissez Faire
the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
Downside of Rapid Urbanization
crime, pollution, disease, immoral behavior
Which was the first royal family to rule over France?
What hapned during the Hundred Years War that temporarily stopped the fighting in 1347-1348?
Black Plague
Battle of Manzikert
When the Turks defeat the Byzantines
When first year salary goes right to the Pope
Intellectual/Financial Capital
you need a location that is somewhat politically stable, secure and has law and order
Technological Unemployment
when people loose their jobs due to the fact that they are replaced by machines
Who handed the English their first defeat in the Hundred Years war?
Joan of Ark
Battle of Poitiers
When the black prince defeats John II
What did the flagellants begin to do in 1348 to try to atone for sin and stop the Black Death?
Whipped themselves
Seige of Orleans
When Joan of Ark defeated the British
Henry Dangolo
Doge (mayor) of Dennis. Famous for the 4th Crusade in 1215. Conquest of Constantinople. Seige of Zara.
Karl Marx
had ideas, and made up the outline for the Communist Manifesto
Battle of Adrianople
When the goths used knights to defeat the Byzantine Army
Open Shops
you don't have to be in a union, as opposed to closed
Which statement about the revolt of the English peasants in 1381 is NOT true? (state the true ones)
Caused by WyclifArchbishop of Cantebury was killedLead by Tyler ballBecause they hated the statute of Laborers
Factory act of 1819
the first piece of reform to be passed for the government
The Great Schism of 1378-1415 was:
When the curch had 2 different popes
Which was not insome way directly associated with feudalism? (State the true ones)
Fief, Vassel,Homagr, Fielty, Investature
Electorial Decree of Pope Nicholas II
1059. Put election of a new pope into thehands of the College of Cardinals
Late republic?
Roman Empire?
Ancient Greece?
Arab phase?
Ummyed Dynasty.
Expansion of rome?
Where is trajen from?
Non arab period?
Abbasid Dynasty
When did Rome collapse?
Vespesian's nephew mentally balanced
Whers is the caliphate at?
What is a Austrogoth?
Eastern goths
Who saved the roman empire?
When was the battle of tours?
When is the rise of Islam?
Gabal Altariq?
The mountain of toriq, gilbrater
When does the byzintine empire fall?
Northern Greeks who lived in the kingdom of Macedonia
What is a haj?
The pilgrimage to mecca
Two sides of rome?
East, Constantinople. West, Istanbul
How is Islam spread?
Through trade and intermarriage
called back to rome and made emperor
What did Hadrian do?
Hadrians wall, Hadrian's villa
What did Alexander the great unite?
Macedonia and greece
Marcus Arelius?
Emperor for 2 years, wrote The Meditations. He could not stand is son commodus.
What did Tactitus write?
The annils of emperial rome.
Where were the two centers of learning?
Baghdad and Alahara
When and where does the revalution take place?
In Damascus 850
What are the articles of faith?
The 5 pillers of Islam
What is hadrian good at?
Building, he built frontiers in Germany and Romania
When does rome fight Hannible and what is gained?
Carthage, North Africa, Spain, and Scipo
helinistic period
council of elders
Charles Dickens
-Attention to workers
-Social protest
-Wrote books
Iron Age Civilizations
1200-500 BCE
Anne Boleyn
Henry's second wife, killed
egyptian god of the dead
god of sun and poetry
Military control of territory, na­tion, or state.
Johann Sebastian Bach
-German organist
-creates musical science
Rerum Novarum
-Pope Leo XIII's statement about church's position on capitalism, labor and changes of the 19th century
-Condemned Capitalism and Marxism but concerned for workers
-Wanted to preserve privacy
-Though social classes were natural and should exist harmoniously
-Government protect workers and property
-Document carved out Christian middle ground
-Unions legal
-Moderate position
The Egyptian writing system; highly sophisticated involving hundreds of picture signs
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
Spanish Empire best example, colonies existed for the mother country, discouraged colonies from developing their trade
Cold War tension areas
Berlin, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Korea
The western Goths, invade Italy and Spain after the partitioning of the empire
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
kings/ landholders/ priests, wealthy merchants, farmers/ artisans, slaves
sumerian social classes
Nika revolt
People revolted against Justinian. His wife tells him not to run away and he sends army and 30,000 people are killed.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Scorched Earth
burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Used by Alexander in Russia against Napoleon
divided kingdom and gave them land called *vassals* -military service when king needed it
A single melody is shared between two voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests
Leap of Faith. "Belief in God is irrational but necessary" Leap between faith and reason.
Boxer Rebellion
..., 1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Octavian's Rule
Nephew to Caesar, fights Battle of Actium with Marc Antony for control in 31 bce
Ruler of Athens at height of Athenian Democracy
christopher columbus
was a genoan navigator who believed that a shorter route to Asia existed. he found the americas but believed that he found islands off the coast of india
code of conduct or system of rules that dictated knights behavior towards others
Who was the Philosopher who talked about German unification?
Georg Hegel
enlightened despot
absolute ruler who uses his power to bring about change
Once in life you have to go to Mecca
The Domesday Book
A cencus and land survey of England
Corinthian, leaf shapes
Name and give this columns unique look
First world countries
Western Europe, USA, Japan. Good at creating wealth but not distributing
Abu Bakr – “caliph”
 “Caliph” refers to a political / military leader (not a prophet) Helps spread tradition of religion
6 marcus aurelius
6 last emperor of the Pax Romana, military leader
Council of Trent
A meeting to reform catholicism at the start of the Counter-Reformation. It re-established its beliefs and the guide lines for its clergy
anglican church
also know as the church of england was started by Henry viii because the catholic hcurch and pope would not let him get a divorce. the church kept the organization and ceramonies of the catholic church and also adopted from protestant doctrines
What was Madame Bovary about?
In Madame Bovary, Flaubert depicted detailed yet drab world. Emma Bovary is a self-centered, disillusioned woman who commits adultery and is poisoned to death. Definately a 'realism' type of book wouldn't cha say?
dutch tade with japan
dutch also gained foothold in and they allowed them to open a trading center
2 old kingdom
2 2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
What did the British have money t ospend on?
1. Manufacutred products
2. new businesses
What two things did Napoleons policy on education create?
1) loyalty2) large pool of educated people
How did Pope Innocent III use the tools of excommunication and interdict on monarchs?
He used the tools to punish the monarchs who challenged his power.
-Gregory Mendel
-Punit Squares
-Explained how evolutionarily advantageous traits get passed on
-Evolution depends on species' supply of genes
-Differences result from mutation
clear and darkcaravaggioemotional
In this sign, conquer
western civ day 4

epistemology: how we think; the study of what we know; the science of knowledge itself. 

plato provided the first statement of epistemology. concerned with how we know things. in the republic in 380 bce he provided his famous allegory of the cave. he laid out what is really knowable and what is not. he deposits this existence of cave dwellers who are chained there. they are constrained to stare straight ahead and only see the shadows on the wall. imagine the contrast of they see and one who is able to become free. that person would be grasping the reality of what is actually happening in the world. extends the metaphor to humans only grasp the shadow forms that are necessarily ephemeral, lack consistency, and not true. vast majority are selfish and materialistic. they can’t grasp the knowledge above the world that contain the eternal truths about beauty and justice. philosophers are able to contemplate these ephemeral ideas. they can control their own carnival drives. they understand the world around them is changing and fading to pass away. you can only gain the eternal truths in your head. plato resented athens because of how they treated socrates. he distrusts democracy by being ruled by people. he prefers all cities should be ruled by philosopher kings. his epistemology is anti-democratic. his understanding of this dual nature of reality would be profoundly influential throughout time. platonic ideas would be part of the greek legacy and brought to the modern world. 

a hellenized world: projectng hellas, a process understood in 2 ways
	800 bc to middle ages: greek art, language, commerce, and culture spread steadily, making important headway throughout the mediterranean. 
	323 bc to 31 bc: the hellenistic period labels the centuries between the death of alexander the great and the founding of the roman empire. we’ll focus on this second way. 

macedonia is the homeland of alexander the great. more consiladated land mass. much larger army. rulers were well positioned. 

the rise of macedon: 
	phillip II of macedon, stregthened by experience in the balkan wars, slowly exerted mastery over the greek city-states
	his son is alexander the great. died during his campaign. conquered lots of land. died in 323. the greek influence had extended far into india, africa, greece proper. a hellenized world because of alexander. he projected his values into the places he conquered. aristotle taught alexander who thought the senses where the only things that could enter the mind. valued knowledge as power. he went to troy and threw a spear out showing he conquered asia. 

pharos lighthouse, alexandria (wonder of the world). founded the city of alexandria in egypt. greatest lighthouse in the greek world. beacon to the sailors and in the whole world. the place where people’s intellectual energies should be drawn to. it became the intellectual place in the universe. second largest city in egypt. new center of thought, culture, and activity.

library at alexandria: the greatest library in the ancient world. the repository of all the knowledge accumulated since time. illiad and oddessy. they don’t know anything finite about it. its unknown and no one knows where it went. 

some alexandrian achievements: 
euclid (300) invented geometry 
archimedes of syracuse (250) calculated the value of pi. 
eratosthenes (200) estimated the circumference of the earth (and got close)
ptolemy (140) wrote the textbook on astronomy-the almagest-that would shape european thought for over a 1000 years. 

successor states: 
the seleucid dynasty (mesopotamia, persia)
the ptolemaic dynasty (Egypt)
the antigonid dynasty (macedon)

they were greek because cities. they derive their wealth and intellectual power through finding new cities. such as antioch. they set up greek colonies within their states. vibrant places. vibrant commerce. greek structures. draw tax receipts from the cities and found armies. greek people were not in the majority but were give privileges and got political power. certain measure of autonomy. there was a school in antioch based on aristotle thought. 

epictetus (ad 55-135). greek by birth, roman by citizenship, stoic by intellectual filiation. a typical representative of hellenistic culture in the ancient world. stoicism was created in hellenistic world and suited it. imagine oneself as a citizen of a vast world community. it became imperative to reason one’s way through moral obligations. individualized age that was cosmopolitan. look for platonic influences

even before the founding of the republic, citizens of rome had long been absorbing greek culture-largely through the mediation of the etruscans. general chronology of rome: monarchy 8th-6th centuries b.c. republic: 510-31 b.c. empire 27 b.c.-a.d 476. 

the early years of the roman republic saw class tensions and conflicts ultimately resolved through recourse to law. patricians and plebeians found common ground through legal principles, publicly enunciated, institutionally preserved, traditionally revered. 

cincinnatus - 458 bc- and roman arete. spartan and athenian. this was roman patriotism.
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
Italian Renaissance
Artist that painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
handled crisis for six months
ruler that prefers stability over religious terms
Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Greek Historian and recorded the Persian Wars
Chinese Nationalist Party that emerged in 1911. Strayed from Sun Yat Sen's principles, especially after he died. Chiang Kai Shek took over...
Regions of Babylonia?
(Southern Mesopotamia)1. Akkad (Semetic) - Lang derived from the desert2. Sumer (Indo Eurompean) - Lang not desert based.
written by Thomas More-an ideal place full of Christian humanism ideas-about how to fix all of societies flaws
Survival of the fittest. Father of evolution. Took design of of creation.
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
Nuremberg Laws
During WW2 in Germany. Anti-semtic. Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
fertile crescent
between the Tigris and Euphrates river. an arc of land from the mediterranean sea to the persian gulf, because this land had rich soil and abundant crops, it was able to sustain an early civilization
Napoleon Bonaparte
genius French emperor and military genius
ferdinand magellan
a portuguese navigator who proved balboa correct. he set out to cross the atlantic to south america. he died on the philippine islands in a fight with the islanders. his crew went back to spain completing the first round the world voyage. founded pacific ocean explores south america
 The starting point for a craftsman
5 acropolis
5 highest and most fortified point within a greek city-state/polis
The chief of the Franks who founded the German dynasty that tried to pull Europe back together again
Avignon Papacy
that period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome. Eventually established an efficient organization that took revenues in and gave the papacy more say than ever in the appointment of churchmen.
vassals give some of their land to lesser vassals in return for their loyalty.
he made the official religion of Rome Christianity.
George I
British ruler from Hanover in 1714-27 who didn't speak English or know about English politics and relied on ministers
who said that the essence of the universe could be found in music
Trade guilds
 Set up rules for trade Economic organizations of traders Traders had to join a guild to trade
Pre WW1: Germany
Otto Von Bismark, chancellor of Germany. Has alliance with Italy and Austria to avoid a wo front war.
1st astronomer with theory that sun is center AKA:
Nicholas Copernicus
-deamed as heratic
"iron law of wages"
thought of by David Ricardo, philosophy that as people had more kids wages went down, as people had less kids there were higher wages
leader of the Akkadians. he set up the first empire when he took over the Sumerian city-states.
The taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian church
What did Pope Leo X do to Luther?
excommunicated him
What island was Napoleon exiled to the second time?
St. Helena
French Revolution
an uprising of the people that led to the end of the French monarchy (and the beheading of Louis XVI )
Tennis Court Oath
We will stay here until we've written the constitution
What was Napoleons policy for education?
free public education (for males)
How did Bacon and Descartes each approach the new scientific method?
Bacon emphasized experimentation and observation. Descartes emphasized human reasoning
Feudal System – definition
 With the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, it’s a replacement to a strong central government
Epic written by homer about troy in the 8th cetury
The Iliad and the odyssey
How did Newton use observations of nature to explain the movements of the planets?
He stated that objects he observed falling on to Earth must have been pulled by the same forces that moved the planets.
Why were the Jews and other people persecuted?
They would not convert to Christianity and because of widespread religious intolerance
What did Hegel say one could do to be more complete?
1. Get married
2. Have a family
3. Community
4. Nation
Weltanschauung conclusion
Eph 4:17
I; "neo-Platonist" philosopher; de-emphasized material world; applied existentialism to theology; countered liberalism through a neo-Orthodoxy existential theology;
I; Ideals, metaphysics, Universals: Plato's term for ultimate reality
Karl Barth
I; existentialist theologian ("religious existentialist"; ["neo-orthodox"] theologian, "truth" is built on my experience; Swiss theologian; Inside me the reality takes place
religious and philosophical belief that a supreme natural God exists and created the physical universe, and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason and observation of the natural world. Deists generally reject the notion of supernatural revelation as a basis of truth or religious dogma.
an offensive strategy by Winston Churchill in order to attack the Ottoman Empire through the south, creating a third front of fighting in the war; as a result, there was no third front and Russia stood alone (also there was the Armenian massacre)
W.E. Henley; optimistic humanism: "I am the master of my fate; I am the captain of my soul"
Richard Weaver
author of "Ideas Have Consequences"
leader of the Fascist movement in Italy
delivered the "Secret Speech" to the Russian parliament; he crushed the Hungarian revolt and created confrontation/coexistence policies; was overthrown by Brezhnev
Thomas Aquinal
R; added investigation of particulars to Scripture & church teaching; "natural theology"; God is pure reason and that reason is reflected in creation;
providing ideas and facts that one must know to understand and accept the Gospel
Philosopher Atheists
Karl Marx, Auguste Comte, Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley
Charles Darwin
R; centrality of nature; natural selection and survival of the fittest brings progress; sought scientific basis for materialism and Hegel's optimism; The Origin of the Species; Father of a naturalistic view of nature's progress
John Dewey
R; pragmatism: "what works"= truth; extended scientific methodology to education; denied supernatural, only the natural world; promoted "reasonable faith"; Considered the most important scientific philosopher; "Father of public education"
a military and political leader of France who had a significant impact on world history.
the "man of steel" who was elected shrewdly in 1924; he carried out a series of purges in which he eliminated his opponents and thousands were executed
control of the way people think; total control and unity, abolishing opposition, overriding the importance of the leader or party, claiming a higher and exclusive truth
Bertand Russell
R; Only science can claim knowledge; natural word = only truth; emphasized mathematical pattern in universe but saw it only as a phenomenon; Progress is not inevitable
The Marshall Plan
Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposes that U.S. should send billions in aid to Europe to rebuild economies and encourage democratic capitalism; Soviets interpreted this as an aggressive policy and did not accept the aid
Auguste Comte
R; Material world is all there is; Positivism: 3 stages of man's progress: theological, metaphysical, Scientific [naturalistic]; no ideals or forms
Incarnational Faith
living out one's faith among the world rather than trying to live behind a wall
Stamp Act
a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents. Those that pay the tax receive an official stamp on their documents.
The Berlin Airlift
Cold War event in response to France, Britain, and U.S. joining to control a single economic union; West Germany was formed independently from East Germany and Stalin wanted to close down Berlin; moved 8,000 tons of material a day for 324 days, resulting in the development of military on both sides of Germany
Thee Options
1) Remain in despair 2) a return to optimism without reason 3) Turn to God
Louis XVI
ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of 10 August, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. He was the only king of France to be executed
War of Spanish Succession
a war fought in 1701-1714, in which several European powers combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European balance of power
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