Western Civilization - Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Integral
necessary
Classical Age
500-300???
term: hoplites
find
hitzipotchli
god of war
Marcus Aurelius
FInall Good Emperor
mosques
places of Muslim worship
Henry VIII of England
abbot
the head of a monastery
Cavaliers
followers of Charles (Royalists), included nobles and church officials
Roger Bacon
____________________ carried on expeditions with gunpowder. His experiments led to the development of canons.
Johann Gutenberg
Prince Henry
Roger Bacon
Gutenberg
Who: Johannes GutenbergWhat: creation of movable type printing press, masterpiece was Gutenberg BibleWhen: 15th centuryWhere: GermanyWhy: allowed fast dissemination of information during religious conflicts
Great Schism
-14TH CENTURY CRISES
-period of confusion whe church was divided
-two popes: Pope Urban VI in Rome and Pope Clement VII in France
-weakened Christian faith
Jacob
continues God's covenant just as Abraham and Isaac had, Abraham's grandson who had 12 sons. Each led one of the 12 tribes of Israel. (some moved to eygpt and some stayed in Canaan)
Alchemists
Medieval scientist who attempted to change worthless metals into gold
Louis Napoleon
Elected president under Second Republic after French Revolution of 1848. Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Proclaimed himself emoporer of France in 1852 (Napoleon III). Used plebiscite to win popular vote for Second Empire.
plautus
comic dramatist of ancient Rome (253?-184 BC)
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Vernacular
common language, understood by all, Bible and Laws were understood by a wider public
when does Jansenism develop?
late 17th century
Chandragupta Maurya
__________________ conquered the weak kingdoms in northern India and created the first strong Indian Empire.
Chandragupta Maurya
Asoka
Siddhartha Gautama
EMperor THeodosius
o Christianity decreed only legal religion in roman empire—380
o Why was this a mixed blessing?
• They aren’t becoming Christians voluntarily, it is a forced religion by the state
• Emperor interferes…conflict of church and state
true
During the Etruscan period, Rome grew from a weak league of villages to the leading Latin city. T/F
After they dispersed the Constituent Assembly, Lenin, and the Bolsheviks ruled Russia as a
one-party dictatorship
chivarly
a code of behavior between feudal knights and nobles
de-Stalinization
the policy of denouncing and undoing the most repressive aspects of Stalin's regime; begun by Nikita Khrushchev in 1956
Philip II
382-336 BCE; tansformed the macedonian kingdom, created the companions role in war which benefited them, philip crushed his ally armies in the greek poleis at the battle of Chaeronea
Auschwitz
Nazi concentration camp for Jews in southwestern Poland during World War II.
Tyre
What was the leading city-state of Phoenicia?
Nineveh
Babylon
Tyre
terence
dramatist of ancient Rome (born in Greece) whose comedies were based on works by Menander (190?-159 BC)
Estates General
Name of the French Legislative Assembly
Leviathan
by Thomas Hobbes, an absolutist. The book dealt with the issure of disorder.
social contract
- written by Rousseau (mid-18th century) to outline how political order could make people moral and free, subject ones individual interest to the "general will".
Papal States
last territory controlled by RCC; taken by nationalists in Italy; Italy vs. Papal states → Italy got Rome; pope was angry and so imposed self captivity in the Vatican
charlemangne
Charlemagne (742 or 747 - 814): crowned 1st "Roman Emperor"
by Pole Leo III in 800. 1st crowning of a king by a pope
Charlemagne
promoted Christianity
vigorously and
attempted to
standardize religious
rites within his vast domains
Over time, the dominant group within Islam has been the
Sunnis.
Bobbies
they were created by the aristocrats in a form of protection because the working classes wouldn't listen to them
princeps
chief citizein or first among equals of the principate
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
pearl harbor
december 7th 1941, germany's ally was Japan and they bombed pearl as a result bringing the united states into conflict
Iron Age
the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of iron tools and weapons
false
After Henry's death, his son Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted), became king but he did not fight a lot of crusades. He stayed in England because he was concerned with English affairs. T/F
Samuel Slater
Father of the American Revolution - stole technology from Britain and sold it in Massachusetts and that is how America ended up on top
Neolithic
The New Stone Age. Between 8000 and 4000 BCE. It is associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution and follows the Paleolithic period. It is marked by the domestication of animals, the development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery.
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Sir Issac Newton
english scientist who helped bring together previous scientists discoveries under a single theory of motion.
bartholomeu dias
explores the west coast of africa, southern tip of africa, and cape of good hope
Queen Victoria
was the British queen from 1837-1901. She had the longest reign in English history that helped to stabilize their economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India----1850 English monarch, which symbolized British morality, stability and middle class virtues. Married to Prince Albert. Their reign , Victorian era, symbolized a century of respect and political success.
Predestination
the idea that fate and entrance to heaven is predetermined at the moment of birth, term coined by John Calvin
Beckett/Henry II
Thomas Beckett was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162-1170. He became Archbishop and used his powers to protect the power of the Church in the Canterbury Cathedral. He was appointed his position by one time friend Henry II. Henry thought that by appointing his good friend as Archbishop, he would have more power over the Church. He was wrong. Thomas Becket did not share his power and was eventually killed by Henry's Knights because of it.
First Consul
this replaced the directory and was called the triumverate, and of course Napoleon Bonapart was headed of the Triumverate
Poor Clares
A women's order established by Clare of Assisi, in devotion to active service out in the world
term: gaul
o Where caesar was granted a special military command in gaul
Philip V
of spain tightened his grip on the Americas by establishing the vice royalty of New Granada
Solomon
David's son who was a great king. He built massive project in Israel including the Great Temple. His project cost the people a lot of money in taxes causing a division in Israel.
Vassal
In the Middle Ages, a lesser noble who served a powerful lord
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Xerxes
The son of Darius who become a Persian ruler and fought the Athenians at Salamis
José de San Martin
great liberator Creole from Argentina; 1817: San Martin led an army across Andes to Chile and was joined by Bernardo O'Higgins, and finally freed Chile; left his forces to Bolivar to command after reaching Lima, Peru, thus uniting revolutionary forces.
Baldassare Castiglione
the author of The Book of the Courtier, which was published in 1528 and remained a fundamental handbook for European aristocrats for centuries.
Marquis de Lafayette
the parisians responded by forming a national guard led marquis de lafayette
Patent of Toleration
Issued by Joseph II of Austria
Granted freedom of worship to protestants and orthodox christians
-enabled society to keep records
-possible to communicate ideas in new ways
explain the significance of the development of writing
World War 1
a war between the allies and the central powers from 1914 to 1918.
Heinrich Himmler
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews
Rembrandt Van Rijn
Dutch artist who was a beast at painting Dutch baroque art... yeah
Charlemagne's Carolingian Renaissance was characterized by
new copies of classical literary works produced in Benedictine monastic scriptoria
-The Carolingian Renaissance, led by Alcuin of York, whom Charlemagne placed in charge of his Palace School, focused on the preservation of older manuscripts, some of them from the Graeco-Roman period and others by church writers, that had been produced in monastic scriptoria, rather than upon new and original works. The development of a revised script, known as the Carolingian script, facilitated the preservation and the spread of those newly copied manuscripts.
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
Prussia became an ally of Britain and Austria joined with France
Open Door Policy
trade should be open to all and the that the Great Powers should respect the territorial integrity of China
Which of the following groups of Italian artists dominated the High Renaissance?
da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
---The major artists of the High Renaissance (c. 1480-1520) were da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Although the Early Renaissance was dominated by Florentines, Rome was the center of the High Renaissance. Popes such as Julius II were great patrons of High Renaissance artists, notably of Michelangelo's painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Raphael's School of Athens. Giotto, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, and Ghiberti were earlier artists associated with Florence.
What were the early Church's views on sexuality?
Celibacy ("unmarried") and chastity ("pure") superior to marriage
The Gothic style of architecture emerged and was perfected in
e. France
The Gothic style of architecture emerged in France, at the abbey church of St. Denis outside of Paris, under the leadership of Abbot Suger. In contrast to the heavier and darker Romanesque churches, the Gothic cathedrals used the rib vault, the pointed arch, and the flying buttress that allowed the use of large stained glass windows to illuminate the interiors.-
why were familial vendettas so fierce in the Middle Ages?
lords had to constantly prove strength in order to maintain vassal's allegiance
During the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP)
the Soviet state would own all industry
King John was forced to recognize the Magna Carta in 1215 due to factors EXCEPT
The Black Death (He was forced to recognize: The humiliating concessions he made to the pope after he had been excommunicated, High taxes, The defeat of his army by the French at Bouvines in 1214)
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