Western Civilization I Study Guide: Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Carthegenians
...
Euro
money system
First Triumvirate
...
Green Peace
environmental concerns
Ivan II
prince of Moscow
Pagen Religion- Ancestor Worship
...
Benito Mussolini
fascist leader of Italy
Michelangelo
Italian sculptor; decorated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
ziggurats
The most outstanding architecture found in Sumerian cities were the ____________.
temples
churches
aqueducts
ziggurats
Venus
1. also...Aphrodite
2. Roman goddess associate with love, beauty, and fertility
3. played key role in many roman religious festivals and myths
4. Julius Caesar claims as an ancestor
Borodino
near Moscow, Napoleon defeated the Russians in a battle at Borodino in 1812, but weakened his army
Mikhail Gorbachev
least leader of Soviet Union
Renaissance
rebirth of learning/culture; began in Italy due to its wealth from trade
Iron
The Hittites excelled in the production of ___________.
steel
bronze
stone
iron
Odysseus
1. also...Ulysses
2. Greek king of Ithaca
3. hero in Homers Odyssey
4. famous for trojan horse trick
Cleopatra
1. sexual relations with both brothers
2. bore twins with Mark Antony
3. committed suicide
Elba
where Napoleon was forced to live after being defeated by the 6th Coalition. Was not by any means a bad place, he lived in a nice house with a nice climate and was able to keep the title "emperor"
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian artist - Mona Lisa
Isaac Newton
English scientist and mathmatician - all physical objects are affected equally by the same forces - law of universal gravitation
Restoration Period
restoring of the English monarch; after the death of Oliver Cromwell
Yalta
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin promised to permit free elections in Eastern Europe following WWII
Nicholas Copernicus
polish mathematician and astronomer - discovered that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Absolutism
Meant that the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right.
Turks
At the Battle of Manzikert, which group annihilated the Byzantine forces and took control of Asian Minor?
Crusaders
Turks
Greeks
Egyptians
Josephus
Who was the Jewish historian who recorded the growing conflict between the Jews and Romans due to the Roman's oppression of Judea?
Livy
Josephus
John
David
Patrick
Which of the Catholic clergymen was responsible for taking the Gospel to Ireland?
Boniface
Gregory I
Patrick
Peter
Peter
According to the Petrine Theory, who became the substitute of Christ on earth?
Peter
Leo I
Charlemagne
Louis the Pious
polytheistic
The religion of the ancient Egyptians can best be described as ____________.
monotheistic
polytheistic
humanistic
self serving
Gabriel
Muslims believe that this angel was the one who visited Muhammad and gave him the information to write down in the Islamic holy book.
Michael
Gabriel
Moses
Allah
Octavian/Augustus
1. adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC264-146 BC
2. Augustus was a title given to him after his return from Egypt
3. joined forces with Mark Antony in military dictatorship
4. upon his death, he was declared a god by the Senate—to be worshipped by the Romans
Hector
1. Trojan prince of royal house
3. son of Priam
2. leader & greatest fighter in the Trojan War
3. killed by Achilles and body is disrespected
Continental Code
forbids Napoleon's powers (most on the continent) from trading with UK
Napoleon Bonaparte
leader of the French; expanded the French empire; believes all men are equal and women are inferior; exiled to Elba but escaped; defeated for the final time in Waterloo and exiled to Helena
David Riccardo
wages would be forced down as population increased
James I
king of Scotland; became king of England when Queen Elizabeth I died without an heir
Balfour Declaration
issued by Britain; promised to help Jews form homeland in Palestine after WWI
Horatio Nelson
British admiral - defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar
Glasnost
openness - end to secrecy - introduced a market economy
William and Mary
became English monarchs following the abdication of James II - agreed to rule according to the laws of Parliament
Petrarch
He wat the "Father of Humanism" and led the way in reviving interest and study in classical literature.
Machiavelli
Petrarch
Castiglione
Thomas More
Johannes Gutenberg
His improvements of the printing press led to increased printing of the Bible, literature, and books on church reform. Who was the man responsible for this innovation?
Henry the Navigator
Bartolome De Las Casa
Roger Bacon
Johannes Gutenberg
Moses
Who would lead the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt?
Abraham
Isaac
Jacob
Moses
Sulla
1. adversary to Marius, whom he took leadership away from
2. leaves to solve problem in eastern portion of rome
3. put senated in charge of judical system
4. killed and Marius resumes power.
Sparta & Athens
1. pricipal enemies/ bitter rivals
2. different in values, life styles, & culture
3. Athens wanted control of more land in Greece
4. both worshipped Gods & respected people.
5. Peloponnesian War (431 & 404 BC)
Alexander the Great
1. undefeated in battle
2. most succesful commander
3. tutored by Aristotle
4. King of Macedon
5. conquests sparked Hellenistic World
Adolf Hitler
leader of Nazis - starts Holocaust - wants master race (Aryan) - creates 3rd Reich
Margaret Thatcher
first female to be prime minister of UK
Paul Von Hindenberg
president of the Weimar Republic - appoints Hitler chancellor
Peter the Great
Peter the Great wished to westernize Russia, especially in the realm of technical skills, His foremost Goal was the creation of a strong army and navy in order to make Russia a great power.
Colosseum
What was the name of the venue where people would flock to see the bloody contests between the gladiators and the slaughter of Christians?
Colosseum
Circus Maximus
Pontifus Maximus
Forum
Muhammad
Who is the founder of the religion of Islam?
Buddha
Nero
Yaroslav
Muhammad
land
What was the basis of wealth in the Feudal Age?
gold
silver
cattle
land
Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
1. brothers
2. deaths triggered a civil war in Rome (120 BC)
3. Tiberius was a great general but was dark and somber ruler & was beaten to death by senators
4. Gaius was influenced by reformative policy & committed suicide
Punic Wars
1. series of 3-wars between Rome and Carthage
2. 264-146 BC
3. largest wars taken place for the time
4. cause; conflict of interest between Roman Republic and Carthaginian Empires
Petition of Rights
signed by Charles I - limited the power of the English monarch
every 14 years
How often was the census ordered by Caesar Augustus to be taken?
every 4 years
every 10 years
every 14 years
every 20 years
Peloponnesian War
1. 431 to 404 BC, war between Sparta and Athens
2. won by Sparta
3. shattered religious taboos & destroyed whole cities
4. Thucydides served & wrote about this war
The peace of Augsburg (1555)
Brought an end to religious warfare between German Catholics and Lutherans.
Ivan IV the Terrible
The first ruler to take the title of tsar ("Caesar"), expanded the territories of Russia eastward after finding westward expansion blocked by the powerful Swedish and Polish states. Known as terrible for crushing the power of the Russian nobility.
emphasis on formality rather than conversion
Which one of the following was the main reason for the failure of the spread of Christianity in East Asia?
-too many Westerners flooding the region
-emphasis on formality rather than conversion
-the resulting riots which accompanied the Westerners
-the extreme cost of the government for funding the missionaries
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