Western Civilization I, Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sheriff
...
Veto
vote against
dukes
local tribal leaders
laity
regular church members
Fascism
Powerful & continuing nationalism
Mestizos
European and Indian mix
3000
Egyptian civilization lasted roughly how many years?
Septimius Severus
the first troubled emperor
Capitalism
when feudalism declines, what increases?
when did Constantine found Constantinople
324
Homer
Wrote the "Illiad and the Odyessy"
-Plato
-Aristotle
Who were the 2 major philosophers
apartheid
the system of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa until the 1990s, which involved political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
Louis Kossuth
hungarian liberal. would keep monarchs, but wanted their own legislature. led to metternich's dismissal.
Glorious Revolution
A revolution agains James II
Renaissance - Good Works vs. justification by faith alone
?
Bacon
-helped develop the scientific method -The scientific method was a new method of gathering and interpreting the information that was emerging.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist; developed theory of evolution that opposed theory of creation
Henri Bergson
Bergson (1859-1941) accepted rational, scientific thought as a practical instrument for providing useful knowledge but maintained that it was incapable of arriving at truth or ultimate reality. To him, reality was the "life force" that suffused all things;it could not be divided into analyzable parts. Reality was a whole that could only be grasped intuitively and experienced directly. When we analyze it, we have merely a description, no longer the reality we have experienced.
David Ricardo
economist who further developed Malthus' ideas; wrote the Principles of Political Economy, which developed his famous 'iron law of wages.'
Isaac Newton
invented laws of motion, brilliant physicist
Holy Synod
in Russia was the government department that controlled the Orthodox church
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
College of Cardinals
1059, the __________________ was created so that the churchmen could choose the popes.
Crimean War
russian empire vs french, british, ottoman, sardinia, and nassau. was all about who was going to get their hands on what was left of the ottoman empire of europe. conflict over holy lands. austria withdrew.
Archaeology
Scientific study of the remains of past human societies.
Imperialism
the policy of conquering and ruling other lands
guilds
whose primary function was to regulate the business activity of a given town
NKVD
Secret police; Drove around in black cars called ravens, carried out the purges
alphabet
(in Greek, "alpha beta") System of writing in which symbols represent individual consonants.
Laissez-faire
"let people do as they please"- economic policy of letting owners of industry work without government interference; unregulated, free market economy; economy by natural laws (as opposed to mercantilism- government intervening/regulating economy)
leaders could prepare armies for war, but success really depended on a favorale relationship with the ___
gods
What country was the first to conquest?
Portugal
Prague Spring
was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Physiocrats
A group of French economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
John Locke
believed in life liberty and property for each person
Emergence of Primates
60 millions years ago what happened?
Historian
Person who studies how people lived in the past
Problems with Protestantism
Religious toleration was not allowed, thus they had political problems with authority (one king, one faith)
Bosnian crisis
contained many of the ingredients that eventually ignited the war in 1914
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Moses
Who would lead the Israelites out of Egypt?
Joseph
Joshua
Moses
1. Patriarchy
Organization where the male is the leader of society, including governmental, economic, and familial structures.
Pontius Pilate
The Jews brought Jesus before the Roman governor ______________________ charging that Christ had disrupted the state.
false
As a squire, the boy's training got less intense because he had had most of it already. T/F
Monarchy
a single person called a king or monarch ruled in a government
Bismark's plan
he wanted to unify germany under prussian leadership
clovis
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
Only the wealthy could go on a Medieval pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
False.
Tories
one of the two political factions in the English Parliament; dominated by the members of the landed classes; their ministers largely dominated the government until 1830 and had little desire to change the existing political and electoral system; generated much popular discontent
Taken as a whole, Helenistic civilization succeeded in
all of the above
During the Boer War, the British first instituted
concentration camps
common law
law common to the entire kingdom of England; imposed by the king's courts beginning in the twelfth century to replace the customary law used in county and feudal courts that varied from place to place
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer.
Spanish Armada
(1588) In this battle Phillip II tried to attack England but his naval fleet was completely destroyed
Contagious Disease Acts
gave British authorities the right to examine prostitutes for venereal disease; infected prostitutes were confined for some time to special institutions called lock hospitals, where they were given moral instruction; opposition to the law arose and it was repealed
Abdulmjid I
the ottoman sultan, he is caught in the middle of the conflict; in the beginning he claims he is going to give the key of the church to france, then the Russia's threaten him so he says he will give it to them then the french get mad because he went back on his word
in what years did the Council of Trent occur?
1545-63
Nuremberg trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Some of his subjects were unhappy with James's belief in absolute monarchy and opposed his religious policies, leading a group of them to depose him in the Glor
James II
A western front
despite stalin's pleas for the 3 three years the soviets took the brunt of German military; the soviets were trying to convince other countries to join because they knew the germans could not fight a two frong war
Edict of Nantes
A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France
which leader is mainly responsible for the explosion of Russian literature in the 19th century?
Catherine the Great (1762-96)
balance of power
attempt of the Congress of Vienna to prevent any single country from dominating Europe
Family structure in W. Europe during Ancient Regime
Extended families Rare
women Worked as servents (saving for dowry)
Married late
when does the Carolingian Renaissance occur? What new techniques did it emphasize?
790-950; revive learning of past, unique art with frenetic, emotional lines
On the Subjection of Women
Mill's essay arguing that 'the legal subordination of one sex to the other' was wrong; differences between women and men were due simply to social practices; with equal education, women could achieve as much as men; an important work in the nineteenth-century movement for women's rights
Civil War between Garibaldi and Emmanuel
He sends his troops to prevent garibaldi from capturing rome, then he forces garibaldi to hand over what he has conquered; as a result leaving victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy
was a war fought from 1701-1714, in which several European powers combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European balance of power.
War of the Spanish Succession
Among Augustus' MOST important actions in the area of Roman religion was
c. creation of an imperial cult
-In general, the Romans were very tolerant of the disparate religions in the Empire. Under Augustus, an imperial cult, the cult of Roma and Augustus, was established to give some religious and political unity to the many peoples under his rule. Julius Caesar was deified after his assassination in 44 BCE, as was Augustus after his death in 14 CE, both still memorialized in the months of July and August.
The Peace of Lodi in 1454 exemplifies the key Italian Renaissance political concept of
a balance of power between multiple competing territorial states
---- Italy was made up of five major states and other independent city-states. The Peace of Lodi in 1454 created a balance of power among the five larger states, with Florence, Milan, and Naples balanced against the papacy and Venice. Major war between the five was avoided for almost fifty years, but it did not lead to further cooperation, with the result that Italy was too disunited to resist the invasions of the large monarchies of France and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century.
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