Western Civilization Test 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Perceptibly
noticeably
Middle Class
Bourgeosie
mendicants
Begging friars
English
a Germanic language
Great Council
kings advisory panel
quadrivium
it consisted of arithmetic,geometry,astronomy,and music
Henry IV of France
Secular clergy:
"live in the world"
Marie Antoinette
Louis XIV's austrian wife
Bruncelleschi
Itallian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti Gothic. Foundlling Hospital in Florence.
an ancient leader of Egypt
pharoah
Leonardo da Vinci
-RENAISSANCE
-first really realistic painter
-Mona Lisa
-used scientific precision in his paintings
polytheism
belief in more than one god
Fascism
governmental doctrine that relies on dictatorial rule and a totalitarian regime, in which the state maintains rigid control of the people through force and censorship.
Neanderthals
Human subspecies that originated as early as 350,000 BCE and became extinct soon after 40,000 BCE. Discovered in Germany's Neanderthal (Neander Valley) in 1856.
9. Democracy
Society/government ruled by the citizens.
Perikles
-Made a democracy
-equality before the law, citizenship rules changed, city is open to all
capitalism
economic system characterized by the voluntary exchange of goods and services among individuals who are free and self-governing
cathars
(Also known as Albigensians) A Christian sect destroyed by the Catholic Crusaders during the Albigensian Crusade. They derived their teaching from the Bogomils an Eastern European group arising about 900 AD. The Cathars were a dualistic and gnostic sect in northern Italy and southern France in the late Middle Ages of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. "Cathar" comes from the Greek word katharos meaning pure. There was two classes of believers -- the elite Perfect (Parfaits); and the believers (croyants, or in Latin, credentes). www.gnosistraditions.faithweb.com/mont.html
Eight Fold Path
plan for right living
octavian
o Caesars heir and grandnephew, took hold of west...need more
true
One area of conflict between the plebeians and the patricians was the inability of plebeians to pay their taxes. T/F
Drama
-intended to educate citizens not just entertain
-created by Greeks
The Celts
Lived in tribes, Never politically unified, Shared dialects, Metal and pottery techniques, Agricultural and home-building methods, Played a big role through trade and war
*New phase began called La Tene
folk culture
the traditional arts and crafts, literature, music, and other customs of the people; something that people make, as opposed to modern popular culture, which is something people buy
Stalin
dropped out of school for a revolutionary career; went to imprisonment in Siberia; followed a harsher course than Trotsky and Lenin
Aryans
Nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
humanism
movement that began in Italy during the 1300s focusing on the study of the classics and emphasizing the importance of human beings
Romanesque Architecture
characterized by huge, thick stone walls with small windows
Jesus Christ
born: in Augustus reign
died: in Tiberius reign
Comedy
Humorous plays that mocked the people or their customs
Jean- Jacques Rousseau
18th century philosophe, believed society threatened natural rights or freedom, published the social contract.
Communism
form of complete socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people and private property would cease to exist
when did the Counsil of Nicaea occur?
325
Cyril and Methodius were the creators of Carolingian miniature.
False.
Ancient Rome
Origins, A city state
1. Myth--Romulus and Remus
2. Reality
a. Latin tribe
b. Italian Peninsula
c. Tiber River---Trading post
term: ostracism
a formal process of shunning someone...Once a year put name of someone you feel is a danger to the state on a piece of pottery. If you had enough votes (6000) you were ostracized from the city for ten years
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Poland alliance
Britain and France made and alliance with Poland, to help defend them against german agression
Ebla
A city in ancient syria, destroyed by Naram Sin (2259 BC) Rediscovered in 1964, it contained thousands of cunieform tablet.
centuriate assembly
the chief popular assembly of the Roman Republic. It passed laws and elected the chief magistrates
Tories
A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832
Tiberius Gracchus
163-132 BC
Aristocrat who was on the Tribune
-They were both for providing lands and food to the poor. They were both murdered for their political involvement.
Experimental method
a technique used to demonstrate cause and effect by purposely manipulating circumstances and measuring the final effect
Virginia Woolf
English author whose work used such techniques as stream of consciousness and the interior monologue; one of the first prominant woman writers
turks
people that overrun the silk roads and allow trade to continue
"New Monarchies"
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church wiithin their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England.
Satire
the use of humor, irony, etc., to ridicule or criticize society, people, politicians, etc.
Plebian
Lower class Romans who Won the right to form their own assembly during the 5th century BCE. They did not have political, legal or social rights so they had a conflict with the Patricians (Struggle of the Orders). They threatened to not pay taxes, work in the army.
When: Won the right to form their own assembly during the 5th century BCE. They formed the Plebeian Assembly, later renamed to the Tribal Assembly. They were allowed to elect tribunes and officials
20 years
Ghiberti designed the bronze doors for one of the entrances to the baptistery of Florence. It took him over ___________ to finish the doors.
30 years
20 years
10 years
vernacular literature
Writing in the author's dialect, that is, in the everyday language of the region
Byzantine Empire
this was Christian Empire. Greek was the official language. This empire was ruled by Justinian (527-565). He was head over the eastern Roman Empire and he was determined to reestablish the Roman Empire into the entire Mediterranean world. Justinian’s most important Contribution is the codification of Roman law. He wrote Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law).
-Justinian rebuilt Constantinople after riots destroyed much of this city in 532. As a result of Justinian’s work, Constantinople became the largest city in the middle ages.
-Justinian’s accomplishments were spectacular; however, when he dies he left this empire with serious problems: too much territory to protect, an empty treasury, a decline in population after plague, and renewed threats in its frontiers. The most serious challenge to this eastern empire was the rise of Islam.
-The Byzantine Empire was both Greek and Christian. This empire was built on a belief in Jesus.
-Government- ruled by an emperor who also appointed the head of the church, the patriarch. They saw the emperor as being chosen by God and his rule was considered absolute.
Neolithic Age
Age also called the "New Stone Age" which began in 10000 BC
Monotheism
belief in one God, A belief in the worship of only one god. Was followed by Abraham and his family. Most Mesopotamians believed in many gods. Hebrews, jews, isrealites became real monotheists
League of Nations
world organizations formed after WW I to maintain peace.
St. Bartholomew's Day
battle between the Bourbons and the Guise, very bloody
henry the navigator
encourages the exploration of the west coast of africa
English Civil War
(1642-1649)- Charles I tried to force Presbyterian Scots to accept an Anglican prayer book (both kingdoms under one religion); the Scots rebelled and Charles I had to call Parliament back into session for money for the war
Pax Romana
Under the reign of Augustus to Marcus Arelius 200 years of Roman peace was established from 27-180 AD in the Roman Empire. It established a peaceful time in the Roman Empire where there was limited bloodshed OUTSIDE the empire and there was advances in literature, poetry, art and drama within the empire.
national convention
it is based on three groups 1. jacobins: radical party, who are mainly made up of the sans culottes, 2. Girondins: Moderate bourgeoise, 3. reactionaries: nobles, who wanted the old regime back, a very conservative view
Brunswick Manifesto
Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defense force.
General James Wolfe
let the British forces at the battle of Quebec
Reign of terror
What era in history of France caused the death of 1000's people's
Components of Athenian Democracy
1. Board of Ten Generals: Military: elected annually, led military
2. Assembly: represents the people. Every male citizen over 18 yrs old, right to speak and vote
3.Council of 500: Government: selected annually, males over 30, provide schedule for assembly
Camillo Benso di Cavour
he was the prime minister of piedmont-sardinia under the king of victor Emanuel II, he was known to be a liberal and willing to sacrafice things to get what he wanted
Napoleon Bonapart
he was born on the island of corsica, he was part of a respected french family, he went to french military school; and he began to rise up in the military through the merit based system; this meaning that it didn't matter what family you were from (aristocracy no longer fighting) all based upon skill level; this means that there were also a lot of high ranking open spots; this merit based system was brought upon by the revolution; he got a lot of attention by firing cannons into a crowd of people(disturbing)
War of Spanish Succession
took place because Charles II left the throne of Spain to Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV grandson
The Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the french king Henry IV promised that prodestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
The Roman Senate under Augustus
was retained as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state
The Senate under Augustus remained the chief deliberative body of Rome. Augustus as princeps was the de facto ruler of Rome, but for reasons of tradition and politics, Augustus allowed the Senate to retain some power and considerable prestige, including the right to rule the empire's secondary provinces.
The immediate cause of World War I was
the assassination of Franz Ferdinand
The first consul to attain full command of the army and supercede the Senate's right to conduct wars was
`Marius
During the Roman Republic, the Roman armies were made up of property-owning farmers. However, that traditional group was significantly reduced in numbers during the second century BCE. When Marius was given a military assignment to quell an uprising in North Africa in 107 BCE, he ignored the property qualification for military service and recruited an army by promising land to those who enlisted. Marius had his army, but it had the effect of transferring the loyalties of the soldiers from Rome and the Senate to military commanders like Marius who promised them land.
Garibaldi and the red shirts
in may 1860, the red shirts go to sicily to remove them from the rule of king Francis II, they succede in this endeavor and move on to naples to remove King Francis II from there as well
-reveals society with a strict code of justice
-different laws and punishment for different class and gender
what does the Hammurabi reveal about Mesopotamian society
Know what it is that Newton did and didn't do
He was the founder of chemistry, motion and gravity. Became an alchemist to try and produce the velostifist stone, he refused to become the minister, and said that Jesus was a not god equal
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