Atomic Structure 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
S
Sphere
proton amu
1.0073
amu
atomic mass unit
Halogens
Group 7A Nonmetals
valence shell
outer energy level.
E
Has a negative charge
JJ Thompson
discovered the electron
Has a positive charge
Protons
Daltons atomic theory started in
1803
Atom
The basic unit of matter
protons
in atom's nucleus, + charge
elelctron
Negatively cherged particle outside the nucleus
Neutron
Tiny atomic particle that is electrically neutral and has about the same mass as a proton
reactants
Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
Alchemists
Discovered the mineral acids, nira sulfuric, and hydrochloric acid
Chadwick
discovered the neutron (much later than e- or p+)
A difference greater than 0.4 is..
polar
Proton
subatomic particle, a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
JJ Thomson
Discovered the electron using a cathode ray tube and discovered that the charge of the electon is negative
N
Isotopes of the same element have different number of these
Aristotle
Believed that all matter was comprised of only four elements; Earth, Water, Air, and Fire
Ground State
electron configuration as written on periodic table
octet rule
Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form compounds.
Energy Level
the possible energies that electrons in an atom
Shells
Energy Levels are also called Energy ______.
What is the relative charge of Electrons?
-1
7
How many orbitals are in the f sublevel?
Dalton
noticed that the ratio of the masses of elements in a compound is always the same.
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
the weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element
Helium Mass = 4
2 electrons + 2 protrons
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus
isotope
atom with the same num. of neclues from other atoms of the same elements
What are hadrons?
Particles affected by the strong nuclear force.
angular momentum, sublevel
(L) The second quantum number, called the BLANK BLANK quantum number, is used to indicate the type of BLANK that the electron occupies.
Lewis Dot Diagram
symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level
principal quantum number
quantum number that tells the DISTANCE of the electron from the nucleus (same as Bohr levels)
LIST ANY THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.
AMPLITUDE,WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY ,WAVE NUMBER AND VELOCITY
Law of Definite Composition
A chemical compound contains the same elemets in exactly the same proportions by mass (ex: A+B-->AB and 1g+3g-->4g)
Rutherford's gold foil experiment
- Atoms are mainly empty space
- Positively charged nucleus
How small is an atom?
A few ten billionths of a meter
Protons And Neutrons
Have A Mass Of About 1 AMU(Atomic Mass Unit).......
describe rutherfords gold foil experiment
there was a beam of alpha particles comming from a particle emitter therought a slit into a deflecting screen, through gold foil and ended up at the other end of the screen some particles were deflected and caught in the screen
How do you find the number of neutrons within the atom?
Nucleon number - Proton Number
To Calculate the Atomic Mass of an Element...
Multiply the mass of each isotope by its natural abundance, expressed as a decimal, and then add the products
Result: weighted average mass
oxygen
O
f
7 orbitals
Electron Location
Electron Cloud.
crest
highest point of wave
electron
found outside of the nucleus
Radioisotopes
Unstable nuclides that are radioactive
how waves differ
wavelength, frequency, and speed
What equation relates wavelength to frequency?
c=λν
2.3
Write the electronic configuration of Boron.
charge
In elemental notation, what does the upper right symbol represent?
The Inner Transition Metals
Lanthinide and Actinide series
atomic nucleus
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
electric field
The field around charged particles that exerts a force on other charged particles.
quarks
Up, down, bottom, charm, and strange are flavors of __
n, l, ml, ms
the 4 quantum numbers
Noble gasses are unstable. (true or false)
False
lanthanide
any element of the lanthanide series (atomic numbers 57 through 71)
properties of atoms/elements
melting point, boiling point, oxidation states, chemical reactivity
wavelength
the distance between any two identical points in consecutive cycles
Neutron, Proton
Two particles found in the nucleus
What is the radius of an atom?
10^-10m
true
The value for n (energy level) will always be a whole
number, and the higher the number, the further away from the nucleus the electron described by n tends to be. True or false?
Thomson
He made the "plum pudding" model that showed the electrons inside a positive substance. Discovered the electron.
k shell
1st energy level closest to the nucleus can hold up to 2 electrons
Nucleon
Particles that make up the nucleus of an atom
Democritus
thought matter was made of atoms which were indivisible and indestructable
Mass Spectrometry
measures weight of atoms or compounds by observing mass to charge (m/z) ratio of ions
Radioactivity of Isotopes
Isotopes of elements are radioactive because the nuclei of these atoms break down spontaneously, therefore they become unstable. Ustable isotopes undergo radioactive decay, until it reaches stability.
Element
simplest form of matter, also known as an ATOM, protons equal electrons
non polar bond
Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.
Energy
? = -R/n^2, where n is a quantum number and R is the Rydberg Constant.
Eight
Number of electrons that can go on an element's second shell
Electrons
What has a mass of about 1/2,000th of an amu (nil)?
what is shape of saturated fatty acid?
flat & dense
Models for the Atom
Dalton's Model, J.J. Thompson's model, Rutherford's model, Bohr's model, Math model
Lewis dot notation
In BLANK BLANK BLANK, the kernel of the atom—that is, the nucleus and all of the inner electrons—is represented by the elemental symbol. The valence electrons are represented by dots, and each of the four sides around the elemental symbol represents one of the orbitals in the valence shell.
Chemical Symbol
Shortened way to write the name of an element.
WHAT IS A FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLE ?
MAIN CONSTITUENT PARTICLES LIKE PROTON,NEUTRON AND ELECTRON ETC. PRESENT IN THE ATOM COME IN THE CATEGORY OF FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES.
Bohr's Theory
In order to move to an orbit further away from the nucleus, an electron must absorb energy to work against the attraction of the positive nucleus (excited state.) The continuous or line spectrum forms when electrons that were excited drop back from orbits of high energy to orbits of low energy.
18
The # of Electrons that can be held in the THIRD prbit.
an atom that is nuetral has the same number of
protons and elctrons
How would you describe the electrostatic repulsive force of the alpha particle and the gold nucleus?
The electrostatic repulsive force of the α-particle and the nucleus is equal but opposite to each other. However, it has a much greater effect on the motion of the α-particle than the gold nucleus.
Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
A very small unit of mass, used for subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. One atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to 1/12 the mass of the carbon -12 atom, or 1.661 x 10 -24 grams.
What are the Q, B, and S of antiquarks?
Opposite to the quark values.
HOW DOES THE ENERGY OF BOHR ORBIT VARY WITH THE PRINCIPLE QUANTUM NUMBER n.
THE ENERGY OF BOHR'S ORBIT INCREASES WITH THE INCREASE OF THE VALUE OF THE PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER, n. IN FACT IT BECOMES LESSER N LESSER NEGATIVE.
Neutrons
Mass-protons=______
Hydroxide ion
OH-1
P
Has a positive charge.
nucleus
the dense, positively charged mass located in the center of an atom
Unstable Isotope
undergo spontaneous disintegration in order to become a stable nucleus
results in particle emission- radioactive isotopes
Bohr
Danish physicist who studied atomic structure and radiations
Willian Crooke used
electronically charged metal cathodes to send charged gas molecules across a vacuum tube. Gases would emit light at the opposite end of the tube
fission
the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller fragments
Absorbed
Electrons jump to elements when some form of energy is
spectrum
wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
noble gases
most stable, least reactive, every elements idol!
Covalent Bond
Share of electrons
Bond between a non-metal and a non-metal
neutrons and protons
what does the nucleus contain
quantum
when the amount of energy absorbed or released by an electron as it moves from one orbit to the next will be a specific value
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
electron shell
part of electron cloud where electrons of same energy are found
Group (Family)
Each vertical column of the periodic table
Photoelectric Effect
-Electrons are emitted from a metal surface when it is exposed to light
- E photon= hv
alpha particle
2 protons, neutron particles due to radioactive decay
Continuous Spectrum
The spectrum of colors formed from white light; composed of visible light of a certain range of wavelengths
empirical formula?
smallest whole #’s that give the same ratio of atoms in a molecule (to reduce molec. Formula divide all subscripts by greatest common factor)
Protons & Neutrons
The total number of these two particles determines the mass
chemical reaction
occurs when atoms or groups of atoms are recombined into new substances
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses for the isotopes of an element
# of Neutrons
Mass # - Atomic #
(Top - Bottom)
Beta Particles
the type of radiation which can be blocked by heavy clothing and has a negative charge
What quarks does a proton comprise of?
Up Up Down
UUD
Atomic Structure
The idea that matter is made up of fundamental particles called atoms
electrically neutral atom
has same atomic number and number of protons (or electrons)
Photon
A unit of energy in the form of light equal to hf, where h is Plank's constant and f is the frequency of radiation.
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can not be created or destroyed
Proton and neutron
Have a mass of about 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
How is atomic mass determined?
By finding the weighted average of the mass numbers of naturally occuring isotopes (use percent abundance)
Formula for finding the Number of Neutrons
Mass Number - Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons
A Single Proton or Neutron of a Carbon Atom =
1 / 12 of 12 amu, or 1 amu
protons charge
+1
frequency equation
f= v/wavelength
James Chadwick
discovered the neutron
Has a negative charge
Electrons
mass of a neutron
1 amu
examples of isomer
glucose and fructose
Subatomic Particles
protons, neutrons, and electrons
Acid
Solution that contains hydrogen ions (H+)
Ion
a charged atom
(+) ion-: cation
(-) ion: anion
visible light
type of electromagntic radiation produced by electron transitions down to the 2nd energy level
a covalent bond is between
two non-metals
neutrons, protons
two particles found in the nucleus
energy levels
the possible energies that electrons in an atom can have
electric force
the attraction or repulsion between electric charges
the total number of these two particles determine the mass number
protons/neutrons
higher
closer electrons are to nucleus the lower or higher
What is this also know as?
Proton Number
Thomson's Model
Plum Pudding Model or the Chocolate Chip Ice Cream Model
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom
covalent bond - defintion
sharing of electrons, strongest bond
Neutrons and Protrons
Two particles found in the nucleus
What are some examples of hadrons?
Protons and neutrons.
kernel
A term referring to the nucleus of an atom and all of the electrons other than those in the valence shell.
Dalton's
model of an atom was a tiny, solid sphere with predictable mass for a given element
how are ions formed?
when electrons are transferred between atoms
continuous (visible) spectrum
ROYGBIV; an arrangement of all visible light in order or decreasing wavelength & increasing frequency
STATE THE HEISENBERGE'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE.
ACCORDING TO HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPAL IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MEASURE BOTH THE POSITION AND MOMENTUM OFA PARTICLE WITH ANY DEGREE OF CERTAINTY. MORE ACCURATELY WE MEASURE A PARTICLE'S POSITION,THE LESS ACCURATELY WE ARE ABLE TO MEASURE ITS MOMENTUM AND VISE VERSA
Cathode-Ray Tube
A steam of electrons produced at the negative electrode (cathode) of a tube containing gas at low pressure
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
electron cloud diameter
10000 to 100000 times wider thean the nucleus
frequency
# of waves that pass a point in one second
symbol: (Nu) v
Unit: Hz (Hertz; "per second")
atomic mass unit(amu)
a unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
How WAS the Periodic Table arranged?
In order of increasing atomic mass
Nutrons and Protons
Have a mass of about 1 amu (atomic mass unite)
describe the subatomic particles of an atom
neutron- neutral, located in the center
proton- positive, located in the center
electron- negative, located in the space outside the nucleus
What is the Atomic Number?
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
what do proteins do? NEED TO CHECK ON THIS
enzyme structure and function - NEED TO CHECK ON THIS ONE
/ 164
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online