Atomic structure and bonding Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hydrazine
H2N2
Zinc
Zn2+
Phosphate
PO4 3-
Nitrate
NO3 -
Lead (II)
Pb2+
Cation
Positive Ion
Permanganate (manganate (VII))
MnO4 -
Base
Substance that increases pH
Electron
Subatomic particle with negative charge. and mass of 1/1800 AMU
Atom
Smallest particle of matter consisting of protons, neurtons and electrons
polar bond
difference in electronegativities is greater than 0.4 (0.5 and greater)
nucleus
the positively charged dense center of an atom
Metals
Found on left of periodic table. conduct electricity, shine, solids
polarity
opposites and end and a - end
molecule
the smallest particle of a covalent compound
Shape of the molecule with 4 bonding electron pairs around the central atom and no non-bonding pairs is called...
Tetrahedral.
formula unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
Covalent bond
Sharing of outer electron to complete outershell
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom The probability of locating electrons
electron cloud
the area surrounding the nucleus where the electrons can be located
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses for the isotopes of an element
Acid
substance that gives up H + ions and reduces pH.
octet rule
atoms will gain or loser electrons in order to have 8 valence electrons
noble gas configuration
the electron configuration of a stable noble gas
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
lewis dot structure
diagram of a molecule using dots to represent valence electrons
A polar covalent bond is usually between...
Two non-metals. Usually an electronegativity difference of between 0.5 - 1.6.
Why is bond angle in CO₂180°?
2 areas of negative charge around central Carbon (each double bond is counted as one area of negative charge). To minimise electron repulsion, bond angle is 180°.
Ethanoate
CH3COO-
ammonia
NH3
Thiosulphate
S2O3 2-
Dichromate
Cr2O3 2-
Manganese (II)
Mn2+
Hydrogen peroxide
H2O2
ammonium
NH4 -
Anion
Negative Ion
Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
HCO3 -
organic compounds
compounds containing carbon
Proton
Subatomic particle with positive charge and mass of 1 AMU
Product
the result of a chemical reaction
oxidation number
the charge of an ion
Periodic Table
An orgainsed table of the element
valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
crystal
the regular repeated pattern of ions that form a solid with an organized geometric shape
octet rules
When atoms of elements react, they tend to lose, gain, or share electrons to achieve the same electrons arrangement as the noble gas nearest to them in the periodic table
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom
conductivity
the ability of a material to allow either heat or electricity to flow through it
valence electron
an electron in the outermost energy level of an atom; control chemical bonding of that atom
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
Organic molecules
Contain more than one C atom in covalent bonds. eg Protiens, fats, waxes, sugars
polyatomic ion
a charged ion containing more than one atom
Why do METALLIC crystals conduct electricity?
Because they have free delocalised electrons to carry the electric current.
Why is the bond angle in BCl₃120°?
BCl₃does not obey the octet rule.Only 3 areas of negative charge around the central atom, all bonding. Bond angle 120° because electron clouds spread as far apart as possible to minimise repulsion.
Silver
Ag+
Sulphurous acid
H2SO3
Tin (II)
Sn2+
Sulphate
SO4 2-
Copper (I)
Cu+
Hydrochloric acid
HCl
Hydrogen cyanide
HCN
Groups
Vertical coloums on periodic table
ionic bonding
elements form compounds by transferring electrons through electrostatic forces
hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon
Neutrons
Subatomic particle with no charge and mass of 1 AMU
Inorganic substance
substance which are not organic molecules
binary compound
chemical compound composed of only two elements
Shape of the molecule with 3 bonding electron pairs around the central atom and one non-bonding pair is called...
Trigonal Pyramid.
Compound
Substance made of 2 or more type of atom. Eg Water H20, Sodium Chloride NaCl.
Will Diamond conduct electricity?
No, because all 4 valence electrons form strong covalent bonds, so there are no free electrons.
Noble gases
Far right of periodic table. Do not do chemcial reactions
What is the name of the shape given to BCl₃?
Trigonal Planar.
Will polar molecules dissolve in water?
Yes, because water is a polar substance, like dissolves like.
/ 72
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online