Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Flashcards

Terms Definitions
neutron
an uncharged particle
What is the negatively charged particle found in a cloud around the nucleus of an atom?
Electron
anything that has mass and volume
matter
electrons
negatively charged particles that move around outside the nucleus
protons, neutrons and electrons; parts of an atom
subatomic particles
What is the horizontal row of elements called that share the same number of electron rings?
Periods
Elements on the periodic table to the left of the zig zag line; have luster, are malleable, are ductile, solids, good conductors of heat and electricity.
Metals
What is the neutral or no charge subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom?
Neutron
Elements found in group 18 of the periodic table; unreactive with other elements due to the fact that the valence electron rings are full.
Noble gas
What is the name for the electrons found on the outermost shell or electron ring of an atom?
valence electrons
atomic mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
What is the name given to a set of elements that share the same number of valence electrons, and react similarly?
Groups
What is the name given to an atom that has more or fewer neutrons than normal?
Isotope
What is the name of the number on an element key that tells you the number of protons for that element?
atomic number
horizontal rows
periods
man-made isotopes (#)
1000+
proton
positively charged particle that exists in the nucleus of atom
1799 Law of Definite Proportions
Proust
insulator
does not conduct heat very well
Radioactivity
the spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom with the emission of particles and/or radient energy
Non-Metal
an element characterized by the ABSENCE of properties of luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity; brittle in solid-state; non-ductile
Periods
horizontal rows of elements, elements in these are in different groups with different properties
Thomson
Watched deflection of charges in a cathode ray tube and put forth idea that atoms are composed of positive and negative charges (blueberry muffin - negative charges sprinkled in positive blob)
metallurgy
process of mining and refining metals from ores
Niels Bohr
proposed an atomic model that represented our solar system
Electron Cloud
Location of electrons. Surround the nucleus at various energy levels.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.
atomic mass
the caluclated average mass. It depends on the percentage abundance and masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element
1916 reported the values of the charge and mass of the electrons
Millikan
Nonmetals
elements on right side of periodic table, elements that usually have five or more electrons in outer energy level
halogens
A group in the periodic table known for having 7 valence electrons
reactive nonmetallic elements
The Aufbau Principle
When building up the electron confuguration of an atom, electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells and shells in order of increasing energy.
chemical bond
an interaction that hold two atoms together
isotope
atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
spectrum
energy that can be detected as bands of light
what is the name of group 1?
alkali metals
what is the name of group 13?
Boron Family
Isotopes
Various forms of a given element that have more or less neutrons, giving a different mass number.
group
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
Mass Number
Total count of the neutrons and protons in an atom
Found on the left-hand side of the periodic table. An element that is shiny, ductile, malleable, and a good conductor.
Metal
Bohr Model
The use of quantum theory to predict that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific fixed radii
energy diagram
shows how energy is either lost or gained during a chemical reaction
The f-block
removed and placed below the rest of the table.
Dalton's atomic theory
the first theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level.
Daltons Atomic Theory
The first theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level.
Electron Orbitals
a region of space within an electron subshell where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found
Law of Definite Proportions
(Joseph Proust) proportions by mass of the elements in a given compound is always the same [e.g. water 1:8]
Dalton's Elements
First to say there were many kinds of atoms, which he called elements.
Atoms are never created or destroyed in an experiment.
as you move from left to right of the metals, does the reactivity increase, decrease, or stay the same?
decreases
transition element
an element located in the d area of the periodic table
The average mass of one atom of an element.
Atomic mass
where are valence electrons found?
In the last shell of an atom
Are cations larger than atoms?
No, when electrons are removed from an atom to form a cation, the outer shell is lost, making the cation smaller than the atom
Amount of Electrons each energy level can hold
1st- 2, 2nd- 8, 3rd- 18
Each box of periodic table represents & contains:
Represents an element, in center- name and symbol, below name- atomic mass (listed as average of masses of isotopes), above name- atomic #
where are actinides on the table?
the lower row of the bottom two robs by the main table
1st energy level
2e⁻
protons
Positively charged subatomic particles.
crystal lattice
repeating three dimensional pattern
Nucleus
small, positively charged, central part of atom; contains protons and neutrons; most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus; 1/100,000 the diameter of the atom
Dalton
Compounds always contain the same ratios of elements, atoms are never created or destroyed in chemical reactions
Neutrons
Subatomic particles with no charge, but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton.
Atom
smallest particle of any element, that has the properties of that element and has no charge (neutral)
transition metals
All metals located in groups 3-12
Malleable
ductile
conductors of heat and electricity
Nonmetal
Elements that usually are gases or brittle solids at room temperature; most do not conduct heat or electricity well.
Atomic Weight
(atomic weight) is the WEIGHTED AVERAGE of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
Metal
an element that HAS the characteristic properties of luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and malleability; ductile
electron cloud
outer region containin 7 energy levels
Quarks
very small particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons, currently six different types known
Atomic Number
# of protons in an atom
Shell (n)
The principal quantum number of an electron (determines its average distance from the nucleus as well as its energy)
catalyst
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up
Mass Number
indicates the total number of protons and neutrons. Measured in atomic mass units (amu)
Metalloids
Most of the elements that border the line that divides the metals from the nonmetals. These have properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals.
Noble Gas
elements of group 18 in this family
The center of an atom, containing the protons and neutrons.
Nucleus
rate of reaction
the speed with which new particles form
what type of elements take up most of the periodic table?
metals
Periodic Law
a law that states when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar chemical properties occurs at periodic intervals
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of electrons in an atom.
Atomic number
Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions
Atoms of different elements can combine with one another in simple whole number ratios to form compounds
mass number (letter representation)
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (A)
what is the definition of ductile?
easily drawn into long thin wires
What are all elements composed of according Dalton?
tiny indivisible particles called atoms
What are the basic properties of metals?
solid at room temperature, soft, malleable, ductile, god conductors of heat and electricity.
what are the basic properties of nonmetals?
brittle, solid or gas at room temperature, nonmalleable, hard, not good conductors of heat or electricity
where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table?
to the right of the zig-zag line
J.J. THOMSON
-English Physicist
-1897-discovered electrons; negatively charged subatomic particles
-Experiments using flow of electric current through gases
Democritus
teacher, 4th century BC
Atomist school of thought
Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms
These are invisible, indestructible fundamental units of matter
In Greek, atom=unbreakable, indestructible
Is a proton neutral or positive?
positive
JOHN DALTON (1766-1844)
-British school teacher
-Studied the ratios in which elements combine in chemical reactions
-Formulated Dalton's Atomic Theory
What do most nonmetals not conduct well with?
heat and electricity
chemical symbol
the abbreviation for the name of an element
Atomic Mass Unit (amu) defined as
one-twelfth the mass of carbon-12
mass of a electron
1/2000 the mass of a hydrogen atom.
What did Moseley do?
arranged the elements based on their properties and atomic numbers instead of their atomic masses
What is equal to the number of protons?
the number of electrons in a neutral atom is equal
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