Atomic structure quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lead
Pb
Rutherford discovered..
nucleus
protons
Positively charged particles
Neutrons
Has no charge
F
To funky to describe
Tritrium
3H
radioactive
used in labelling experiments
Electron
Found outside the nucleus
shells
energy levels also called
Electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
2, 8, 10
Ca
20
Electron Configuration- ?
orbital
of or relating to an orbit
All atoms of radioactive substances decay at the same rate. (true or false)
False
Bohr
Danish physicist who studied atomic structure and radiations
halogens
group 17; contains nonmetals; 7 electrons in its outermost energy level; very reactive; poor conductors of electric current; never in its uncombined form in nature; combine with most metals to form salts
n
Each energy level is divided into sublevels, the number of which is equal to the value of BLANK.
nucleus
the positively charged dense center of an atom
Over time, radioactive material goes through ...
Radioactive decay
neutron
subatomic particle with no charge and a mass of 1 amu
Higher
The closer electrons are to the nucleus, the ______ the attraction is.
Who developed the law of conservation of mass?
Lavoisier
Period
Each horizontal row of the periodic table
atom
smallest particle of an element that keeps its identity in a chemical reaction
Protons' Properties
Carries one positive electric charge and has a relative mass of 1
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers: identical chemical properties but slightly different physical properties
Nuclear Strong Force
Force that overcomes the electromagnetic force of repulsion among the protons in atomic nuclei and binds the nucleus together.
Quantum numbers
n, L, m(L), m(s) are the four....
Electron and Proton difference
charge: proton=electron but are different charge
mass: proton>electron
cation
atom that loses one or more electrons would have + charge and is called a(n)
periodic table
an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties
Subatomic
A term that means 'smaller than an atom'.
atomic theory 3
atoms of different elements have different chemical properties and masses
atomic weight
the weighted average of all the mass numbers of an element
The _______ ___________ of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the ________ of the atom.
Mass Number, Nucleus
Atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element.
John Dalton
Discovered that all matter is made up of individual particles, which cannot be divided. Also that atoms are solid masses.
secondary structure (protein)
amino acids are bunched together like a phone cord, the helix - look up for clarification !!!!!
Electronegativity (definition)
How strongly the nucleus of an atom attracts the electrons of other atoms in a bond.
Protons And Neutrons
The Total Number Of These Two Particles Determines The Mass Number..........
law of definite proportions
the proportion by mass of elements making up a specific compound is the same in every sample of that compound
A charged object will be attracted to ___?
A neutral object
atomic mass unit
unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms or molecules
Ionization Energy (definition)
The amount of energy to remove an electron.
relative atomic mass
a mass of an atom expressed in relation to the defined standard of 12 amu (1 carbon atom)
number of atoms in sample
In elemental notation, what does the lower right symbol represent?
4 element (model)
450 BC model that said all matter was made up of a combination of 4 basic components: Earth, Water, Air, Fire
the mass of the nucleus - it is the number of the
atomic mass
how do wavelegnth and frequency relate to eachother?
they are both in an energy wave
What is the shell number, n ?
-size and energy of the orbital-the greater the n value the greater the electron's energy and avg. distance from the nucleus-can be any whole # starting with 1
Up to how many electrons can be held in the 1st energy level, 2nd, and 3rd?
The 1st energy level can hold 2 electrons, the 2nd can hold 8, and the third can hold 8
chlorine
Cl
Ion
Charge atom
proton
positively charged particle
NH3
chemical formula for ammonia
elements
cannot be broken down
has a negative charge
electron
semiconductors
material containing 4 valence electrons, used to produce solid-state devices
molecular formula
the formula of a compound
Transition Metal
Group B elements (d orbitals)
Neutron's
a subatomic particle with no charge and a charge of 1amu ; found in the nucleus of an atom.
Gold Foil Experiment
Discovered by Earnest Rutherford. Proved that atoms are mostly space, with a dense, positively chared nucleus at the center of the atom. He did this by observing that some of the particles were deflected to the sides of the foil and a very limited number bounced of the foil.
P
The total number of these determines numbers of these.
Nonmetals
bad conductors of heat and electric current
JJ Thompson
discovered the electron using a cathode ray tube; developed the "Plum Pudding" Model of the atom
Reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
Condensation
Process by which a cooling gas changes into a liquid and releases thermal energy
orbitol
a region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
element
pure substance that can not be broken down into any other substances by chemical means
Electron Cloud Model
The current model for atomic structure.
Some atoms are visible to the naked eye. (true or false)
False
energy level
the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have
carbon-14
an isotope of carbon; it contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons
bohr's atomic theory
electrons move around the in orbitals or in energy levels
nucleus altered when
nuclear reactions - fission- fussion - radio active decay
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
electron cloud
a visual model of the most likely locations for electrons in an atom
Dalton's Theory
all matter is made up of individual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided.
model
may be a diagram, a mental picture, a mathematical statement, or an object that helps explain ideas about the natural world.
Lyman Series
A set of spectral lines that appear in the UV region when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition energy levels n>1 to n=1
What type of evidence is often used to describe information of things we cannot see?
Indirect Evidence
chemical reaction
atoms do this to come to a stable state and combine
description of thomson's plum pudding model in 1897
negatively charged electrons with a positive mass
Natural Percent Abundance of the Isotopes of Chlorine
- Chlorine-35 & Chlorine -37
- Arithmetic mean of these 2 masses ((34.969 amu + 36.966 amu) / 2) = 35.968 amu
- 35.968 amu is higher than the actual value, 35.453
- To explain the difference, U need to know the natural percent abundance of the isotopes of chlorine
- Chlorine-35 - 75% of the naturally occurring chlorine atoms
- Chlorine-37 - 25%
part 4 of daltons atomic theory
compounds are formed by joining ataoms of 2 or more elements in a definite whole number ratio
6 steps to the scientific method
1. ID the problem 2. make observations 3. form a hypothesis 4. experiment 5. conclusion 6. repeat
How do you calculate an atoms number of neutrons
To calculate the atoms amount of neutrons, you subtract the protons from the atomic mass to find the neutrons
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A LINE SPECTRUM AND A CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM?
A LINE SPECTRUM CONSIST OF A SERIES OF DISCRETE LINES OF CHARACTERISTIC WAVELENGTH WHILE A CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM CONTAINS A BROAD BAND OF RADIATION CONTAINING ALL POSSIBLE WAVELENGTHS IN THE RANGE I.E THE WAVELENGTH RADIATION VARIES CONTINUOUSLY.
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