Atomic Structure Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
D Subelevel
Mass of Proton
waves per second
a negatively charged particle
Positive, found in nucleus
Has a positive charge
Subatomic Particles
protons, electrons, and neutrons
Goldstein discovered..
proton positive charge, mass=1
The joining of atomic particles
found outside of the nuclease
energy levels possible energies that electrons in an atoms
alpha particle
Fast-moving, positively charged bits of matter
English Scientist JJ Thompson believed atoms were solid masses. (true or false)
different atoms of the same element
Energy Levels are also called Energy_______
BLANK are elements that have more valence electrons and
tend to form negative ions by gaining one or more electrons.
Rutherford's Gold Foil
1. Rutheford's lead-shielded box contained radioactive polonium. As polonium decays it emits alpha particles
2. When the beam struck the gold foil most particles past through the foil as if it was not there at all.
3. However some deflected slightly but a few bounced strait back
group b elements
another name for transition metals
Isotopes of the same element have different numbers of these..
in Nickel-60 the 60 is the
mass #
any substance that cannot be separated into a simpler substance
Isotopes of the same element have different numbers of these
alpha particles
a positively charged particle emitted from certain radioactive nuclei; it consists of two protons and two neutrons and is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom
The closer electrons are to the nucleus, the...
Electron cloud
the system of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom
Electromagnetic Energy
?=hc/lamda, c is the velocity of light, lamda is wavelength of radiation.
A scientist from the time of Greece who thought that atoms were the smallest particles of matter
nucleus mass
amount in nucleus greater than or equal to 99.95%
balmer series
four wavelengths in teh visible region n>2 to n = 2
atomic number
indicates and equals the number of protons in an atom of a particular element
Light is only released in one form
electromagnetic radiation
the "big" number in front of a chemical formula that shows the number of molecules of a compound
Chemical Equation
a shorthand way to use chemical symbols and numbers to describe a chemical reaction
Covalent Bond
Attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together
electric field diagram
arrows point away from the positive charge
Valence Electrons
The electrons that are located on the outermost orbital of an atom.
what is a buffer
substance added to solution that causes solution to resist changes in pH
Quantum Concept
The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Electron Capture
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom. 0/-1 e.
Nutrons and Protons
The total number of these two particles determines numbers of these
mass, atomic
How can you find out the number of neutrons via elemental notation? By BLANK number - BLANK number.
alpha radiation
Has a 2+ charge. Symbol looks like a fish.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction
mass number
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Atomic mass unit
unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms or molecules
ground state
state of least energy of a particle or system of particles
primary structure (protein)
the string of amino acids - look up for clarification !!!!!
What is an isotope?
same atomic # but differ in mass number do to the difference in neutrons
What electrons are removed (ionized) in transition metals?
the valence s electrons are always lost first; only after these are all gone do any d electrons get ionized
What was the apparatus used in Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment?
1) α-particle source encased in metal with a small aperture - allows a fine beam of α-particles to emerge.
2) Air in apparatus was pumped out, leaving a vacuum - this is so that α-particles are not absorbed by the air.
3) Gold as the foil material - gold can be made into a very thin sheet or foil.
4) α-particles detected by a scintillating solid material - each α-particle gave a tiny flash of light, which was counted by the experimenters.
5) Detector could be moved around - so that α-particles could be detected through different angles.
What is the charge Q of an atom?
It is electrically neutral; it has the same number of electrons as it does protons.
negative charge
founded the neutron
transition metals
groups 3-12
Robert Millikan
American physicist,"Oil-Drop experiment" was able to determine the mass of the electron.
is weight ex or int?
the center of an atom
Breaking down or breaking apart.
explanation based on many observations and supported by results of many experiments
Determined that atoms have negative charges using the Cathode Ray Tube experiment, called his atomic model : The Plum Pudding Model
a positively or negatively charged atom
a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device
The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.
subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton.
measures mass of atoms and their subatomic particles
ionic bond
results from the attraction of positive and negative ions
subatomic particle
tiny particles that make up atoms
protons, neutrons, electrons
In 1981
The scanning tunneling microscope was invented. It allows us to "see" the atom's outline
periodic table
chart of elements arranged according to increasing atomic numbers
protons add mass to the atom. their mass is __ a.m.u.
Mass #
p + n; not on periodic table
Negative ion
An atom with more electrons than protons has a
energy levels
possible energies that electrons in an atom can have.
noble gases
last group on the periodic table, begins with helium
Rutherford Atomic Model
Rutherford concluded that the atom is mostly empty space. All the positive charge and almost all of the mass are concentrated in a small region called the nucleus
atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element
law of definite proportions
elements that compose compounds are always in a certain proportion by mass
An atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, giving it a positive or negative electrical charge.
Main ideas of Daltons Theories.
all elements are composed of individual, indestructible atoms
- Atoms of the same elements are identical
- Atoms of different elements differ.
- Atoms of different elements can physically mix together.
Or chemically combine to form compounds
scientific law
fact of nature that is accepted as the truth; prediction
The atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
80% of the atoms on the table are this type
Electron dot diagram
used the symbol for an element and a dot representing the number of electrons in the elements outer energy level
What are three kinds of subatomic particles?
The three kinds of subatomic particles are electrons, neutrons, and protons.
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