atomic structure vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
F Sublevel
neutrons of H
negatively charged particles
Has a positive Charge
Has a positive charge
same element, different mass
Chadwick discovered..
neutron no charge, mass=1
Confirmed the existence of neutrons
Found outside of the nucleus
a small, negatively charged subatomic particle found outside of the atomic nucleus
penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source
4 bonds, 2 lone pairs
square planar
Lord Rutherford
British physicist who conducted experiments using alpha particles and gold foil to prove his theory that atoms consist of large amounts of empty space.
speed of light formula
wavelength times frequency
mass no.
no. of protons+no. of neutrons
The fourth quantum number M(S), called the BLANK quantum number, indicates the "spin" direction of the electron in a particular orbital.
Elements that are usually gases or brittle solids at room temperature. Poor malleability and ductility. Poor luster and conductivity.
smallest particle of an element. Can't be broken down chemically.
Electron Cloud
where electrons are located, no definite edges
The man who discovered electron energy levels.
Borh (model)
1913 model similiar to Rutherford's except: when the atom receives energy from an outside source, an e-jumps from a lower energy level to a higher one. As the e-returns to a lower level, energy in the form of light is released. Hydrogen spectrum was the technology used to develop the model.
the positively charged dense center of an atom
Isotopes of the same element have different numbers of these...
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
elemental notation
When the elemental symbol of an element is combined with additional information, such as the atomic number, mass number, or charge.
Energy Level
Like electron cloud except based off the Bohr Model
Periodic table
A tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number as based on the periodic law
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group have similar chemical and physical properties
lyman series
higher energy transitions in teh UV region n > 1 to n = 1
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and different mass numbers
have a shiny or metallic luster, good conductors of heat and electricity
What type of attraction forces hold atoms together in compounds?
Electrostatic attraction
The arrow in a chemical equation that points to the product
Valence Electron
the electrons that are the farthest away from the nucleus of an atom and involved in chemical reactions
Atomic Mass
Average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of an element
Number of electrons that can go on an element's first shell
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
protons and neutrons
the total number of these particles determines the mass
what determines the function of a protein
shape of protein
Alkaline earth metals
-are the 2 most reactive
-exist only as compounds
-2 valence electron
Have a mass of about 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
a space that can be occupied by up to two electrons, which occupy a specific three-dimensional area.
Wave Model (Present day)
Atoms are composed of a positively charged, densly packed nucleus, surrounded by mostly space and some fast moving, unpredictable electrons. Also known as Electron Cloud Model.
what is an isotope
some elemnts with differnet number or eutrons
What is the atomic # ?
Z; the number of protons,
what is chemical formula carbohydrates?
(CH2O)n (The chemical formula of what majoror organic molecule?)
Weak Force
The force that is the key to the power of the sun: responsible for a process known as radioactive decay.
Electron configuration rule #3?
no 2 electrons in same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum #'s
What does quark theory account for and how?
Quark theory accounts for properties of hadrons by identifying the basic properties of quarks - baryon number B, charge Q, and strangeness S.
Why do heavy nuclei have more neutrons than protons?
The strong nuclear force has a short range and is not enough at longer distances to stop the protons from repelling each other. The neutrons help separate the protons.
neutrons protons
speed of light/wavelength
Has no charge
An uncharged atomic particle.
has a positive charge
how fast a wave travels
Atomic (Z) Number
protons in nucleus
came up w/ atom 4 b.c.
a very small piece of something
vertical columns of the periodic table
elements with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals
continuous spectrum
spectrum apparently having all wavelengths over comparatively wide range
aufbau principle
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
That which has mass and occupies space
represented by a one-, two-, or three-letter symbol
has a charge - NEED A DEFINITION!!!!!
Positron Emission
A nucleus occasionally emits a positron, a postive electron. 0/1 e.
The closer electrons are to the nucleus the (higher or lower) the attraction
ground state
(physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle
Magnetic Quantum Number
The third quantum number. Designated by ml, it describes the particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is very likely to be found. The possible values for ml are integers between -l and l, including zero.
one of the basic building blocks of nature, an atom is the smallest part
ionic compounds
Compounds that form when electrons are donated or gained.
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
the # of neutrons
mass number - atomic number
energy is absorbed
Electrons move up an energy level
Electron Configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
What is the charge of a single atom?
atomic spectra
effect of gas excited by spark producing light of particular color
Dalton's points
1.All matter is made up of atoms
2. Atoms are indestructible and cannot be divided any smaller
3. All atoms of one element are exactly alike bu are different from atoms of other elements
atomic #
number of electrons and protons in a neutral atom
Niels Bohr
solar system model of the atom (ring model)
Law of definite proportions
elements that composed the compounds that were always in a certin proportion of mass.
Average Atomic Mass
Atomic mass is more concerned with and is based on the abundance of each isotope in nature
Pauli Exclusion Principle
An orbital can hold only two electrons and they must have opposite spin.
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
factors that affect electric force
amount of charge and the distance between the charges
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
James Chadwick - 1932 - Neutrons
- Neutrons - subatomic particles with no charge, with a mass = a proton
Nucleon number or mass number
The sum of the neutrons and protons in an atom.
What is the number of electrons in an atom?
Equal to the amount of protons
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