Women in islam midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Marraige
Nkah
you-plural feminine
antunna
ritual
the act
politcal emphasis
Malcolm X
Afro American Unity
Malcolm X
most conservitive sunni sub-school
Hanbalis
revelations
previliged, unverifiable personal communication from God to prophets
Eliah Muhammad
discouraged political activity, emphasized personal self-sufficiancy
-only blacks allowed in
Ilm al- Kalam
art of argumentation
wahy
revelations- God communicates his intent to specific individuals through various modes
Muhammad Khatami
an Iranian scholar, philosopher, Shiite theologian and reformist politician. Served as the fifth President of Iran from 1997-2005. Also served as Iran’s minister of culture in the 80s and 90s. He is currently one of the leaders of the Iranian Green Movement and an outspoken critic of Ahmadinejad. He ran for President on a platform of liberalization and reform. During his two terms as president, he advocated freedom of expression, tolerance, and civil society, constructive diplomatic relations with other states inclding those in Asia and the EU, and an economic policy that supported a free market and foreign investment. He is known for his proposal of Dialogue Among Civilizations--the UN then proclaimed the year 2001 as the year of dialogue among civilizations
consistant begining to muslim books lettrs, and transcripts
Basmala
mushaf
a volume or collection of writng(qur'an)
jahiiyyah
1. refers to pre-Islamic times
2. means ignorance or not knowing
Huda Sha’rawi
Egyptian feminist, born 1879. Founded Egyptian Feminist Union, worked to educate girls, end polygamy and veiling. Represented Egypt at many international women’s conferences, was more Western-influenced in her ideas. Famously stepped off a train in Egypt and took of her veil as a declaration of women’s autonomy
Benazir Bhutto
a Pakistani born politician who chaired the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (the largest political party in Pakistan) She was Pakistan’s first and only female prime minster. Her time in office was scattered due to two instances that she was removed from office on grounds of alleged corruption. She went into self-imposed exile in Dubai in 1998. She returned to Pakistan in 2007 because she was granted amnesty and all corruption charges were withdrawn. She was assassinated on Dec 27, 2007 after a PPP rally and two weeks before the scheduled Pakistani general election of 2008 in which she was a leading opposition candidate
Aisha Abd al-Rahman
Egyptian writer, pseudonym: Bint al-Shati, position as Egyptian Ministry of Education as an Inspector for teaching of Arabic literature, wrote fiction and biographies of early Muslim women, wrote about women related to Prophet Muhammad
Mawdudi
One of the most influential and prolific contemporary Muslim thinkers. His interpretation of Islam has contributed to Islamic revivalist thought and has influenced Muslim thinkers and activists from Morocco to Indonesia. His ideas took shape mostly in South Asia. Founder of Jamaat-I Islami. In his works, he called Islam the ideal solution to all of society’s ills. he, in contrast with many other systems, did not allow one group to dominate another and called for an all-embracing order. Instrumental in regrouping the Muslim Brotherhood in the early 1960s. Imprisoned for his activities in 1965, he was sentenced to twenty-five years of hard labor but was released under Anwar el-Sadat 's presidency in 1971
Farid Esack
South African Muslim scholar, writer, and political activist known for his opposition to apartheid, his appointment by Nelson Mandela as a gender equity commissioner, and his work for inter-religious dialogue. Has defined religious pluralism as the creation of an environment in which everyone is safe and free to be human and to serve God. Arguing against a vision of pluralism that creates a value-free post-modernity, he calls instead for a more consistent application of morality that asserts the right of every human being to experience justice and to be free from oppression and conflict. His vision of religious and social pluralism embraces all marginalized groups. He assigns a special role to Muslim intellectuals in this struggle, encouraging them to set aside arguments about how to sight the moon or slaughter a cow correctly in favor of working on important issues, like fighting tribalism and racism within the Muslim community. He’s the one who coined gender jihad. This vision of pluralism is more than functional or utilitarian; it embraces the theological legitimacy of other faiths based on the Qurʿānic proclamation of the single brotherhood of all people
who can express their feelings openly?
slave girls
form of poetry wthat praised patrons and tribes, abused enemies, and described Bedouin environment
Qasfda
reanalyzing the Quran in feminist way
Apologist Framework
pre-islamic practices
1. sexual intercourse with menstruatig woman
2. stoning of person who commits illicit sexual act
3. marrying a close relative
civilized European culture is model for who?
uncivilized Arabs
ihsan
condition where a sane and mature person who is bound by a valid marriage contract, and who s able to have sex whenever he or she wants to
burka
should not be the big question of women and Islam, covers whole body with a space for eyes; used to justify United States invasion of Afghanistan b/c forced, some women see it is as a way to honor god because covering body so no one else is tempted-it should be a choice, more evil to wear it and take it off than to never wear it
Tariq Ramadan
Swiss theologian who advocates for the reinterpretation of Islamic texts. He believes in the reinterpretation of the Qur’an to understand Islamic philosophy better. He emphasizes the difference between religion and culture, which he believes are too often confused. He rejects the separation of people between dār al-islām and dār al-harb (the Islamic and non-Islamic realms), because these classifications are suspect according to the scriptures. Calls on believers to establish a new Islam in the West by engaging in local societies. He was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and was expelled from Egypt by Nasser. His grandfather is the founder of the Brotherhood
Quranic approach to critical social justice issues
realist not idealist
W Deen Mohammad
- Muslim society of America
-orthadox inerpretation of Quran encouraging acceptance of all races and genders
circular argument
democracy is good cause it promotes equality; equality is good because it promotes democracy
Ilm al-usul
term used for legal philosophy in Islam determining which legal tools apply and expaining relation between law and sources of la
Mohsen Kadivar
He is one of the strongest proponents in the Islamic world for the need of ijtihad. Argues that Shari’a must be revised to fit the modern age, women should have financial and political rights equal to men, and can become presidents or high ranking officials if people elect them. Also should have equal rights in marriage, custody and divorce. He spent 17 years studying Islamic law in a seminary in Qom. Currently teaching in the US, has been in and out of jail for his views
Siti Musdah Mulia
Indonesia, an official in the Ministry of Religion, wrote a counterpoint to Indonesia’s Islamic code arguing against child marriage, polygamy, also argued that interfaith marriage should be allowed and women should be able to initiate divorce. The Nahdatul Ulama (NU), largest Muslim organization in the world, supports her. Described as Islamic Feminist from Asia who challenges the government
Heba Kotb
a certified sex therapist and host of The Big Talk, a sexual advice show in Egypt. The first licensed sexologist in the country (from Maimonides University). She bases her methods on the teachings of the Qur’an which she says encourages strong marital life including healthy sexual relationships between husband and wife. She attended medical school at Cairo University and her inspiration to pursue a path in sexuality was based on a passage in the Qur’an discussing sexual relations between husbands and wives that she viewed as speaking to the women’s sexual rights
expectations of men and women
same expectations in Quranic discourse
to punish or harm- can be name calling to severe as killing
adhuhuma
muhsan
if both men and women who qualify are sexually satisfied whenever they desire to do a sexual act if married
4 Key A.A leaders
1. Elijah Muhammad
2. Malcolm X
3. W Deen Mohammad
4. Louis Farrakhan
circumstances to practice polygamy
man must treat all wives equally
when the prophet migrate to Medinah
he became political and religious leader
the order of first four caliphs
1. aba bakr
2. umar
3. othman
4. Ali
Changes made by W Deen Mohammad
whites could be members, Sunni belefs, female minister, relaxed dress codes
custom is source of law because...
prophet lived in community and would approve or disapprove of its practices
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