Audiology Exam - Vocab Flashcards

Conductive hearing loss
Terms Definitions
PTS
hearing loss
Loudness measured in
Sones
Temporal Bone
Fractures
otis capsule
-sensory-neuro
-skull fracture
SRT
Speech Recognition Threshold
lowest level at which speech can barely be understood- tested with spondees
Post-Auricular
Sinus
-no hearing losss
-auricle swollen, red
-gill slits
-extra whole where their is a sinus/sac
hypertonia
perform motor tasks more slowly
tympanoplasty
- aka myringoplasty
- reconstructive surgery of TM
Glomus Tumor
-conductive hearing loss
-glomer cell in the middle ear go a muck and make a tumor
What frequencies affected by pathologies that alter only mass of the middle ear?
high frequencies
Q: Your counseling avoids
A: unreasonable expectations
impairment
involves the abnormality of the auditory system (audiogram)
Low Exposure Levels of Noise
OHC's damaged
labyrinthitis
ear disorder involving irritation and swelling of inner ear
Cerumen Impaction
-no hearing loss
-conductive loss if TM is blocked by wax
-overbuild up of wax
Ratio
The mathematical result of a quantity divided by another quantity of the same kind, often expressed as a fraction
Q: Calculating prescription formulas are compared to
A: specification sheets
Reticular formation
Resides in center of brainstem
Control center for CNS. (sleep)
Communicates with virtually all areas of the brain.
Important in auditory alertness, reflexes, and habituation.
What is the physical counterpart to pitch?
frequency
intraoral attenuation
sound lose when going through head
bone cond: 0dB always test both sides b/c vibrates skill so better ear hears
air cond: 40dB thorugh head
Meniere's disease
- sudden fluctuating unilateral HL
- caused by endolymphatic hydrops
- starts in either cochlea or vestibular system, then spreads to both later
- occurs in those 30+
- causes vertigo, low frequency tinnitus, poor speech recognition, fullness in ear
Oscillation
The back & forth movement of a vibrating body.
What is "rollover"?
When SDS decrease at higher intensities. Slight rollover suggests cochlear lesion. Marked rollover suggests nerve VIII lesion.
Pascal
A unit of pressure equal to 1 N/m2
acoustic reflex
- contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius muscles in response to loud sound
- testing measures quietest sound that elicits reflex
Q: Tympanosclerosis may be described as
A: calcium deposits
Spiral Lamina
shelf of bone arising from modiolar side of the cochlea, nerve fibers tral to and from hair cells
What is ABR?
Auditory Brainstem Response Test

- a test of synchonous neural firings
- NOT a direct hearing test
intensity discrimination
from 250-8000 Hz need .5-1 dB
closer to threshold = larger JND
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
-attenuation of sound occurs within some portion of the inner ear
-air conduction vs. bone conduction

sensory=cochlea
neural=above cochlea
Rinne Tuning Fork Test
compares the patient's hearing sensitivity by bone conduction to his/her hearing sensitivity by air conduction
How much sound attenuation can earmuffs or earplugs provide?
20-40dB of sound attenuation
Free vibration
The vibration of a mass independent of any external force.
Q: When a patient has a large conductive component, it is difficult to accurately measure
A: UCL
Q: Loudness recruitment
A: Refers to abnormal loudness growth of clients with sensorineural hearing
ductus reuniens
tube connect the saccule to the scala media, carries endolymph bt vestibule and aud. mem. labyrinth
Name 4 types of Presbycusis
- remember M-MSN
- mechanical
- metabolic (strial)
- sensory
- neural
dynamic range
the range in which u can hear. adaptation
damage risk criteria
standards set by OSHA determining the amount of time one can be exposed to specific dB level before HL occurs
Middle Ear Muscle - Stapedius Muscle
facial (VII) nerve innervation
Formant
A peak of energy in the spectrum of a vowel sound
Q: A type "A" tympanogram would indicate
A: normal pressure and compliance
Q: The cochlea, acting as a frequency analyzer, distributes acoustic stimuli to places along the basilar membranes according to frequency. This forms the basis of a hypothesis called the
A: place theory
Symptoms which may suggest an auditory nervous system problem
--unilateral SN HL
--unilateral tinnitus
--vestibular problems, dizziness
--facial nerve problems (numbness, paralysis, twitching)
--asymmetric speech perception (with equal hearing abilities in each ear)
Down's Syndrome-

__% have hearing loss, usually __ due to __
75% have hearing loss, usually conductive due to impacted cerumen from small canals
What is Elasticity?
Air molecules attempt to move back to their original positions after they have been displaced.
Describe the right ipsilateral pathway.
Remember that in ipsilateral testing the stimulus and the measurement occur in the same ear. So the stimulus is presented in the right ear through the probe, it travels through the outer, middle (ME) and inner ear (IE), along the VIII nerve, to cochlear nucleus (CN). The signal then travels to the right superior olivary complex and right facial nerve (VII) nerves. It is then measured by the probe as a contraction made by the right stapedius muscle in response to the sound.
acoustic immitance meaning and types
- test battery procedure used to identify abnormalities in auditory system
- static compliance
- tympanometry
- acoustic reflex
Q: The isthmus is
A: where the canal narrows to enter the temporal bone
Layers of the Tympanic Membrane:
pars tensa: 3 layers (skin fibers, mucus membrane)

Pars flacida: 2 layers (skin and mucus membrane
What is a sound level meter
an electronic instrument that measure the intensity of sound in dB.
ART outcomes are categorized according to ____
Notice that the results are categorized according to sensation level (SL)
Describe the basis fo the delayed auditory feedback test.
Based on the principle that individuals monitor the loudness and rate of their speech by an auditory mechanism.
Q: The following are types of hearing loss
A: 1) conductive
2) central
3) sensorineural
Explain occlusion effect and how it influences testing
Occlusion effect: When ear is occluded, BC sounds appear louder than when not occluded.

This affects testing because the lack of this effect suggests a Conductive hearing loss.
List 5 things that contribute to Presybycusis
- effects of environmental noises
- loss of hair cells
- hereditary factors
- aging
- health
- side effects of meds
The lowest intensity level at which this (AR) contraction is measurable
is the Acoustic Reflex Threshold (ART).
When is masking required when testing bone conduction?
Mask the non-test ear when the air-bone gap in the test ear is > 10dB
Q: Family and friends can have a negative influence on the patient by
A: expressing frustration that the patient does not have "normal" hearing
Decribe the 2 types of Otoacoustic Emitions. When are OAEs absent?
--Transient evoked OAEs: use clicks as stimulus
--Distortion product OAEs: test 2 tones together, expet response at frequency difference (ie 4K and 1K, response at 3K)
--absent when SN HL > 25-30dB
Explain what is happening in this slide
In this scenario, you have a conductive hearing loss in the left ear. With a ME Pathology anything that goes through the left ear or is measured in the left ear can be affected, depending on the severity of the pathology. The ART may be affected for signals traveling through the left ear (L ipsi or L contra) or signals measured in the left ear (L ipsi, L contra).
Q: Which of the following describes a Phon
A: A unit of measurement when comparing the loudness of one frequency to another frequency
What is the function of the middle ear muscles?
*protects inner ear from loud sounds
Q: Changes is either stiffness or mass occur when the normal middle ear function is altered by disease or trauma causing
A: A feeling of stuffiness or a complaint of hearing in a barrel
What is the transformer ratio of the middle ear?
22:1 - the handle of the malleus is about 1.3 times longer than the long process of the incus, resulting in a lever ratio of 1.3. Multiplying the lever ratio by the area effect ratio - 17 x 1.3 = 22
Which ear should be aided in cases of marked asymmetry?
the ear with hearing in the 40-70 dB range
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