Audiology Quiz Flashcards

Conductive hearing loss
Terms Definitions
Cochlear Hypoplasia
sensory-nuero 
profound deafness
Sudden Loss
&
Hypertension
-sensory-nuero 
-one sided
-one morning can't hear
-compromise in blood flow
-may be blockage
-very few regain hearing
MAF
2 ears,
sound field
loudspeaker
shape of head, pinna effect
Accessory Auricles
-no hearing loss
-extra auricle
-genetic error
Damping
Progressive diminution in the amplitude of a vibrating body. Heavy damped=amplitude decays rapidly. Lightly damped=amplitude decays slowly. Critcally damped=all vibration ceases before completion of 1 cycle.
dichotic
different stimuli to two ears
Acute Otitis Media 
-conductive hearing loss
-eardrum bulges out
-red or yellow
-fluid pressure on TM and can burst
Bacterial Ottitis Externa
-not likely
-lots of pain
-bacterial
-Swollen walls 
-putting out exidate
Impedence
Opposition to sound wave transmission. Comprises the frictional resistance, mass and stiffness and is influence by frequency.
acoustic reflex
reflexive middle ear muscle contraction which occurs in response to high levels of sound stimulation. In humans, this is principally a stapedius reflex, while the tensor tympani contracts as part of a start reaction to very intense sounds
What is considered profoud hearing loss for children>
91+
vasospasm
- violent constriction of blood vessel
- causes vertigo, tinnitus and reduced hearing
Attic TM Perforation 
with
Cholesteatamo
-conduction hearing loss
-sac that breaks
Mel
A unit of pitch measurement. One thousand mels is the pitch of a 1000 Hz tone at 40 db SL, 2000 mels is the subjective pitch exactly double 1000 mels, and so on
intraoperative monitoring
use of AEP for monitoring electrophysiological states of patient during neurosurgery
TM job
Changes sound into mechanical energy, umbo is gathering place and approx. center of TM
What is the intensity level required to elicit the acoustic reflex?
80-90dB
volume
increases with low intensity and low freq.
osseocartilaginous juncture
union between bony and cartilaginous portions of external auditory canal
Cochlea
-snail like structure, which makes 2.5 turns, which contains the organ of hearing
-contains 3 chambers (cross section) Scala Vestibuli, Scala Media, Scala Tympani
Basal Cell Carcinoma
-no hearing loss
-cancer (most likely from sun)
Hearing Level
The number of decibels above an average normal threshold for a given signal. The hearing-level dial of an audiometer is calibrated in dB HL>
Quality
The sharpness of resonance of a sound system; the vividness or identifying characteristics of a sound; the subjective counterpart of a spectrum; timber
Q: The scala tympani is filled with
A: perilymph
Speech Threshold Testing:
Stimuli
Proceedures
Scoring
(lowest level speech can be understood)
--Spondees, 2 syllable equal stress words
--familiarize patient with words, present (voice or CD) thru earphones to obtain threshold
--threshold reached when 1/2 are correct
TM structures
cone of light, pars tensa, pars flaccida, manubrium of malleus, umbo, annular ligament
What is considered normal hearing range for children?
-10dB to 15dB
TTS-Temporary Threshold Shift
Thresholds return to normal after exposure is over
patulous ET
- aka patent ET
- chronically open ET
- causes autophony
Inertia
The tendency of an object to remain in its current motion state.

Example: Pendulum
Sine Wave/Sinusoidal
Waveform of a pure tone showing simple harmonic motion
types of speech audiometry
- speech reception threshold (SRT)
- word discrimination (WD)
Q: A radiacal mastiodectomy includes removal of
A: ossicular chain, mastoid
Speech Understanding/Word Recognition testing:
Stimuli
Proceedure
Scoring
--uses PB (phonetically balanced) word lists, 50 words
--NOT familiarized with words
--presented in Carrier Phrase (ie "say ____")
--scored in % correct
General Function ME
impedance mathing device for inner and outer ear-because sound travels more effic. through air than water.
What is frequency?
an objetive measure that is determined by the number of cycles over time.
tympanosclerosis
- formation of plaques in TM and hard connective tissue around ossicles
- occurs after OM
Explain this situation
In this situation there are no results. No acoustic reflexes were measured in the right ear or the left ear by contralateral or ipsilateral stimulation. So there are no acoustic reflex pathways that are functioning normally. This is consistent with a bilateral severe SNHL.
As you can see if you take the results and place them on the chart, it confirms that the patient has a moderate to severe SNHL.
What are two causes of type Ad tymps?
ossicular dislocation
flaccid TM
Kinetic energy
The energy of a mass that results from its motion
Q: this figure represents what type of tympanogram
A: type C
Q: Meniere's syndrome consists of
A: tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss
otitis media chronic
refers to a case which persists beyond 8 weeks or results in permanent damage to ME mechanism
What are the functions of the outer ear?
*protection
*absorbs acoustic energy
*carries acoustic energy to tymmpanic membrane
mucoid OM
variety of serous OM in which mucus is thick and gray
Describe the tone decay test.
1. continuous tone presented at or slightly above treshold
2. if perception of tone not maintained for 60 sec, add 5dB and begin anew
3. continue until patient maintains perception of tone for 1 min
Q: The first commercially available Digital Signal Processing hearing instrument
A: included a body-worn electronic processor
Q: the normal human earcanal resonance is in the approximate range of
A: 2500 - 4000 Hz
4 reasons why BOA shouldn't be used...
1) response isn't reinforced
and infant loses interest
2) non-reinforced responses improve w/ increasing age
3) BOA thresholds show much variability
4) stimulus infant interested in isn't necessarily the stimulus needed for assessment
What is decibel (dB)?
the unit of measure for intensity most commonly used, which is one-tenth of a bel.
Decibels Sensation Level (dB SL)
The number of decibels above the hearing threshold of a given subject for a given signal

decibel level used for performing certain hearing tests by the audiologist
Q: The Zeta Noice Blocker was
A: a successful early attempt at digital noise reduction technology
What is Sensory Presybycusis?
- loss of hair cells and atrophy of 8th nerve
- steep sloping high frequ loss
What does an audiogram showing conductive hearing loss show?
the air conduction results are outside the normal hearing range.
Types of Hearing Loss - Conductive
loss of sound sensitivity caused by abnormalities of the outter and/or middle ear
Q: A linear amplifier has a 1:1 relationship. This means that if you rotate the volume control on a linear aid, you change
A: the gain and the output
Audiogram Key
1. AC Unmasked
2. AC Masked
3. BC Mastoid Unmasked
4. BC Mastoid Masked
5. BC Forehead Masked
6. BC Forehead Unmasked
7. Sound Field
Right Left
1. O X
2. ∆ ☐
3. < >
4. [ ]
5. ˥ ᴦ
6. v v
7. s s
What are the descriptions of hearing loss for various thresholds?
10-20 dB - WNL
21-40 dB - mild
41-55 dB - moderate
56-70 dB - moderate to severe
71-90 dB - severe
>90 dB - profound
Q: a "0"mm (H20) pressure reading means
A: that no pressure is exerted on the TM
How do you diagnose OME?
- in otoscopy?
- impedance audiometry?
- in otoscopy, Tymp membrain is dull, no cone of light due to fluid
- impedance audiometry shows absent ear drum mobility and peak pressure
What is the Bing test? and what is a negative Bing test?
Eamines the occlusion effect. Tuning fork is placed on mastoid process while the tester alternatively opens and closes the ear canal with a finger.
Negative test means that the tone is not louder with the canal occluded and suggests a CHL.
Q: a patient with a conductive loss has
A: the same dynamic range as normal ears
What is considered a cycle of a sound wave?
defined as air molecule movement from rest to maximum displacement in one direction, back to rest, and then to maximum displacement in the other direction.

More simply, a cycle is one compression and one rarefaction of a sound wave.
Q: the quality or timbre of a sound is a property that depends on
A: the relative strength of each frequency
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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