World Geography Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rumänien
Bukarest
island
tou
Footwall
Floor beneath
Barter
New World
degrees on longitude
180
sovereignty
complete independence in self-government. complete power/rule over state.
doubling time Chapter 2
Spatial Models
seeks patters, regularities application of scientific method to study peoplequantitative
Monotheism
Belief in a single deity
Kingstown
St. Vincent & the Grenadines
culture
the total of knowledge, shared attitudes, and behaviors of the memebers of a specific group of people
Blended version of African Religious beliefs and christianity:
Voodoo.
Phytoplankton
The autotrophic component of the plankton community. Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye. When present in high enough numbers, they may appear as a green discoloration of the water due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells.
Burma
What is Yangon the capital of?
Islamch21
Primary religious system of Pakistan. Muslim and Hindi tension causes conflict on the borders of Pakistan and India
Cultural Pluralism
The cultural identity characteristic of a region where groups of people from many different backgrounds have lived together for a long time, yet have remained distinct.
What is the capital of Suriname?
Paramaribo
Subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. Often found in dry regions where farming would be difficult.
Nomadic herding/pastoralism
migration
the process or act of migrating.
Latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
Indo-European
A language family that includes many language of Europe, such as Germanic, Baltic, and Slavic languages. P322
Apartheid
The South African government policy of separation of races, which began to disappear in the 1980s. P548
Diaspora
the spatial dispertion of a previously homogenous group
Sri Lanka
What is Colombo the capital of?
polar
-tundra
-ice cap
-10% of land mass
-permanently frozen ground, seasonal thaw, vegetation but no trees
- below zero year round, snow, no vegetation 
Metropolitian Area
A City and surrounding area; functional region
metamorphic rocks
formed by igneous and sedimentary rocks by earth forces that generate heat, pressure or chemical reaction
fjords
the process of glaciation carved out long, narrow, steep-sided inlets.
Minority groups
population subgroups that are seen –or that see themselves- as somehow different from the general population
People or societies that are farmers promoting agricultural interests. These are rural areas.
Agrarian
the variety of life forms, the ecological roles they perform and the genetic diversity they contain
Biodiversity
Acid rain
precipitation caring large amounts of disolved acids which damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife
pyroclastics or tephra
fragments expelled explosively from a volcano, quite common with felsic magma
ethnic cleansing
the slaughter and/or forced removal of one ethnic group from its homes and lands by another ethnic group
Bantu migrations
2000 BC- Bantu people began moving throughout southern Africa, spreading language and culture
junta
A small group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power
dynasty
a series of rules from the same family
Alluvial Plain
A broad expense of land along riverbanks, consisting of rich, fertile soil left by floods.
Earthquake
a shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic or tectonic in origin
czar
title of the ruler of the Russian Empire; derived from the word "caesar," the title of the Roman emperors
A narrow strip of water connecting two large bodies of water
Strait
Azimuthal projection
a map projection on which compass directions are correct only from one central point
Scale
The relationship of a world map and the size of the actual Earth
volcano that is not expected to erupt again
extinct
plantation
a usually large farm or estate, esp. in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers.
Extrusive Volcanism
when magma (lava) flows out onto the Earth's surface and then cools to form igneous rock
special economic zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of a species that cam be supported by an area. P89
Fault
A crack in rock caused by stress. Can move up down or side to side.
Elbe River
a river in central Europe that flows for 720 miles from the Czech Republic through the German cities of Dresden, Magdeburg, and Hamburg to the North Sea
North Atlantic drift
massive movement of warm water to northerly lands
Arithmetic Density
the total number of people divided by the total land area.
Constitutional Monarchy
a system of government in which a monarch (king or queen) is strictly limited by a constitution and most of the government powers belong to elected officials (Great Britain, Japan)
Monsoon
not a storm but a cyclic wind system driven by continentality (land heats up and cools down more rapidly than water)…it cycles.
Inset Map
a smaller map set within the border of a larger one
coffee is ? most valuable commodity exported by developing countries after oil?who are top 10 growing countries
2nd-brazil, vietnam, columbia, indonesia, india, mexico, ethiopia, guatamala, ivory coast, and uganda
Samuel Adjai Crowther
First black bishop to be ordained by the Church of England
Break of bulk point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
The parkway famous for its beautiful scenic view.
The Blue Ridge Parkway
What are the 5 main climates/vegitation?
Tropical, Arid, Humid, Polar and Highlands
What are the 3 richest countries in Europe?
High GDP -
Switzerland
Luxembourg
Sweden
4 different ways Pyroclastic Flows can form
1.) Dome collapses 2.) Overspilling Crater Rim 3.) Direct Blast 4.) Eruption Column Collapse
What is it called when the hair cells of the maculae extend upward into a dome-shaped, gelatinous mass?
Its called the cupula
Who are the "Ecology Monks of Thailand"?
Its a formation of social movements and alliances who protect forests. They use buddhist teachings to help local people solve social problems.
what is the dif. between the mercrator and the robinson projection?
The mercrator is older, and has more polar disortion
The robinson is much newer, but still has some polar disortion
Nebraska
Lincoln
Lesotho
Maseru
Tropical Climates
hot/humid
parallels
lines of latitude
read
focus study 11.1
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acidWatson crick, franklin 1958. Double helix
ex. planes, cell phones
Diffusion
creoles
American-born descendants of Europeans in Spanish South America
Bogs
Small swamps of spongy ground
79 Rapid widespread diffusion
Contagious Diffusion
Japan
first industrialized nation in Asia and is the only one not considered a developing nation
Heavy industry
Industry that usually involves manufacturing based on metals. P362
Untouchables
Untouchability is the social practice of ostracising a minority endogamous group by regarding them as "ritually polluted" and segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate. The excluded group could be one that did not accept the norms of the excluding group and historically included foreigners, nomadic tribes, law-breakers and criminals. This exclusion was a method of punishing law-breakers and also protected against contagion from strangers.
KAFTA
2005 includes South America under "zona libra" terms
Himalayas
Mtn Range in Asia
Separates India from the Tibetan Plateau
Mesa
A broad, flat-topped elevation with one or more clifflike sides
SEGREGATION
separation of people of different races or ethnic groups in schools, housing, public facilities for purposes of discrimination
Fundamentalism (Extemism)
literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent level.
pyramid
in ancient Egypt a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb.
Mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates river
blend of European and African or Carribean Indian Languages:
Creole.
What is the most common building material used in China?
Wattle
Transnational Firms
Firms and corporation that, although they may be chartered and have headquarters in one specific country, do international business through an array of global subsidiaries.
Maldives Tourism
(2)
Big part of economy
Model of sustainable development
Antarctica
Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country.
Geography
The study of Earth's physical and cultural features
Abyssal Floor
Area of broad relatively smooth deep-ocean basins that run on both sides of the oceanic ridge.
What is the capital of India?
New Delhi
earth system science
systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on the global scale
livestock ranching
The commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.
states organized as rings of power around a central court
mandalas
Development gap
the difference between rich and poor.
river
a large stream of water that flows into another body of water
coniferous
A tree that produces cones that carry seeds
Where is the best soil?
coastal areas, river valleys
origins of domesticated plants and animals
southeast asia-citrus-bananaseast africa-coffee, cotton, okra, wheatnorth am.-blueberry, cranberry, sunflower
Continent
one of the seven largest pieces of land on earth.
Shamanism
A form of tribal religion based on belief in a hidden world of gods, ancestral spirits, and demons responsive only to a shaman or interceding priest.
What is the main Latin American sport?
Futbol soccer
erosional agents
forces such as wind, water, and glaciers which carve already existing landforms into new shapes
West Coast Marine Climate
*Mild, wet climate
*Caused by mid--latitude cyclonic storm systems
*NW Europe, N. coast of US and West Canada
*Forests
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
an official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories
environmental domestication
is the use of pesticides, soil erosion, desertification
the chemical energy made by plants to live, grow, reproduce, etc
respiration
desalination
Removal of salt water from sea water for drinking water
Where does it fail?
fails in rivers and near coastlines
In South Florida the core Hispanic center, Dade county is officially what?
Bicultural and Bilingual
Strike
The compass bearing of the trend of a rock layer as viewed in the horizontal plane.
Monroe doctrine
1823, US wrote the Monroe Doctrine to tell Europe taht US would allow no further colinization in Americas
Iron Curtain ch10
US, Britain, France, USSR are allies and met after WWI
caste system
the Aryan system of social classes in India an done of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation
Confederation
a group of states united for a common purpose
Staple Grains
-Maize, wheat, & rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of N & S Am., Africa, & livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, & rice in tropic areas.
oasis
a small fertile or green area in a desert region, usually having a spring or well.
Daylighted Bedding
Rock layers that dip at a lower angle than the slope of a hill, which is cause for mass movement due to their lack of support at their ends.
1. Symbol: A
2. Climate:
3. Soil forming regime:
4. Vegetation:
2. tropical rainy
3. laterization
4. BLE
Failed State or Collapsed State
Countries that have proven incapable of providing their citizens with either economic development or even peace and security
Enviromental Perception
A site or place is supplemented by the sounds, smells, and total impression that generates a mental map of the location.
nile river
A river in E Africa, the longest in the world, flowing N from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean. 3473 mi. 5592 km long; from the headwaters of the Kagera River, 4000 mi. 6440 km long.
What body of water does the Nile empty into?
The Meddetrranian Sea
SA #11: In plessy v. Ferguson (1896) did the Supreme Court rule that Louisiana's law of segregation was constitutional or unconstitutional? Why did it reach that conclusion? What is the famous phrase used to describe their ruling?
-Constitutional -Because people thought that whites were given a higher authority -"separate but equal"
How does deforestation aggravate the environment in Africa?
causes problems with soil erosion and shortage of biofuels
What are the 4 processes by which soil horizons are developed?
addition, transformation, depletion, translocation
What are the characteristics of Aw (tropical savanna)
distinct winter dry season and summer wet season
What kind of rock makes up the oceanic crust?
Simatic rocks or Sima (Si and Mg)
il pianeta
planet
India
In Asia
Biosphere


atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere combined
Plants and animals live within biosphere
il banco di scogli
reef
Puja
Act of showing reverence
Holocene Epoch
0.01 million years ago-current
Sweatshop
Crude factories in developing countries in which workers perform labor-intensive tasks for extremely low wages.
England's major river is the?
Thames.
What cloud is a thunderstorm?
cumulonimbus
Kettle
A shall, bowl-shaped depression formed when a large block of glacial ice breaks away and is buried underneath glacial till and then melts.
Sikhism
The tensions between Hinduism and Islam in northern and southern South Asia gave rise to a new religion. Originated in late 1400s in the Punjab, near the modern boundry between pakistand and India. The new faith combined elements of  both religions
divide
the topographic ridge that separates drainage basins
totalitariabn
controls the individual both socially & politically
ALASKA
INSIDE PASSAGE - longest, deepest fjord
-Skita- russian history and first russian church outside of russia
-Alaska raptor centre
Juneau - capital + place of Mendenhall glacier
-Glacier Bay - 16 Glaciers and NP
-Skagway - Klondike goldrush NHP
-Ketchikan
ANCHORAGE - largest city in alaska 42% pop
-hub for air and rail
-Denali NP - Mount Mckinley
FAIRBANKS - gold rush
-university of alaska
-Alutian Island - volcanic
Hydrology
Distribution, Storage and movement of water
Urban form
the physical structure and organization of cities
a body of intrusive igneous rock
pluton
Layers of the Earth
The Core, Mantel,and Crust
movement
when people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another
Absolute Location
identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates, it therefore is sometimes called mathematical location
How does the conquest theory believe language spread?
Horseback
Aid
Simple medicines costing as little as 50p are life saving and yet they cannot afford them.
Scholarly Traditions: Literacy
expedition writing, log books, diaries
Belief Systems
Beliefs relate to religion, customs, values, attitudes, ideals, and world views
_____ are located in humid coastal tropical lowlands and produce a single crop, using imported captial and seasonal labor supply?
Plantations.
irredentism
state or national policy of reclaiming lost lands or those inhabited by people of the same ethnicity in another nation-state
Action space
The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.
What year did Kosovo get its independence?
2008
Refugees
people who leave their homes because they are forced out (but not because they are officially relocated (Nazis forcing Jews into ghettoes) or enslaved.
unitary system
one central government runs the nation
longitude
Lines that run north and south but measure east and west
give three examples of indic lang
hindi, bengall, marathe,
What is the most widely spoken dialect of Chinese?
Mandarin
population density


average number of people living in an area
protestant
people or groups that pulled away from the catholic church
Lower Temperature
less water in air, dry, water condenses
The condition of the atmoshere at a given time and place is called________
weather
tension between the U.S and the Soviet Union that began after WWII
Cold War
Chain migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
243 Followers of Islam, it means one who submits to the will of God
Muslim
Affinity Segregation
-process by which people group and live with people more like themselves in terms of culture, ethnicity, or race; this is done by choice, free of outside intervention.
can exploit peripheral regions but can also be exploited by core regions
Technology Systems
pre history
human history in the period before recorded events, known mainly through archaeological discoveries, study, research, etc.; history of prehistoric humans.
map key
A chart that explains what symbols on a map mean.
Yugoslavia was home to how many major and how many minor ethnic and cultural groups?
7; 17
Projection
A representation of Earth on a map; a view of the round Earth on a flat surface.
countries that Japan has occupied
Manchua, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia
rural
found in or living in areas that are not close to cities
globe + disadv
3-D representation of the earth; can only view one half of earth at a time; not easily portable
424 The group that took control of the government of Afghanistan and assisted in the training of Al-Qaeda terrorists
Taliban
What are the speed of hurricane winds within eye wall?
74+ mph
Westerly Winds
Wind that comes form the west, cold wind from the direction of the sea.
In the European emigration Spain and Portugal went where?
Middle and South America
What does navigable mean?
Something is able to be used for shipping
is a more refined and thus more satisfactory statement than the crude birth rate for showing the rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females, the only segment of population bearing children.
total fertility rate
social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good.
Tragedy of the Commons
Indigo
A plant used to make a deep blue dye. P202
31. Why is Canada's culture called a "mosaic"?
because the are culturally diverse
the pathways that energy may take from plants through various trophic levels
food webs (food chains)
The scientific community has conclusive evidence to agree that Genetically Modified Foods are
As safe for human consumption as crops grown by conventional or organic agriculture
In 1974 what happened that the Amharic rulers still controlled Muslim Eritreans in the North, Muslim Somailis in the East, and an arc-shaped region to the West and South?
The last of Ethiopea's emperors fell
What major rivers run through the European lowland?
the Rhine, the Loire, the Thames and the Elbe
birthrate
Cartographer
map maker
St. George's
Grenada
Kleptocracies
Government by theft
Examples of Geographical scissors
physical/humanlocal/globalregional/topicalidiographic/nomotheticquantitative/qualitativeconcrete images/ abstract theories
Inselbergs
resistant knobs of bedrock
Agglomerationsvorteile
Vorteile von Ballungsgebieten durch vielfältige Verflechtungen
Latin America Top 3 Earners
Mexico
Brazil
Argentina
Landscape
A product of human action
Hinduism
the dominant religion of India
weathering
the gradual physical and chemical brewkdown of rocks on the eath's surface
Forty-eight states in the United States are joined together inside a common boundary. These states are said to be ________.
contiguous
sandstorm
winds that blow across the dessert
Transylvania
a large tableland region of northwestern Romania, separated from the rest of the country by the Carpathian Mountains and the Transylvanian Alps. Part of Hungary until it became a principality of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, it was returned to Hungary at the end of the 17th century and was incorporated into Romania in 1918
Amphiboles
Double chains, common in igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks
What is the capital of Pakistan?
Islamabad
Define: Animism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic priciples of a religion.
Seven Continents
Asia, Africa, Antartica, Australia, North American, South America, Europe
polders
areas in the Netherlands drained of sea water & now used for farmland
Population Geography.....(Geodemograph)
Explains the significance of spatial differences in number of people, their standard of living and social conditions.
settlement pattern
the arrangement of farms and farmhouses in a region
Speciation
The evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. There are four geographic modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are geographically isolated from one another: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric. Speciation may also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry or laboratory experiments.
what is the newest country?
_____total countries
_____has the most countries
...they have___countries
____&____come in next with over____countries
montenegro
195
africa
55
asia & europe // 40
thermohaline circulation
surface winds, oceanic temp and salinity gradients with corilois forceeaporation leaves salt therfore more dense versus fresh h20
Nationalism
Feelings of loyalty and pride toward one's nation or ethnic group. Nationalism sometimes includes the beleif that one's nation or group is better than all others.
estimates of future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data.
population projections
Another term for a country, farming region
RURAL
DEBT-FOR-NATURE SWAP
an agreement between an organization, typically a nongovernmental organization (NGO), and a developing country that has forest resources
Heartland Theory
a geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder,that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world.
another name for a compressional fault
Reverse fault
communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
nation
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
define Economic Model
Simplified representations of the real world that are used to explain how the economy works
What is it called when movement turns into permanent settlement?
Migratory
the predecessor of Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit was?
proto-indo european
landlocked states
no access to ocean, no seaports (sweden, paraguay). "geographically disadvantaged states" named by United Nations.
major world religions
monotheism- belief in 1 godpolytheism- belief in many godsanimism- god being in everything, inanimate objects and animalssecularism- not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in monastic or other order
Hamburg
a port in northern Germany, on the Elbe River; by Charlemagne in the 9th century, it is now the largest port in Germany
What major crop is grown between the Sahel and savanna regions?
millet
Hurricane warning
expected it will make landfall within 24 hours
Resource
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
liquid that freezes on contact with solid objects/surfaces
freezing rain
Sahel
a narrow band of dry grassland runing east to west on the southern edge of the Sahara, that is used for farming and herding
weather
condition of the air at certain time and place
applachian mountains
major mountain chair in the us and canada
What is the main ethnic group of the Muslims in the North?
Hausa-Fulani
Mao Zedong
the leader of Communists in China who defeated the Nationalists in 1949
arctic circle
located 66 1/2 degrees north of the equator
What was the population of the world 2000 years ago?
250 million
What is the administrative capital of Sri Lanka?
Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte
Hearth Chapter 1
the region from which innovative ideas originate
Bolivia's capitals
unusual to have two capitals. La Paz and Sucre. La Paz=highest capital in the world (12,000 ft.).
mafic (basaltic) lava
high in magnesium and iron, less than 50% sillica thus less viscous which means it flows readily, and thus less gas is trapped within leading to a less explosive reaction
Which areas have the most net migration in?
North America, Europe, Oceana
How many time zones are there?
there are 24 time zones
any inlet of the ocean or part of the ocean bordering on land and partly surrounded by land
BAY
What are the major plates?
Pacific, N American, S. American, Eurasian, African, Australian, Indian, Antarctic, Nazca
Mont Pelee, Martinique, 1902
- Pelee means bald or peeled because volcanism destroyed all plant life during eruptions in 1792. - Crater on top of volcano filled with viscous magma and kept plugging the crater. - Tiny gas bubbles exploded and pyroclastic flows blew gases and flowing volcanic fragments into the air. Energy sources were: initial blast, gravity, and gas continuing to escape from the pieces of airborn magma.
What is relative location?
It is how cities react and interact with each other.
When was the United Nations formed?
After the end of World War II
How a hurricane dies
there is no more warm water and the hurricane heals over land
Why is China embarking on a series of large dam projects and what are the costs and benefits of these?essay
Flood control, hydro-power, and irrigation benefits the dam projects, and decreasing water flow to downstream people is a negative effect
What is a megalopolis? What are 2 examples?
A megalopolis is the growing together of two or more large cities. BosWash (Boston/Washington)ChiPits (Chicago/Pittsburgh)
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Definition:
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