French statesman (1560-1641)
make an action easier
provincial councils Alexander created in 1864
Whigs became increasingly liberal.
Liberal Party in England (1850s)
John Stuart Mill
|The Spanish Armada is defeated||
Members of the Prussian landed artistocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
restructuring, with respect to the economy and decentralizing of government
families consisting of the married couple and their children
|jan de witt||
ruler during peace time
father of modern conservatism. noted for his emphasis on tradition
Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
the revival of ancient and medieval documents; it emphasized on human beings, their capabilities and learning "new learning"
belief that events are determined by fate
|peace of lodi||
created 40 years of peace
|Women of late 1800's||
generally remained economically dependent and legally inferior no matter their social class. Divorce remained difficult, especially for the women.
hungarian king. upon death, hungary fell.
A humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick or satire
Clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice at the same time
|Ferdinand and Isabella||
Spanish rulers brought on the reconquista, persecuting Muslims, Jews and New Christians. Their daughter, Catherine of Aragon married Henry VII's song Arthur.
term used to refer what support william ii and chancellor theobald von bethmannhollweg promised germany for support on an attack
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Divided France into 32 districts and after 1634- each had a royal intendant that held a commission to perform certain tasks transmitted info from local communities to Paris and delivered orders from capital to these districts.
|2 types of Allergic Reaction||
INNATE-reaction immediately upon contact with intolerable substanceACQUIRED- delayed reaction, several hours or days later
|Joseph II of Austria||
Truly enlightened monarch who granted religious toleration and ended serfdom
|House of Lords||
Part of parliment that advised the king and was made up of nobles
|louis XIV of france||
He ruled through absolutism and believed in divine right. He was the "Sun King" because he reigned from 1643-1715, the longest in European history. He restored the Palace of Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes because he did like division within his realm. He carried out the expansionist policy to the full extent. He was at war 33 of his 54-year personal rule. Believed in absolute monarchy. He ruled absolutely. (536)
|Tennis Court Oath||
June 20, 1789, an oath sworn by memebrs of the Third Estate who had just formed the National Assembly and were locked out of the meeting of the Estate's General. Meeting at a nearby tennis court, these members of the Third Estate pledged to remain together until they had drafted and passed a new constitution.
|Cuius regio eius religio||
a Latin phrase translated as "Whose realm, his religion", meaning the religion of the ruler dictated the religion of the ruled The rulers of the German-speaking states and Charles V (HRE) agreed to the principle in the Peace of Augsburg
|HRE after 1648||
The area had been ruined by the religious divisions produced by the Protestant Reformation, with splinter groups demanding special safeguards. Large areas had
suffered in the Thirty Years' War, with vast losses in capital and savings, and a small, static burgher class. Lacking large-scale organization they could not carry on overseas colonization or trade, and internally their commerce was stifled by varying laws, tariffs, tolls and coinage. Culture was at a low ebb, in spite of Leibniz and J. S. Bach. Germany was composed of 300 sovereign states. Each minor state was a petty absolutism, with a court and an army--a vast array of mini-Sun Kings. Ambitious states used the politics of marriage to increase power and territory. Hohenzollerns accumulated key territories while Bavarians used the church to gain key cities; Saxons gained the thrones of England and Poland.
|William III and Mary II||
Joint rulers of England under the strict limitations of the English Bill of Rights!!
|Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?||
RUINS OF ANCIENT ROME: Throughout Italy their were ruins of ancient Rome like art and architecture. The ruins remind Romans about their glorious past.
CITY-STATES: At this time Italy was made up of many states and wasn't a single country some of the most important were Florence, Milan, Venice and Genoa. These states competed in who had the best art and buildings.
WEALTH OF ITALIAN CITIES: During the middle ages, Italy was the centre of trade in Europe. Merchants brought silk and spices from Aisa and they became rich. Ideas and knowledge came with them. They used the knowledge to become patrons of the art.
FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE:Constaninople (now Istanbul) was the capital of the eastern Roman empire. Scholars in this city kept learning of Greece and Rome alive. Scholars came to Italy and Italians went to Constantinople to learn from their manuscripts. Ottoman Turks threatened their city for many years before capturing it in 1453. Before it was captured, many scholars went to Italy and took their manuscripts with them.
INVENTION OF THE PRINTING-PRESS: Copying manuscripts was slow and expensive. In the fifteenth century was invented. Now the learning of Greece and Rome could spread more rapidly through Europe.
|what kind of rulers did the princes ususalyl choose?||
weak rulers who wouldnt sstand int he way of their own political ambitions