world war 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
U-boat
German submarines (Unterseeboot)
Treaty of Versailles
Final peace settlement
illiterate
unable to read or write
militarism
control or rule by military class
ISOLATIONISM
Policy of avoiding involvement in other nations affairs
pacifist
People who are apposed to violence.
Neutrality
Policy of not taking place in war
neural
not favoring either side in quarrel, contest or war
Armistice
A temporary peace agreament to end fighting
TRIPLE ENTENTE
Military alliance formed by Britain, France and Russia in 1907
propaganda
spreading of beliefs or ideas that help a cause or hurt an opposing cause
U-Boats
a fleet of powerful submarines that the German's used to enforce the blockade around Britain.
War Industries Board
Used to oversee production and distribution of goods manufactured by the nation's war industries. Created by Wilson
Balance of power
The distribution of power among nations so that no single nation can dominate or interfere with another
SUSSEX PLEDGE
Promise made by the German leaders during WWI not to sink merchant vessels with warning.
draft
a law requiring people of a certain age to serve in the military
security council
the permanent peace keeping organ of the united nations
National War Labor Board
Used to settle disputes between workers and management and prevent strikes. Created by Wilson
FRANZ FERDINAND
The Guy that got shot that started WW
Stalemate
a deadlock in which either side is not strong enough to defeat the other.
appeasement
the act of giving in to an aggressor to preserve peace
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT
Law that required men to between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft into the armed forces.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a treaty signed by Germany and Russia that ended Russia's participation in the war. Even though this treaty was harsh and forced Russia to give up a vast majority of land, they were happy to finally have peace.
Battle of Belleau Wood
battle in June of 1918, near Paris, where the French and U.S. Marines fought the Germans; first major battle for U.S. troops, after a 3 week battle the Marines held Belleau Wood
Espionage Act of 1917/Sedition Act of 1918
Provided severe penalties for aiding enemy, refusing military duty, or speaking disloyally about U.S. government, Constitution, or flag
factors that made America go to war.
Zimmerman telegram sent to mexico that said If mexico went to war with theU.S. that after the war they would help take back Arizonia, Texas and New Mexico.
What was the purpose of the US Food administration?
To get people to eat more perishable items and donate things like sugar to the soldiers.
Dirigible
blimp
Petain
ruled Vichy France
Bolsheviks
another term for Communists
Tojo
Military leader of Japan
Nationalism
Pride in one's country
father of the turks
kemal ataturk
Prussia
largest of German speaking states
conscientious objector
morally opposed to warfare
Petrograd
formerly St. Petersburg, working class women led a series of strikes here
Lawerence
Assisted the Arabs fighting the Turks
allies
united kingdom, united states, soviet union
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Propaganda
K.M
Ideas or information designed and spread to influence opinion
52. Another country newly created according to the Treaty of Versailles..
Yugoslavia
Irreconcilables
Republican Congressmen that would not accept the Treaty of Versailles or the League of Nations in any form
Woodrow Wilson
(wil'sen), A.D. 1856-1924 28th President of the United States during World War I; he helped establish the League of Nations.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
The Spark x3
June 28, 1914
Assassination of Austrian
Archduke, Franz Ferdinand,
Assassination attributed to Black Hand
The Triple Alliance
Germany+ Austria-Hungary+ Italy= to keep Italy from siding with Russia
Fourteen Points
President Wilson outlined this plan for a permanent peace in the wake of the First World War. His dream was to implement a permanent "peace without victory." Wilson's proposed terms included: open diplomacy; freedom of the seas; removal of trade barriers; international disarmament; adjustment of colonial claims; European territorial adjustments; and a general association of nations (which was to become the League of Nations). Although Wilson noticeable did not punish Germany, he was obliged to compromise on many of the points. The Germans, having agreed to the armistice largely on the basis of the Wilson's plan, felt betrayed by subsequent decisions imposed upon them by the Treaty of Versailles.
Trench Warfare
Burrowed from swiss frontier to english channel, forced to share food with rats and share there beds with lice. The mud in the trenches caused Trench Foot forcing your foot to be amputated. Soliders hid in them till time to to go "over the top" into no mans land.
T/F Representatives fron Czech at the Munich Conference agreed to allow Hitler to take the Sudetenland
False
balkan peninsula
a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range
sabotage
secret action by enemy agents or sympathizers to damage a nation's war effort
mobilization sm
the gathering of resources in preperation of a war
ultimatum
command given by Austria to Serbia; let us in or we will attack
Russian Revoltuion
The whole family was murdered, Anastasia was one of the family members.
Constitutionalists
armed factions that opposed Huerta in Mexico; bought US arms
Austria-Hungary
Declared war on Serbia on July 28,1914.
What country did Germany form an alliance with?
Austria- Hungary
Convoy System
Used to transport troops safely across the Atlantic
Rationing
People could only buy small amounts of those items also needed for the war effort
US ENTERS WWI
after British and French passenger ships sunk by German subs, then merchant ships sunk
Zimmerman telegram
a telegram fron the German secretary to a German minister in Mexico telling him to urge Mexico to attach the US if the US declared war on Germany, and Germany woud help Mexico win back its lost land in the states
Passchendaele
A dismal battle which lasted for 3 months, late in 1917. Brits were major fighting force. Advanced only 5 miles near Ypres at cost of 1/2 million men. Also used tanks more intensively in this battle - some 380 in operation.
ethnic group
a minority that speaks a different language or follows different customs than the majouity of people in a country
self determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
June 28, 1914
the day arch Duke was assassinated
allied powers
the nations of great britain, france, russia, US, italy, and japan
Food Administration
led by Herbert hoover, imposed price controls on agricultural commodities, created through Food and Fuel Act
Gas
A weapon that the germans itroduced in 1915.
Wilson declaring war
* Germany resumed unlimited submarine warfare, the sinking of all ships carrying munitions to Britain (including passenger ships), in 1917
* The Zimmerman telegram, an intercepted message from Germany to Mexico promising German support of a Mexican attack on the southern United States, was published.
US financing of war
selling Liberty Bonds, raising taxes, and getting large donations from patriotic citizens
Kaiser Wilhelm
Leader of Germany durng World War I who dismissed Otto von Bismarck
What Woodrow Wilson wanted at the Paris Peace Conference
his 14 points
Alexander Kerensky
took control of nation, tried to keep Russia in war while implementing democratic reforms
Zimmerman Note
A telegram sent to a German official in Mexico prior to U.S. entrance into WWI; proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.
otto von bismark
german chancellor, led his nation to victory over france in the franco prussian war in 1870. the war that earned germany some french territory, and increased tensiona between the two nations
What are victory gardens?
Government asked Americans to grow their own food and stop buying from stores, so they could send the food to troops.
Treaty of Versaillies
A peace treaty following wwl. Made Germany pay war reparations and made them the Weimar republic. Found germany to blame and made them get rid of the marines, reduce army, almost eliminate navy.
Bataan death march
no one knows just how many deaths However , historians estimate that between 400 and 1000
Trench rats did what?
ate corpses and food scraps, ate injured men if they couldn't defend themselves.
causes of political tension in Europe
nationalism, militarism, the triple alliance, the triple entente
Russian Revolution of 1905
In order to appease people Nicolas retained control over the executive branch and extensive legislative branch
wilfred owen and sigfried sassoon
viewed war negatively, wrote poems about it.
general alfred von schlieffen
He created the Schlieffen plan--a two front war with France and Russia. He was a German general.
no man's land
name given to the area between the two front lines, which neither side controlled
What was the German U-Boat Response?
The fighting strategy Germany made against the blockade that the British made in the ocea.
what was the Schlieffen plan?
german troops were to quickly defeat france in thr west and then head east to fight russia.
Lusitania and its significance
a ship that was sunk by Germany and contained 118 brought U.S into the war
allied and central powers
as the war began what did the name of the alliances change to?
Why were the American and Filipino forces unable to effectively defeat the Philippines?
the Japanese had destroyed most of the planes that could defend the island nation
What happened for the first time in history after the war?
Allied judges tried the Nazis for war cimes and sentenced them to death by hanging
Italy
Benito Mussolini
Fascism
Albert Speer
...
Luftwaffe
the German airforce
What French General?
Joffre
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
frank knox
sec of navy
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Blitzkrieg
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack.
Britain air force
Royal Air Force
police state
With Stalin's industrial transformation of the USSR, it became a _________ ______ and people lost rights.
Where was Mussolini attacking
Northern Africa
Charter
a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights
Big Three
Stalin, Churchill, and FDR
Ethiopia
African nation invaded by fascist Italy in 1935
Genocide
deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Gestapo
Hitler's secret police to eliminate his opponents
McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Dawes Plan
International committee headed by American banker Charles Dawes which provided for a two hundred million dollar loan from American banks to stabilize German currency and strengthen its economy; also set a more realistic schedule for Germany's reparation payments; helped slow inflation
Postdom Conference
(1945) Allied leaders Truman,Stalin, and Churchil met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the japense they would face total destruction
V-J day
September 2, 1945; Japan surrenders
Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)
Anti-Semitism
Hostility or prejudice against Jews; Nazis combined religious hostility with modern and false beliefs that Jews were a separate race
Totalitarian State
A government that subordinates the individual to the state and strictly controls all aspects of life by coercive measures
What expansion occurred while Hitler was in power?
militaristic expansion
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
stalin
first leader of Soviet Union who focused on creating a model communist state at the cost of the rights of his people. he restructured the Russia agriculturally and industrially.
convoy
the act of escorting while in transit
atlantic charter
august 1941--meeting between FDR and winston churchill; agree to a post-war world of democracy
churchill
the british prime minister during most of world war 2
Demagogue
a leader who appeals to citizens' emotions to obtain power
Lebensraum
A political idea of Adolf Hitler, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of German population. Area needed for the survival of a country or trade. Area free of jews and for Aryans.
Totalitarian
characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
December 7 1941
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor on...
Battle of Okinawa
bloodiest battle of the Pacific
Communist Party
a political party that actively advocates a communist form of government
Reparations
The payments Germany was forced to make, intended to cover damage or injury during World War I.
PT 109
PT boat last commanded by then-Lieutenant, junior grade (LTJG) John F. Kennedy in the Pacific Theater during World War II; Kennedy's actions to save his surviving crew after the sinking of the PT-109 made him a war hero, which proved helpful in his political career
Joseph Stalin
Dictator of Soviet Union; Created iron curtain during Cold War
Holocaust
A mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during World War II.
United Nations
replaced League of Nations and is situated in New York
Concentration camp
prision in which the Nazis enslaved and murdered millions of Jews and other groups during World War II
Office Of Price Administration
A limit on price increases
Japanese American Citizens League
protected Japanese Americans' civil rights, worked for decades to receive government compensation for property lost by Japanese Americans interned in camps during World War II.
When did America enter the war?
December 11, 1941
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
A. Philip Randolph
African American who helped end discrimination in hiring for gov't jobs
Mao Zedone
leader of Communist long march in china
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)
D-Day
(Day of Days) June 6, 1944; Allied forces landed in Normandy, France to begin a massive offensive against the Germans in the occupied territory of Europe.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Leon Trotsky
Lead the Bolsheviks of Russian along side Lenin. He was an independent racial Marxist, who brilliantly executed the Bolshevik seizure of power by convincing the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him its leader. His soldiers joined with the Bolsheviks to overtake members of the provisional government and win the vote of the Congress of soviets.
Sanction
action by a state or states calculated to force another state to comply with its obligations.
Nuremberg
site of court proceedings after WW II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970). he went on to organ ize the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until Frnace was liberated in 1944.
Josef Stalin
Which leader decided to cooperate with Germany in order to buy his country?
Marshall Plan
the program in which the U.S. supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII.
Bernard Montgomery
A British General in North Africa who made German General Erwin Rommel retreat after the Battle of El Alamein.
Women Impact
Took on the roles of industrial roles and jobs
250,000 pilots, nurses
Harry S. Truman
New President after Roosevelt died. He had to decide whether the U.S. should use its new fearsome weapon, the atomic bomb.
Nuremburg Trials
Nazi leaders tried for war crimes in 1945-46- 12 executed
rosie the riveter
national park from 1940, support for entering world war 2
Election of 1948
Truman - Democrat vs. Dewey - Republican. Truman won even though people thought that his integration policies would cause him to lose
liberty ships
cargo ships used by the us because they were easy to assemble at relatively quick speeds
Nuremburg Laws
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood
Iwo Jima
One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
Cash and Cassy
The U.S. and its allies
To accomplish this we set up a ---- and ------ program for Great Britain.
Dunkirk
a city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire
Operation Overlord
The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast
War Attrition
War strategy that drags the war out to see who will run out of soldiers and supplies first
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Leader of the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, NM.
Operation Overload
the code name of the attack that they planned against Germany were they surround them so they have no chance of winning. They used blown up tanks as a distraction.
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Rape of Manking
6 week period in which Manking, China where soliders were mudered, raped, looted, and burned.
Operation Sea Lion
this is the plan of attack against Britain
Field marshal Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox" and German officer in north africa
The Final Solution
The Nazi cover-up name for the plan to annihilate all of the Jews
Japan bombed us on December 7, 1941
brought the US to war
World War II
1939 - 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
What was the Munich Pact?
In the Munich Pact, France and Britain let Germany occupy Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia. Hitler said, in return, he would seek no further territory.
why did japan bomb pearl harbor
bc us stopped trading with japan and they needed supplies
battle of the coral sea and midway
the battle of the ______was a naval battle fought by the us and australia against japan int he _______ in early may 1942. while it was a tactical victory for japan by number of ships sunk, it was a strategic victory for the allies since japanese expansion was halted and turned back for the first time. it also saw two japanese carriers sustain damage to hold them out of the battle of ____ a month later, proving costly as the us forces were able to destroy the japanese invasion forces
maginot line
french-german border
Gandhi
Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of civil disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India in 1947
conscription
a military draft; most western countries had established this as a regular practice before 1914
Doughboys
nickname for American troops in Europe
Auschwitz
Biggest Camp - concentration and extermination
Patton
American general and tank commander- helped Allied with victory
Petrograd Soviet
Shared power with the Provisional Government; Led by Lenin, the Petrograd Soviet was a counter-goverment that was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers and socialists intellectuals (the revolutionaries) and issued lots of radical orders
Propoganda
Information given to show something or someone in a biased way
Aaron Burr
kills Alexander Hamilton / Jefferson's vice pres.
vittorio orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Sun Yat-sen
organizer of the nationalist party in china
Who made up the Triple Entente?
France, Russia, Britain
Western Front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
William Durant
"Most of history is guessing, the rest is prejudice."
Suggests, like Plato, that our perception of history is colored by human perception.
treay of ghent
peace pact in Belgum signed on christmas eve in 1814
9th Step to War
Italy, claiming their allies were the aggressors, declares its neutrality
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
CAUSE OF WORLD WAR 1 Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State. Replaced by Robert Lansing who DID write 2nd note, and Germans pledged not to use USWarfare, civilians would be allowed to evacuate.
kaiser wilhem II
Was the ruler of Germany, one of the main causes for WWI
When was the Defence Of the Realm Act set up?
8th August 1914
The Germans attacked at Verdun, so allies counter- attacked at somme to bring the pressure off verdun
Why did the Battle of Somme begin?
Briefly describe the main events on the Eastern Front at the beginning of the war.
The war in the east was a more mobile war than that in the west.
- At beginning of the war, Russian forces launched an attack into both Austria and Germany. Soon Germany counterattacked.
During the four day battle, the Germans crushed the invading Russian army and drove it into full retreat. More than 30,000 Russian soldiers were killed.
- Russian forces defeated the Austrians twice, driving deep into their country.
However, Austria defeated the russians in December and eventually pushed them out of Austria-Hungry.
= BATTLE OF TANNENBERG
- By 1916, Russia's war effort was near collapse; Russian was not yet industrialized, so they were always short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, and blankets.
- However, its enormous population enabled the army to continually rebuild its ranks even when suffered a big number of losses. They managed to tie up hundreds of German troops in East. As a result, Germany could not hurl its full fighting force at the west.
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