World War I Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dissent
opposition
Armistice
a cease-fire
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots
militarism
glorification of the military
Daladier
French representative in Europe
Reparations
Payments for war damages.
allied powers
Great Britain, France, Russia
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey
Triple Alliance
Germa4.Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy: Germany's 1st alliance is with Austria-Hungary both fear the spread of liberal ideas ny, Austria Hungary, and Italy
trench warfare
fighting done in ditches
Sarajevo
City where the Archduke was assassinated
Palmer Raids
FBI investigation of possible communist conspiracy, led to the deportation of 600 immigrants
The Black Hand
Serbian nationalist organization responsible for killing Archduke Franz Ferdinand
"mobilize"
to prepare a military for war
Mobilization
K.M
Gathering resources and preparing for war
16. The ________ Front was characterized by trench warfare that kept both sides virtually the same position for over 3 years.
western
verdun
during this battle, germany attempted to "bleed france white"
appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Nationalism
Being a strong supporter of a countries rights
the spark was when? (date)
June 28, 1914
Warren G. Harding
In 1920, Republican presidential candidate promised "less government in business and more business in government" to help bring back prosperity after the recession and inflation that followed World War I. He promised to keep America out of the League of Nations and to return the country to "normalcy," or the way it used to be before the traumas of World War I, postwar inflation, labor unrest, and recession. It was precisely the right theme for the time. But prosperity was no substitute for leadership, as his incompetent, scandal-ridden administration would soon prove.
"Miracle of Dunkirk"
a retreat of allied soldiers
triple entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
socialist
a person who believes that industry should be publicly owned by the government than by private individuals
2nd Russian revolution
October, 1917, communist revolution, led by Lenin, poor want communism: fighting, dying, hungry, Russia is losing war, war is benefiting wealthy, not poor, government is out of touch with people, bad economy, losing land, hunger, 9.5 out of original 12 million causalities, 1.7 million dead
Causes of the WWI
Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism.
Zimmerman Note
US intercepted message form German Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico proposing an alliance if US gets involved, suggest Mexico take up arms against US; note became effective propoganda tool
Rats
invaded the dank and cramped trenches at night, and feasted by day on the dead that lay outside the trenches
Imperialism vs. Colonialism
Imperialism (1800-1900) - Industrial, in-land
Colonialism (1500-1700) - Coastal, Slow, less people and worse technology
What nationalities faced restrictions?
African Americans, German Americans, and Italian Americans
Submarine warfare
When the Germans announced that their submerges would sink without warning any ships in the water around england
wilhelm II
kaiser of germany, issued blank check to austria-hungary, recieved christmas letter
POISON GAS
mustard and chlorine gases killed over 1,200,000 soldiers, caused breathing problems and blindness
Bolsheviks
led by Vladimir Lenin, it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WW1
War of Attrition
Trench warfare between Germany and France. Called War of Attrition(wearing down) because the goal was to break down the enemy. There was no winner after 3 years of fighting.
General Strikes
strike by workers in many different industries at the same time
"No Man's Land"
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
balance of power
the distribution of power among nations so that no single nation can dominate or interfere with another
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
Imperialism
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
National Women's Party
Alice Paul, persued aggressive and dramatic strategy of agitation, wanted women's suffrage
Started because of
grudges (between France & Germany/ Austria & Russia)
Zimmerman Telegram
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Sedition Act
made it illegal to criticize the war (loss/compromised of freedom of speech), or to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds
Machine Guns
used as a defensive weapon; not good when they started using them but later got better; Germans used a lot
League of Nations
A group of nations working together, now known as the United Nations.
War Industries Board(WIB)
created by Wilson to oversee the production and distribution of goods made by the country's war industries
Battle of Aine
Germans stop their retreat at French Belguim Border and dig trenches to secure their positions
assassinate
v. To kill, as by surprise or secret assault, especially for money or religious belief
No Man's land
Durring this time, trench warfare was a part of war. this area layed between the trenches, a barren of mud pockmarked withshell craters and were filled with barb wire.
treaty of brest litovsk
the russian government surrender their lands to germany
Big Four
Woodrow Wilson of the US, David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy
Propaganda
The attempt to spread the idea or to influence beliefs.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
This U S president was elected 3rd term in 1940
men were usually buried where for the cause of rats?
where they died
Which city was the Franz killed? and where were the assassins from?
Sarajevo & Serbia
what four factors helped push the world to war in the early 1900s?
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, system of alliances
pacifist
one who is against war or the use of violence
what were some other countries involved?
india, australia, canada, new zealand
Paris Peace Conference
Wilson was a symbal of hope and was one strong personality who dominated at the conference. Urged peace without victory wanted 14 points to be the basis of peace.
What happend on April 2nd 1917
Woodrow Wilson states his resolution to the World War I.
why did US enter the war?
german attacks on ships containing american passengers; german/mexican alliance; britain needed our help
four parts of Wilson's 14 points:
no more secret treaties or allainces, nedd to reduce weapons or arments, self determination, redrew the boundaries of Europe based on national or ethnic group
he believed bosnia should belong to serbia
why did the nationalist serbian kill the archduke?
Who did Stalin have killed in attempt to control the Soviet Union?
millions of Soviet peasants who were resisting to give up land and rivals in the Communist party
soldiers would spend all day in the trenches fighting against the enemy, new weapon was gas used to kill fast
Describe how war was fought in the trenches.
"U-BOATS"
submaries
Liberty gardens
MacArthur
"I shall return"
Franco
Leader of Spanish fascists
Walter Rathenau
directed German Economy
Alliance System
defense agreement among nations
Balkans
Mountainous region in southeast Europe.
bosnia
a mountainous republic of south-central Europe
allies
great britain russia and france
Moltke
Persuade Kaiser that Shlieffen plan would lead Germany to victory
Propoganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Lusitania
civilian ship destroyed by German using unrestricted submarine warfare
Bolshevik
Came into power during October Revolution phase of Russian Revolution of 1917. Germany wanted to move troops from the eastern front to the wester front, so they allowed Lenin to go through Germany. February revolution only gave an interm government that supported the war even though it was very unpopular. Bolshevik knew that if he wanted power, Russia needed to exit the war. Good for Germany because it allowed them to move troops and resources to Western Front.
42. Organization established to negotiate among countries but lacked force
Hague Tribunal
russia
alliance between france and this nation guaranteed that if any members of the triple alliance mobilized, they would also mobilize
Archduke Ferdinand
young heir whose assassination triggered the war
Great Britain, France, Serbia, Russia, and US(later on)
Allied Powers
commanded 2 million american troops
John J. Pershing
george clemenceau
French Premier who wanted Germany stripped of all weapons vast German payments for costs of war, separate Rhineland to serve as buffer state France<>Germany
50. Which country became 2 separate countries after the war?
Austria-Hungary
ABC Powers
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile; mediated dispute b/t US and Huerta
World War I
Officially begun on August 4,1914
King Leopold
King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa.
Josef Stalin
dictator of the Soviet Union who turned it into a totalitarian state
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I
Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria-Hungary - heir to throne
Beaumont-Hamel
where the battle of somme took place, in France.
schenk v. united states
Upheld constitutionality of Espionage Act; Congress right to limit free speech during times of war
Stalemate
a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible
U-boat
german submarine in World War I and II
Dunkirk
city in the northwest corner of France where the allied troops were trapped by the advancing Germany Army. 800 British ships, ranging from warships to fishing boats, crossed the channel from England to rescue over 300,000 British and French troops.
Liberty Bonds
Where people bought bonds so the government could get that money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time.
Espionage ACt
key tool for the suppression of antiwar sentiment, set penalties for anyone found guilty of aiding he enemy obstructing recruitment or causing insubordination in the armed forces
New ally joins
-US enters
-due to U Boat warfare
-combines US Navy with British Navy
-sends fresh troops
Herbert Hoover
president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.
War Industries Board
oversaw the war effort, the boards controll was almost dictorial, doled out raw material, told manufacturers what to produced and fixed prices
Battle of Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Comittee on Public information
The committee's objective was to maximize national loyalty and support for the war. It was a hard-working wartime propaganda organization.
Schlieffen Plan
Germanys plan for a fast attack on France then an attack on Russia(Belgium slowed them down)
Treaty of Versailles
Germany loses more than 10% of territory; France gets back Alsace-Lorraine; districts turned over to Belguim; allies divide Germany (Polish corrider) Loses overseas colonies to England, France and Japan
ration
to give out scarce items on a limited basis
Russian Revolution
Ended the reign of the Russian Czar which we hated.
Kaiser Wilhelm
Leader of Germany durng World War I who dismissed Otto von Bismarck
Henry Lodge Cabot
a powerful Republican who accepted the idea of the League of Nations, but wanted to make a few changes of the Treaty
Three negative uses of propaganda?
German posters portrayed Germany against the world. British propaganda claimed that Germans committed acts which disrespected the bodies of their own dead soldiers. U.S posters portrayed the German soldier as a barbarian.
Chester Nimitz
commander of the U S navy in the pacific had an important, top secret advantage against the Japanses
a battle that ended Germany's hope for a quick victory on the Western Front
battle of marne
Second Battle of the Marne
both sides suffered heavy casualities, Germans losses destroyed their ability to attack againS
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany did not have to fight a two-front war because Russia dropped out of the war due to an internal Revolution
battle of somme
british attack that took place at the somme river in france. intended to pull german troops away from france. british-60,000 casualties.
Committee on Public Information
-It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad.
-Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization
-employed 150,000 workers at home and oversees.
What is Trench Warfare?
In which armies fought for mere yards of ground, cotinued for over three years.
what were some new weapons?
poison gas, gas masks, machine guns, artillery, high-explosive shells, and airplanes.
what was the Schlieffen Plan?
germanys plan to fight a 2 front war
halted German invasion in France
what did the first battle of the marne do?
What was Henry Cabot Lodges' argument for not wanting the U.S. to join the League?
He thought it was going to restrict rights for the U.S. to be independent.
On April 2, 1917 President Wilson addressed the United States Congress asking for a declaration of war against Germany. In his address he stated, "The world must be made safe for democracy." How might African Americans fighting in Europe or supporting the
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1904
Entente Cordiale
Pandemic
world wide influenza
MAD
Mutually Assured Destruction
Who did Austria-Hungary blame?
Serbia
Genocide
A mass extermination of people
stance
Brazil, especially Barbosa was critical of America's _________ during the War, especially after the sinking of the Lusitania claiming that a power nation would step up and support the War.
Comintern
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, it wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
what was the western front?
france.
self-determination
allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live
mobilisation
the immediate preparation of troops for war
Big 4
Italy (Vittario Orlando) France (George Clemencenceau) England (d. Lloyd George) U.S (Wilson)
Ypres
the battle where the Germans introduced poison gas, Canadians stood their ground while other troops retreated
Gavrilo Princip
Serbian nationalist; he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand
HOLOCAUST
Systematic mass killing of Jews and other groups considered inferior by Nazis
when germany declares war on russia who pledges their support for russia?
France
Woodrow Wilson
28th President of the United States
Mensheviks
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Glasnost
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
Lloyed George
Prime minister over Britain. Wanted revenge on Germany for the destroying of their ships.
mandates
territories to be ruled by european powers
Blockade
The isolation of an enemy's ports by means of warships to prevent passage of persons or supplies. To block or prevent the import or export of supplies from a port.
American Expeditionary Forces
Two million American soldiers who fought overseas under the command of General John J. Pershing.
isolationism
Most Americans will want to return to the pre-war atmosphere of ________
Zimmermann Telegram
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram form the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land to Mexico lost by the US
Self Determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Brinkmanship
Threatening to go to war to achieve goals
2. Why did Bismarck seek alliance that later became known as the Triple Alliance? a. To isolate France b. To expand Germany's boundaries c. To strengthen Germany's army d. All of the above
a
U Boat
German submarine used in WWI and WWII
Which European countries
France, Britain, Italy, Spain, Russia, Portugal, Holland, Belgium
14 points for peace
President Wilson's plan for peace, sought to eliminate the causes of war and became the basis for the terms of German Surrender
Kaiser Wilhelm II
ruler of germany; forced bismarck to resign because he did not want to share his power with anyone
4th result of the treaty of versailles
war guilt clause
Neutrality
a policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between other countries
A lull occured in military operations during WWII after ....
invasion of Poland
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
The assassination of who triggered WWI.
ID Zimmermann Note
Who: Foreign Prime minister of Germany Arthur Zimmermann
What: A note suggesting a German-Mexican Alliance against the U.S.
Where: Mexico and Germany
When: Late February 1916
Why: to defeat the U.S.
Sig: U.S. declared war
John J Pershing
in 1916 Wilson dispatched him and troops to capture Villa; chased Villa in vain for 1 yr; Wilson appointed him commander at AEP; believed object of war total destruction; didn't like trench warfare
14 point plan
wilson's plan for peace that included the league of nations, self-determined colonies, free trade, freedom of the seas, end to secret agreements, and a limit on arms
Schlieffen War Plan
-written in 1893 after Russian and France made an alliance
-German intelligence predicted it would take Russia 6 weeks to mobilize
-during that time Germany would invade France through Belgium and have enough time to regroup and face the Russians
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
4 main causes leading up to ww1
impearlism, nationalism, militarisim, alliance system
Declaration of war 1917
Formal U.S. declaration of war with Germany that Woodrow Wilson proposed even though he was not for war.
Sedition Act of 1918
Law passed during WW1 which made it illegal for Americans to speak disloyally about the US government
nicholas II
last czar of russia who is part of the romanov family that has ruled russia for 300 years
Federal Bureau of Investigation -FBI
was created to look for communists in the U.S.
explain the battle of the somme
england and france bribed italy and they became allies, the central powers now were fighting a two front war
America declared neutrality, but many felt involed - why?
More than 1/3 of U.S. were immigrants from Europe. 1/4 were German.
Explain the league of nations and what Wilson intended it to do
The league's member nations would help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect one smothers territory and political indepence
Define the term propaganda. Why was it necessary for the US government to use? How did the United States government plan and then use propaganda? Provide three concrete examples of propaganda used during the War (this can include propaganda used by the Al
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