World War II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
foot soldiers
Italian followers
German tanks
Burke-Wadsworth Act
Erwin Rommel
Desert Fox
capital of Germany
Germany 1938 September
capital of Italy
German air force
Italy - government
German ship England sinks
France - leader
De Gaulle
capital of Great Britain
Neutrality Laws
1935 / 1937
Benito Mussollini
Ruler of Italy
Lightning War
used planes, panzers, infantry
Yangtze River
USS Panay sunk 1937
Japan 1937
start war with China
Japanese-Americans sent to detention centers
Vladmir Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks
first peacetime draft (ages 21-35)
Burke-Wadsworth Act
SE France conquered by Germans
Vichy France
Maginot Line
French line of concrete bunkers
november 1940
when Soviets conteratacted Germany whitch was a turning point of the war, Germany surrendered
Hitler's political group that took control of Germany.
A totalitarian system of government where a single authoritarian party controls state owed means of production.
"Too many workers, too few jobs"
race riots
only congresswoman to vote against war
Jeannette Rankin
Scorched Earth (policy)
Red Army retreated, later counterattack
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Potsdam Conference
Meeting between the U.S, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in July 1945 in Germany. Soviets showed that they were not going to allow free election in Eastern Europe; started tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union.
Adolf Hitler
He was the leader of Germany.
Montgomery and British 8th army saved Suez Canal
El Alamien
America FIrst Committee
an isolationist group that firmly opposed any American aid to the Allies
Battle of Britian
the battle fought entirly with aircrafts and bombs
turned on Russia for their vast wheat and oil supplies
How did scientist contribute?
Improved radar and sonar.
Pushed development of penicillin.
Created atomic bomb.
(u-boats are back) merchant ships armed, convoy system
Battle of the Atlantic
Neutrality Acts
Laws that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war.
Caspian Sea
near where the supply line for the Soviet Union was
What strategy did the U.S. use to defeat Japan?
Island hopping
symbol for the largest number of women in US work force
Rosie the Riveter
Atlantic Charter
Commited the two leaders to a post war world of Democracy, non-aggresion, free trade, economic advacnement, and freedom of seas.
How did working people contribute?
Factories produced bombs, rifles, and ammunition.
Farms and food companied supplied food to Allied troops
Women took jobs because men were fighting
no war goods shipped, non war goods sold
"Cash and Carry" basis
Battle of El Alamein
Battle that was the turning point in North Africa (British defeated Germans)
What happened (traveling) because of the neutrality laws?
Americans couldn't travel on ships of warring nations
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
Because the U.S was Japan's only threat in the region; Japan though a sneak attack would destroy the U.S Navy and make the U.S powerless
What did France do in World War II?
France declared war om Germany in 1939 and was taken over in 1940
May 1945
The German Airforcce
gov't owned farms
discrimination against Jews
Office of Price Administration
opposition to war (doves)
Invasion of German-controlled Normandy, France by Allied forces; largest land and sea attack in history; British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a sixty-mile stretch of beach in Normandy; Allies took heavy losses but were later able to break through German defenses and liberate Paris, followed by France, Belgium, and Luxembourg
leader of occupied France
axis nations
germany, italy, japan alliance
germany officially surrendered in early ______
Desert War
German Afrika corps attack
imperialism examples
Hitler invades Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland, and Poland; Italy invades Ethiopia; Japan invades Manchuria and China
D Day
a.k.a. Operation Overload
5,000 ships, 175,000 troops (1Day)
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
uss indianapolis
what ship deliverd the bomb
Adof Hitler
Facist leader of Nazi Germany
England's prime minister at begining of WWII
jellied gasoline that explodes on contact
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain
Big three
Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt, allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
Donald Nelson
Head of the War Production Board
Nuremberg Trials
Trials for Nazi war crimes, established the principal that individuals are responsible for their own actions in war.
when hitler rebuilds german army and navy, mussolini invades ethiopia, and the spanish civil war
Allied Powers
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
Francisco Franco
____________ ______ led a fascist rebellion backed by military support from Hitler and Mussolini
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925
extermination camps
Nazi camps equipped with gassing facilities for mass murder of Jews
Selective Service Act
-Drafts young mean into army
Operation Barbarossa
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies
Site of important battle near Japanese mainland; last battle before atomic bombs; Allies won
Italian invasion of ethiopia
"New Roman Empire"
Superior weaponry
mustard gas
"It is us today, it will be you tomorrow." -Haile Selassie
Fascists abolish slavery
how many jews were killed at concentration camps
island half-way between the US and Japan
violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked
Who guarantees Japan's security even today?
United States
Hitler's "lightning warfare" a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
wanted by Italians but remained free, then I took it
Harry S. Truman
President who authorized the droppping of the atomic bomb during World War II
Vichy France
In occupied France, this became the new capital. They were forced to become an ally of Germany
is to harm someone because of their belife
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
This authorized the federal government to seize industries and made strikes against government operated industry a criminal offense
Reduction of the size of a country's military.
form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority
first land battle u.s. was in with japan
the city that the Germans thought the Allies were going to attack becuase of the deception and the fact that it is the shortest distance between France and Britain
..., process by which nations begsn to expand their interests throughout the world
falaise pocket
a decisive allied victory during the early stages of operation overlord where the german forces were encircled and destroyed by the allies
Battle at Stalingrad
the Soviet Union suffered many casualties during this long battle but resulted in a allied advantage in Europe
Otto Skorzeny
After fighting on the Eastern Front, he commanded a rescue mission that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif, in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' uniforms and customs. Helped put down the July 20 plot.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Who was the Prime Minister of England
Winston Churchill
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Munich Conference
Chamberlain met with Hitler for the third time. Hitler, in return, promised to respect Czechoslovakia's sovereignty (but didn't)
The Manhattan Project
The American Science program which developed the atomic bomb.
totalitarian state
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people
Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact
Stalin didn't believe British and French would aid in protection so negotiated separate agreement with Germans; designed to allow both sides to expand
So what is totalitarianism?
Nationalistic Psychos in total control of their countries
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
What was the name of Hitler's empire
The Third Reich
Battle of the Bulge
When America captured Aachen, Hitler responded by ordering his troops to break through the Allied lines and recapture the Belgian port of Antwerp, hoping it would disrupt the enemys supply line. The battle raged for months, Hitler lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and assault guns, and 1,600 planes he could not afford to lose, he could do nothing but retreat.
2 things that hastened Japan's collapse
B-29 super fortresses, Submarines
What 3 country's formed the axis powers?
Germany, Japan, Italy
Nuremberg Laws
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citzenship from persons of non-German blood.
Kamikaze pilots
World War II Japanese pilot trained to make a sidical crash attack; usually upon a ship
George Patton
general of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army
a policy of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war
Fall of Mussolini
in July 1943 Mussolini resigned and Italy surrendered
Heinrich Himmler
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
V-E Day
nickname for the end of the war in Europe
battle of midwat
japan vs us, crushed japans ability to mount offensive operations
Bernard Montgomery
British general who in an attack at El Alamein was able to drive the Germans away from the Suez Canal
US compromised its neutrality
the Lend-Lease sent materials and war goods to Britain.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
A type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules. German U-Boats followed this warfare and eventually caused the US to enter the war.
why- battle of britain
they stopped the Nazis WWIB it showed that they could be defeated
What was the Japanese Internment?
FDR issued the Executive Order 9066. The order temporarily imprisoned around 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese for the duration of the war.
the battle of midway
control of midway island - air craft carrier war
German Invasion of the USSR
the invasion of the soviet union by the germans despite the Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression pact
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Japan lost most of what was left of its navy
Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
The U.S. fought very hard to obtain these islands, and are now close enough to bomb japan directly
What did Hitler want to get out of the Holocaust?
- Nazis used long-practiced prejudices in European Culture
- To create an "Aryan/pure" society in which all Jews and other undesirable would be eliminated
- A super race
Germany's government
Pacific Front
Royal Observer Corps
German Air Force
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
european appeasement leads to
united Germany and Austria
Dictator of Soviet Union
satisfying demands of dissatisfied powers in effort to maintain peace and stability
BEfore WWII, Japan takes over
an international organization that united communist parties beneath the extremist marxist doctrine russia abided by
General Mac Arthur
"I shall return"
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Final Solution
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people.
"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
"My Struggle" (book by Hitler)
Mein Kampf
after Italy invaded Ethiopia the league of nations voted___ against Italy
payment for damages after a war
German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II
isorkou yamamoto
leading commander of jap navy
goverment are led by dictatoes that have total power over the people thay rule
Atomic bomb
powerful nuclear weapon that could destroy an entire city with one bomb
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there. (p. 800)
German word for leader, used to describe Hitler in the Nazi Party
Scorched Earth
policy of destroying anything that might be of use before an advancing army
Joseph Stalin
..., Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
An economic system in which investment in and ownership
Doolittle Raid
counterattack after Pearl Harbor that bomb Japan, did little but boosted moral
The last Axis power to surrender was______?
Third Reich
the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler (1933-1945)
The process of transforming an economy from free-market to communist - in Stalin's USSR this was when farms were made into small collectives
Mussolini, Benito
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
When the battle of Britain wasn't going Hitler's way, he decided to turn to which country he had been partnered with?
Axis and Allies
AXIS: italy /japan/ germany ALLIES: britain/ france /soviet union/ US/ china
allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
the ideology and practices of the Nazi party under Adolf Hitler of state control of the economy, racist nationalism and national expansion from 1933 to 1945.
Weimar republic
the German republic founded at Weimar in 1919
Georgi Zhukov
Soviet military commander of WW 2, fought for the Red Army in the Russian Civil War, Stalin appointed him chief of army general staff but was dismissed 6 months later when him and Stalin fought, organised attacks against Germans, largely responsible for defeat of Nazism
operation torch
Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from November 1942 to September 1943
Douglas MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Battle of Stalingrad
between invading German forces and Sovier defenders for control of Stalingrad, German defeat marked turning point
A person who has complete power and authority over a country.
a single party and leader who suppress all opposition and control all aspects of people's lives
Stalins five year plans
increase heavy industry-coal, iron, hydroelectric power, 5 year plans, few consumer goods, lower standard of living
American Isolationism
-Refers to the United States' refusal to participate in foreign affairs or commerce
-Remained neutral in WW2
Neutrality Acts; no arms sales or loans to nations at war
-US wanted to help China being attacked by Japan and sent arms.
General Eisenhower
American general who lead D-DAY, an attack in Normandy; Germans expected Americans to attack at the narrowest part of the channel but instead they attacked at the widest part. Eisenhower also lead troops to North Africa and defeated the Germans before D-Day.
Munich Pact
the pact between Allies and Germany that gave Germany Sudentenland as long as they didnt go to war
Axis Powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Section of the city inhabited only by Jews.
They were moved to concentrationcamps
What happened to Japanese Americans?
December 7, 1941
"A date which will live in infamy"
Causes of Pearl Harbor
1. Japanese aggresion in the Pacific
2. US embargo on Japan
3. Japanese desire for land, marketing, and resources
Good Neighbor Policy
Secretary of State Cordell Hull helps FDR negotiate this policy which regards latin america and reverses dollar diplomacy.
Navajo Code Talkers
used Native American Language from the Navajo tribe so Japanese couldn't decode messages
Battle of Midway
naval battle fought in the pacific, Americans broke Japanese code and got a victory
battle of berlin
the british bombing raids on berlin from november 1943 until march 1944 where the british displaced many german citizens but were unable to deliver a blow to the german armed forces, or the final offensive of the european theater, where the soviet union captured berlin and germany surrendered
Japanese Americans
received an apology and money from the federal gov't
Pearl Harbour
America goes to war because this place is bombed
Battle of Britain
RAF's attacks; the Germans did night bombing on Britain. At sunset, the wail of sirens filled the air as Londoners flocked to the subways and spent the night in air-raid shelters. Some rode out the blasts at home in basements or in smaller air-raid shelters
Dorie Miller
Black cook at Pearl Harbor who shot down a couple of Japanese airplanes without any training
iwo jima and okinawa
2 island allied victories achieved before dropping the atomic bombs
Nye Committee
In 1934 Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota held hearings to investigate the country's involvement on WW1; this committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war
60 75
__ to ___ percent of the german armed forces would fight on the eastern front
Hitler's First Move
In this, Hitler drops out of the League of Nations, violates the Treaty of Versailles, and begins deployment and rearming
General George Patton
man alone in Britain; assigned to lead a fake army in order to trick the Germans - (he didn't like this because he thought that he should have a bigger role)
general douglas macarthur
former general o the us army who played an important role in the paccific theater and accepted the japanese surrender in 1945. he went on to command us forces in the koeran war, but was removed from power by president truman after he openly disagreed with him about his war policies. he was very popular amoung american citizens
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
What did the "Iron Curtain" represent?
Stopping the spread of communism
Congress of Racial Equality
aka CORE, supplemented the NAACP by performing research for court cases
during what years did the US fight in WWI?
1917 to 1918
one of the main weaknesses of the japanese military was that the two major factions viewed different countries as their next major adversary.
the japanese thought it was . .
the navy said it was . . .
Russia ; The United States
"A date which will live in infamy"
Famous quote from FDR, reffering to Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
Battle of Britain august 12, 1940- october 31 1940
what was the event called when germany air bombarment of british seaports, cities, airfields, and other targets. and when did it occur
why did U.S people want to move out west?
For cheaper land and it was crowded in the east
took over
Japanese emperor
a red fruit
Women's Army Corps
Date- Battle of Britain
Battle at Alewtians
saved Alaska
China's Leader
Chiang Kai Shek
Date--VJ Day
September 2, 1945
What didn't The Moose like?
What general took Berlin?
Marshal Zuchov
Deutsch Arbita
german for German workers
"Final Solution"
a program of genocide
Concentration camp in Germany; largest and first camp
nationalist leader of spain that overthrew the Royalist rule of Spain during their civiil war (1936-1939)
Douglas MacAruthur
-general during japanese invasions
-"I shall return"
Region of Czechoslovakia annexed by Nazi Germany
translated as "divine wind", kamikazes were Japanese who engaged in suicide attacks, generally against American ships, using planes loaded with explosives and sometimes small one-man submarines that were basically manned torpedoes
Adolph Hitler
appointed Chancellor (chief minister) of Germany in 1933
official secret police of Nazi Germany
soviets won battle of ___, turning point of the war
Beginning in 1935 Germany, led by Adolph Hitler, begins to rebuild its armed forces. This is a direct violation of the Treaty of Versallies. The Allies, France and Britain, did little to stop it.
Executive order 9066
The United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by FDR on February 19, 1942 ordering Japanese Americans to internment camps
Scott Momaday
This man's story demonstrated the effect of war on minorities, including racism
Italy, Japan, Germany
What countries compromised the Axis?
victory in europe day
what is V.E. day
What were the Nazis' beliefs based on?
the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government
Operation case yellow
germany invades Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg and France
italain leader who attened the munich confrence
War Crimes
The International Military Tribunal , created by the U.S.,Britain,France,and the soviet union,tried German leaders suspected of committing ---- -------.
Tuskegee Airmen
African American fighter pilots who trained at Tuskegee, Alabama
Japanese Internment Camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
Allied commander lead Allied troops in D-Day operation, reached and liberated Paris
The suicide by sword by the samurai during feudal Japan and used during WWII to as a means to show respect for the emperor (who could make you do this).
The Yalta Conference
FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at Yalta, on the Black Sea, in Feb. 1945 to plan the future of Europe after WWII.
What kind of government was it in japan
With the use of the Blitzkrieg attack, Poland fell to Germany in __ weeks.
Pacific theater
FDR worries about this theater, wants help from Stalin
What years was the US involved in WWII?
Charles De Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile
tolitarian state
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of people's lives
President at the star of WWII
F. D. Roosevelt
US General in charge of all American troops in the Philippines
Most people at the time were worried about their dictators focusing on..
In the 1930's what political party was gaining importance in Germany?
battle of guadalcanal
jap airfield, first offensive us battle, us took twice as many casualties, jap couldnt control pacific
Franklin Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Pearl Harbor
Attack on U.S by Japanese on December 7, 1941 that led to their entrance in World War II
London Naval Conference
During the decade of the 1930s, nations were still hopeful they could stop war. What agreement banned construction of more nay warships by the world's largest military nations?
Operation Market Garden
..., developed by Gen Field Marshall Montgomery—largest airborne operation; Allied WWII operation in Netherlands and Germany that required the capture/control of several bridges along a predetermined route crossing the lower Rhine which would give a direct entrance for Allied forces into Germany. While a great idea, the last bridge was not captured resulting in the entire operation becoming a complete failure.
Crimes against humanity
A category of legal offenses created at the Nuremberg trials after World War II to encompass genocide and other acts committed by the political and military leaders of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).
Revenue Act of 1942
raised corporation taxes and required nearly all Americans to pay income taxes.
HMS Hood
flagship of the Royal Navy, it was sunk by the Bismarck during the Battle of Denmark Strait. HMS Prince of Wales: British battleship, escaped the Battle of Denmark Strait and was sent to the Pacific. When attempting to find and sink the Japanese invasion fleet north of Malaya, the Prince of Wales and the Repulse were attacked and sunk by Japanese aircraft, leaving the British Singapore fleet with very few ships.
Hemispheric defense zone
Declaration that said that the entire western half of Atlantic was part of the Western Hemisphere and, therefore, neutral.
Who led the U.S. at the end of WWII?
is a policy in which a nation avoids getting involved with the economic and political problems of other nations.
1948 War
once Israel is declared a state, Arabs declare war with Israel, Israel won and gain territory
Lend-Lease Act, year?
1941, lent 7 billion dollars in lease to any country fighting fascism, for military weapons
"rsenal of Democracy"- nickname given to Roosevelt
U-Boat Opperations
How did Germany try to prevent the US equipment from reaching the Allies?
Mein Kampf
is a book written by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler
VE Day
May 8, 1945 - "victory in Europe day" the surrender officially signed
a city in Russia. In World War 2 the Germans attacked and cut off the city from the rest of Russia. The Germans tried to starve the Russians by not allowing any food to get into Lenningrad. Nearly one million people died during the winter yet the city refused to fall.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion.
japanese american citizens league
make up for losses of the japanise people put in camps. passed.
what was the teheran
the us agreed to invade france at narmany
The Battle of Coral Sea
May 1942; Japanese forces preparing to invade British-controlled Port Moresby on New Guinea and Allied vessels tried to block attack; both sides lost an aircraft carrier and hurt Americans more than Japanese, but first time relentless Japanese advance stopped
what were the last 2 islands the us took from japan
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Dropping of the Atomic Bombs
In July 1945, the atomic age was born when the Americans successful tested their first weapon of mass destruction. The war was essentially ended with these atomic bombs; over 75,000 Japanese were killed. This is the reason why the American army is so advanced today; their research is far beyond that of any other country.
West Germany gained what kind of power after WWII?
Emergence of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe
German Submarine
develop atomis bomb
general Mcarthur?
pacific commander
Date- D-Day
June 6, 1944
British prime minister
the killing of a race
benito Mussolini
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
1936 Olympics
held in Berlin Germany
Suicide Planes
Kamikze,------- ---------,became a credible threat to U.s.
The largest invasion force ever assembled attacked here
Spanish Civil war
Occured from 1936-1939 Republicans(USSR) were fighting the Nationalists(Italy and Germany). The Nationalists won and Francisco Franco came into power.
Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 (1884-1943)
head of America's first committee which opposed the war
Croatian Ustasa
formed as an anti-Yugoslav, pro-Croatian nationalist organization, had an ideology of nazism, fascism, and ultranationalism. They were originally a terrorist organization, but were appointed as a puppet government of a semi-independent Croatia. They assisted the Nazis fight the pro-Soviet Yugoslav Partisans of Tito
Military and civilian preparation for war
triple Alliance
Germany, italt and austria- hungary before WWI and during WWI
hitler becomes popular
building campaigns, german rearmament, econ recovery
'living space' germany wanted to take over russia(USSR)
-given permission by Soviet party to make very small changes to Soviet Union to help economy
-Glasnost, Perestroika
-moved to dismantle Red ARmy, announces to eastern block nations that they will recieve no support from the Soviet Union and that they can chose their own government
-Democratization - allows for political parties other than communists, communist canidates unseated at local level, new parliamentary government
-August coup failed, Soviet Union transitioned to democracy
Muselini invades this country in 1935 as testing grounds for their new weaponry and soldiers; which was condemned by the League of Nations
Carl Vinson
Who built a 2 ocean navy?
enola gay
b29 to drop first atomic bomb
the abraham brigade did not back republicans or communist
German-Soviet nonaggression Pact
peace between Hitler and Stalin
terms of Finland and Soviet Union non-aggression pact
my stuggle
english translation for adolf hitler's book "mein kampf"
Tehran Conference
(november 1943) first major meeting between the big three (FDR,Stalin, Churchill) Both the us/england decided to open the Italian Front
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Restricting the amount of food and other goods people may buy during wartime
New Deal
Franklin Delano Roosevelt; Plan aimed at fighting Great Depression; government spending could help start an economic recovery (established public works programs that gave jobs to the unemployed and provided money for welfare and other relief programs and created new regulations to reform and protect the stock market and banking system)
"Double V" campaign
African American civil rights campaign during World War II
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
The nuremburg laws
WHat laws said jews werent citizens
franco did no join the alliance between germany and italy which was called what?
rome-berlin axis
Interim Committee
a committee established to study a particular policy issue between legislative sessions, such as higher education or public school finance
Germany and Japan
What two countries were "best friends"
USSR formed by 4 republics which will increase to 15 republics later; capital Moscow
Arbeit Macht Frei
translates to= work will liberate(set you free)- The Nazis had this saying over many entrances to concentration camps
Fat man
the code name for the plutonium-core, implosion-type atom bomb the U.S. first tested and then dropped on Nagasaki in 1945.
US President at the beginning of the war
This caused the U.S. to enter WWII.
Pearl Harbor
Bataan Death March
that between 400-1000 Americans and possibly as many as 10000 Filipino died
Presidential democracies
a political system in which voters chose a president to lead the government as head of the executive branch.
Charles De Gualle
Leader of Free French Forces in exile
Lytton Report
this was a report generated by a League of Nations to try to determine the causes of the Manchurian Incident which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria; it condemned Japan for resorting to force, but the powers were unwilling to impose sanctions; Japan then withdrew from the league and kept Manchuria
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
two cities U.S. (Harry Truman) dropped the atomic bomb on
an armored vehicle or tank used in the Blitzkreig
Operation Sea Lion
name for Hitler's plan to invade Britain by both air and sea
Remagen Bridge
the capture of this bridge gave the Allies a point to cross the Rhine in force, allowing them to invade Germany proper.
Gold Standard
Gold backed the money
major hit to the British economy
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Scientist in charge of the manhattan project, created bomb, tested first bomb in 1945 in new mexico
In the 1930's, who was the communist leader of Russia?
Joseph Stalin
4. When the USA declared war on Japan, who declared war on the USA?
Jiang Jieshi
a nationalist who took Sun's place as ruler, held nationalist armies in a successful attack on warlord gov't
The 5 beaches involved in D-day
Omaha, Utah, Gold, Sword, Juno
May, 1940
Hitler ends the Phony War, with a full scale blitzkreig on five neutral nations: denmark, norway, luxemburg, holland, belgium
Socialist Party
Rose to power at the beginning of the Spanish Revolution.
Cash and Carry policy
1939. Law passed by Congress which allowed a nation at war to purchase goods and arms in US as long as they paid cash and carried merchandise on their own ships. This benefited the Allies, because Britain was dominant naval power.
Battle of the Coral Sea
the first strategic defeat of the Japanese Imperial Navy by the American forces during WWll; the allied forces turned back the Japanese attack on Port Moseby, New Guinea
Hirabayashi v. US
A U of Washington Sr. who refused to be transported to internment camp
Constitutional Changes 1926ish Italy
M only responsible to king, laws only up to M, only wealthy could vote
Who were "fat man" and "little boy"?
Code names for the atomic bombs
When the World War I broke out, the other nations began taking sides. What were the 2 sides called?
Central Powers and Allied Powers
7. World War II began on September 1, 1939 when
Germany invaded Poland even though Hitler promised he would not invade Poland
Josef Stalin
airforce volunteer womens
Atomic Bombings
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Mein kempf
Hitlers Book "my Struggles"
The Holocaust
The systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
the demilitarized buffer zone along the River Rhine
to give special attention to something, to stress
Hideki Tojo
-prime minister of japan
-leading military leader
examples of concentration camps
Treblinka, Aushwitz, Dachau
English-speaking broadcasters in the South Pacific were used to destroy morale of soldiers. They were called this name
Tokyo Rose
division of europe
outcome, iron curtain develops, divison of democratic and communist nations
Nazi-soviet pact
agreement between Stalin and Hitler not to fight, yet
Postdam Conference
-Soviets don't allow for free elections in eastern Europe,
-Truman now U.S. president, Attlee new prime minister of Great Britain
-found lack of free elections unacceptable
-agreement to divide Germany into four occupational zones under U.S., Great Britain, France, and Soviet Union
-Stalin promises to cooperate with U.S. in Pacific
Prior to WWII which groups liked isolation?
Income Tax
WWII effected this, allowing more people to be reached
victory over japan day
what is v-J day
last stronghold of resistance in the southwest Pacific
Hitler wanted to seize this area because there were many German speaking people living there
The Iron Curtain
Imaginary line dividing USSR-Soviet block from the West
Haile Selassie
Leader of Ethiopia--asked for help from the League of Nations and received none
james doolittle
lead 1st bombing runs on japan
Wendell Willkie
nominated by the republicans, Ohio business man, strong critic of the New Deal
War Production Board
government agency created during World War II to help factories shift from making consumer goods to making war materials
midway island
pivotal battle won by Admiral Nimitz, it deprived Japan of a strategic base and without which the US might have been compelled to negotiate a cease fire in the Pacific
America's Isolationism
Didn't like outcome of WW1, Great Depression
america first
lindenberg and nye- keep out of war
test site in White Sands, New Mexico for first nuclear weapon
how did nazis view occupied lands
as economic resources
Japanese Relocation
All Japanese were sent to relocation camps
tactic for the US to gradually control islands near Japan, and targeted weak points of Japanese defense to get to the strong points while knowing they had fortifications. Included lots of naval and air fighting, and not a lot of ground force; "amphibious" warfare. May 1943
Aggressive Actions: Italy
broke treaties; withdrew from League of Nations; invaded and annexed Ethiopia; forced military alliance
September 1938
Year and Month Germany and Austria create a political union.
when the German army tried to take France, the British Expeditionary Forces (BEF) were pushed back to ________ on the coast
concentration camp
a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions
On June 6, 1944, the Allies invaded Europe. This was called what?
Island Hopping
strategy of Allies in WWII of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
Normandy, France
In June 1944 the allies opened the western front where?
Yalta Conference
U.S., Britain, and Soviet Union met to discuss post-war issues
The belief that those who live in a particular place originally are superior to those who do not.
Displaced persons
Survivors of the Holocaust who had no homes after the war and were placed in Displaced Persons Camps. Many immigrated to Canada and the U.S. after the war.
Who was the Commander, Naval Forces Pacific at the time of the attacki
Admiral Husband kimmel
What was the Holiday created to honor those that fought in wars for the US ?
Veteran's Day
Liberty Ships
cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. Based on vessels ordered by Britain to replace ships torpedoed by German U-boats, they were purchased for the U.S. fleet and for lend-lease provision to Britain. Eighteen American shipyards built 2,751 Libertys between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships produced to a single design.
Geli Raubal
Hitler's niece who he had an affair with. ended in with her committing suicide
The St. Louis
Ship full of jewish refugees prevented from landing in miami, sent back to germany where more than half were killed by hitler.
What treaty failed to solve the problems of Europe between the wars?
Treaty of Versailles
Pacifism (Passivism)
Opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes
hiroshima, little boy
US dropped a-bomb on ___, it was called __ __
Basic Causes of WWII (4)
1. Totalitarianism 2. Militarism 3. Imperialism 4. Nationalism
battle of teh bulge
1944. hope to destory enimy supply lines. we win and nazi retreat
Condor Legion
air force of Italy and Germany and had the first destruction of a city
cost of living
the amount of money necessary to live at a standard level
Concentration camps
Was a place during WWII where Jews and other people were kept prisoners by the Nazis.
Only 2 nuclear weapons ever used in history
Little Boy, Fat Man
Germany was depressed; hitler rose to power; totalitarianism
what were the causes of WWII
pearl harbor - roosevelt calls it
"a date that will live in infamy"
Harry Truman's role in WWII?
gave the order to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
19. Who was General Douglas McArthur?
Leader of the US forces in the Pacific theatre
Island-hopping campaign
DIctator of Germany
Germany, Italy, Japan
U.S. Britain, and USSR
WWII on several fronts
Harry Truman
president after FDR died
People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs
Japan attacked US, fear, disrimination
Kulak Issue
Kulaks (wealthier peasants) fought against the collectivization movement, up to 10 million died and the agricultural output was no greater than in 1913
Leader of Russia
Who was Joseph Stalin?
name 3 axis powers
germany, italy, japan
During Okinawa campaign, used as Kamikaze fighters; Damage many ships, Terror weapon
helped raf in battle of brittian
sept 2 1945
japs sign official surrender
internment camps
Under internment, the U.S. government removed most Japanese Americans from the West Coast and
transported them to______________
soviet movement which tried to give freedom of expression.
El Alamein
Egyptian village west of Alexandria' by the time "Monty" got to Africa, Germans had already advanced here.
general tojo
Japanese general and prime minister during much of World War II; he opposed female employment in spite of labor shortages during the war (1884-1948).
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Someone of Arabian, West Asian, or North African descent
new industrial region of the south and southwest
Who was Neville Chamberline?
British Prime Minister of appeasement-appeasing when Hitler took over the lands of all people speaking German(sutenden land)
Munich Agreement
In an effort to appease German ambitions, Britain and France agreed in this in 1938 to let Germany occupy part of Czech, yet this appeasement only furthered Hitler's conquests.
Potsdam Declaration
warned Japan of "utter destruction" if they did not surrender
european union
a free trade zone encompassing 27 European countries
June 22, 1940
France surrendered to the superior German army but continued to resist German domination (date)
National Socialists
political regime that later tured into the Nazis.
two countries that President Roosevelt sympathized with and wanted to help
Great Britain & France
Destroyer Deal
the U.S. gives 50 world war I battleships to the brits in exchange for access to naval bases...are we neutral?
the name for the areas outside of the cities to which people flocked after WW1
Nations of Soldiers in Normandy
Americans, British, Poles, Belgians, Canadians, Norwegians, Dutch, and French
Admiral Chester Nimitz
leader of Battle of Midway, cracked Japanese codes and knew of an attack
In 1931 the Spanish monarchy was removed and replaced with a republic which passed "leftish" reforms. This was then replaced by a very conservative govt which became most repressive. For the 1936 elections the parties on the left (Republicans, Socialists, Syndicalists, and Communists) all formed the Spanish Popular Front and went on to win the election. General Franco then led an army of rightists in an insurrection which led to the Spanish Civil War.
A US president who decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan
Italian Fascist party; Benito Mussolini
party filled with dissatisfied war veterans, nationalists, and those who were afraid of communism; leader of the Italian- Fascist party
When did Hitler secretly meet with his Military advisers to discuss expanding Germany?
November 5th, 1937
USA Neutrality Acts
series of laws passed to prevent US involvement in the war;
admiral Chester W. Nimitz
in charge of Navy fleet going from Hawaii to Japan
the nazi soviet non aggression pact
agreement between russia and germany to avoid a two front war
What civilian efforts helped pay for the war?
war bonds, rationing, victory gardens
What was Hitler's final solution to the Jewish problem?
to destroy all Jews in Europe
Why were Navajo soldiers so important to victories in the Pacific?
they radioed messages in Navajo language so the Japanese couldn't understand
What are the characteristics of fascism? 753 (list 4)
A. Popular in Italy
B. extreme nationalism and racism
C. gained into the Fasist Party
D. declared Mussolini head of the goverment
Why did Japan attack China without permission?
They wanted to expand and knew that the League of Nations would do nothing
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