World War Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
IMPERIALISM
Building overseas empires
Abdicate
to give up power
WOODROW WILSON
The President during WWI
Propaganda
Efforts to spread opinions or beliefs
U-Boat
German submarine in WWI and WWII
kaiser
A emperor decides to step down.
Food Administration
Agency created to increase food supplies for troops by expanding agricultural production and decreasing domestic consumption. Herbert Hoover was the head of it.
Nationalism
Intense loyalty to one's nation or group and promoion of its interests above all others
Militarism
A buildup of military strength within a country
LUSITANIA
British passenger liner sunk by a German u boat in may. the deaths of 128 Americans on board contributed to us entry into the WWI
Liberty Bonds
by buying these bonds, Americans citizens were lending money to the U.S. government for the war effort; Liberty bonds raised $21 billion, which was over half what the U.S. spent on the war
Epidemic
the rapid spread of a contagious disease among large numbers of people.
convoy
A group that travels with something, such as a ship, to protect it.
non-aggression pact
agreement between nations not to attack each other
Ethinic group
A minority that speaks a different language or follows different customs than the majority of people in a country
NEUTRAL
This is what we call the countries that deiced not to take sides during the WWI
self-determination
the right to own one's own territory and form of government
Allied Powers
made up of France, Britain, and Russia. Eventually, 21 other nations, even Italy, joined this group.
victory gardens
gardens planted to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by war effort
Pacifist
Person opposed to the use of war or violence to settle disputes
Herbert Hoover
he was chosen by President Wilson to run the Food Administration; his job was to boost food production because the U.S. had to feed its troops and help feed the Allies
war bonds
debt securities issued by a govt. for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war
National self-determination
The right of people to decide how they should be governed
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty signed by Russia and Germany in March 1918; Russia was forced to give up large amounts of land but reached peace with Germany and withdrew from the war
SEDITION ACT OF 1918
Law passed during WWI that made it illegal for Americans to speak disloyally about the us government.
WACs (Women's Army Corps)
women's branch of the US army; work other than nursing; started by Oveta Culp Hobby
List in order the 5 events that brought the us into the war.
-1914 us declared to remain neutral
-invested 2.6 billion in the war
-the Sussex pledge enacted
-Sussex pledge broken
-Zimmerman note discovered
WAVEs (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service)
a WW2 era division of the US navy that consisted of women
Want
Depression
satellite
dependent state
kamikaze
japanese suicide bombers
Nazi
Hitler's political party.
Philippines
Taken by Japan
Axis powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
United Nations
International peacekeeping organization founded by fifty nations in April, 1945.
Italy's form of government
fasicism
Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service
WAVES
douglas mcarthur
allied forces on island.fled.
D-Day
"Operation Overload". Invasion of Normandy which was the largest land and sea attack in history. The British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a beach in Normandy where the Germans had dug in with weapons. Allies had lots of casualties, but captured the enemy shoreline. Allies punched a hole in German defenses and then a month later, Allies liberated France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
Left Wing
Communists are concidered __________
trinity
codename to drop the bomb
Allies
Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, US
General Hideki Tojo
Prime Minister of Japan
persecuted
Hitler claimed that Germans in Czechoslovakia were being ___________
Appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
ironcurtain
churchill said that there was an..
The bad guys were called
Axis Powers
Auschwitz
The largest concentration camp was _______?
fascism
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
Other Groups Persecuted
trade unionists, homosexuals, handicapped, communists and unionist parties; gypsies
Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Nagasaki
Japanese city destroyed by an atomic bomb; marked the first use of nuclear weapons used in war
atomic bomb
powerful bomb dropped by American planes on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945
Barbarossa
German invasion of Soviet Union. June 22, 1941 German Army invades Soviet Union. Germans didn't concentrate their forces. They never took Moscow like they wanted. Russians had time to redefend when Hitler stopped the forces.
THE RESISTANCE
"underground" group who worked for French freedom
Coral Sea
Pacific Battle which stopped Japanese advance on Australia.
Leningrad
During World War II, Leningrad was surrounded and besieged by the German Wehrmacht, which cut off all supplies going into the city and trapping the people inside
Himmler
Another leading member of the Nazi party who was likely responsible for the Holocaust. He was the commander-in-chief of the SS. ( he was still underneath hitler)
Nuremberg Laws
created by Hitler from 1933-1935 limiting and taking away most rights of Jews in Germany . Pushed Jews out of business, required them to register, and included name identification by "Jewish" names (israel, sarah). Forced Jews into ghettos and transits, which were ultimately a part the Final Solution
Caen
Originally the Allies aimed to take the French city of Caen, one of the largest cities in Normandy on D-Day. Caen was a vital objective for several reasons. First, it lay astride two water obstacles that could strengthen a German defensive position if not crossed. Second, Caen was a road hub; in German hands it would enable the enemy to shift forces rapidly. Third, the area around Caen was relatively open, especially compared to the bocage (hedgerow) country in the west of Normandy. This area was valued for airfield construction. The Allies meant to capture Caen quickly, but it took them several months and they did not capture it until August.
Genocide
The systematic killing of an entire people (i.e. the Holocaust).
MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Scorched-earth policy
A policy issued by Joseph Stalin
Soviet citizens destroy everything that could be of use to the Nazi invaders
Mussolini
first fascist leader and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
Benito Mussolini
dictato of Italy during the war.
mandate
a colony of one country ruled by another country.
sept 1, 1939
blizkrieg, germany invades poland and it falls in 8 days
constitutions
a document that dictates the rules for a country
who ruled USSR in the beginning of WW2?
Stalin
neville chamberlain
Prime Minister of Great Britain, made Munich Agreement with hitler; appeasment
Dust Bowl
farmers overworked the crops so the soil wasn't good for crops
Rhineland
name of the territory in which Hitler sent troops into in defiance of the Versailles treaty in 1935.
concentration camps
prison camps for civilians who are considered enemies of the state.
Goebbels (person)
Follower of Hitler, second in command, minister of propaganda.
turning point
when everything changes not always for the better
Joseph Goebbels
was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany
Suicide
the act of taking ones own life voluntairily
Chiang Kai-shek
chinese nationalist leader and ally of su yat-sen who attempted to eradicate the communist party from china, but was defeated in 1945 by the soviet russia who supported CCP. he retreated to taiwan with the rest o the nationalists and served as president until his death in 1975
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
overall commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the war. Yamamoto planned the Pearl Harbor attacks, though he intended them to come shortly after the declaration of war. He was responsible for most of the Japanese naval actions, including at Midway, throughout the war, until his plane was shot down during an inspection tour
Emporer Hirohito
Japanese emperor that had control of Japan during and after WWII. Gave up his divine right after the war.
Kristallnacht
"the night of broken glass" on which gangs of Nazi youth attacked Jews, burned synagogues, destroyed Jewish businesses
Manhattan Project
U.S. development of the atomic bombs which were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima
VJ Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Lateran Agreement
a 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support. In turn, the pope expressed his satisfaction and urged Italians to support Mussolini's government.
Midway Island
1942, americans beat of J attack because broke radio code and J made mistakes (split forces and attack at once so vulnerable while rearming) and A used dive bombers. weakened J, A started getting Pacific back with island hopping
Lend Lease
An act passed to get around the neutrality act, it allowed the US to "lend" supplies to other countries as long as they paid us back
General MacArthur
commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan
Fasces
(in latin) the word for a bundle of wooden rods tied around an axe handle. (A symbol of authority for Roman officers)
base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which lead America to enter the war
Pearl Harbor
Airplanes,tanks,guns, amunition
Name 4 examples of products sent from the US under the lend-lease act:
Winston Churchill
..., A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Rosie the Riveter
A fictional factory worker, became a symbol of American womens' war efforts
Neutrality Acts
U.S. laws banning the sale of weapons during a war
Battle of Coral Sea
-A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.
-By Australia
-Japan retreated
Invasion of Poland
(Sept 1, 1939) Hitler launched a lightning attack (blitzkrieg) against Poland where force after force came upon Poland. Cause England and France to declare war on Germany, starting WW2
Nazi-Soviet Nonagression Pact
Germany and the soviet union promised not to attack each other; Hitler offered stalin control of eastern Ppoland and Baltic seas
Battle of Kursk
largest tank battle in history that was in Russia but the Germans tanks got destroyed
Berlin Airlift
The dropping of thousands of tons of food and medical supplies to starving West Berliners after Joseph Stalin closed off all highway and railway access to the city in mid-1948.
Battle of Guadalcanal
Island near Australia with lots of swamps and jungles; Allied invasion led to a series of battles in 1942-1943; Japanese troops eventually fled in 1943
who, what-battle of guadalcanal
americans vs. japanese, battle at the airfield of Guadalcanal and the americans won their first offensive
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
largest naval battle in world history in which most of the Japanese arsenal was destroyed
Harry S. Truman
Became President of the USA after the death of Roosevelt and oversaw the peace process
Battle of the Atlantic
Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the U.S. to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war.
Explain Island Hoping?
It was when the Allies would skip over and island and go to the next one to spare soldiers and time
treaty of versailles
what was the name of the treaty that ended world war I and led the rise of hitler and ultimately world war II called
D-Day/ Invasion of Normandy
June 6. 1944; secret mission led by Dwight D. Eisenhower in Normandy, France. began the Allied invasion of Europe, western front opened
Aggressive actions taken by Stalin
He killed 8-13 million of his own kind, and he marched them(farmers) hundreds possibly thousands of miles.
38. Most Americans responded to Hilter's invasion of Poland in 1939 and the declaration of war in Europe by
wanting to remain neutral, staying out of the war and not reliving the horrors of World War I
Goals of Hitler & Nazis
To get rid of people who did not fit master German race
What was the famous quote of Woodrow Wilson when the US declared war on Germany?
The world must be made safe for democracy
triple entente
--
mobilization
preparing for war
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
American President
jutland peninsula
peninsula by denmark
reparations
payments for war damage
illiterate
unable to read or write
no man's land
land between trenches
bureaucracy
system of managing government though departments run by appointed officials
Nazism
..., The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Communism
political ideology holding that the resources and wealth of a country should be shared equally by all of its people
Doughboys
nickname for American troops in Europe
Russian Revolution
Lack of food=protest
Police and soldiers wouldnt fight
armistice
Warring parties agree to stop fighting
Happy
Francis Joseph's private reaction to the death of Sophia and Ferdinand
MAIN causes
nationalism, gaining of alliances, imperialism and the assasination of archduke franz ferdinand
paul von hindenberg
Conservative who became president following Ebert 2) Conservative 3) his election spelled defeat to center and social democratic parties; after he died Hitler used Article 48 to rule himself as dictator
Convoy System
In response to Germany's 'unrestricted submarine warfare', the Royal Navy introduced this in June 1917. It worked by providing escort vessels for individual ships. These escorts guarded against surface gunfire attacks and dropped depth charges in areas where German U-boats were known to operate. This resulted in a rapid decrease in German attacks on Allied shipping during the last 17 months of the war.
river where the battle that dashed germanys hope for a quick victory in WWI
mirne
Edward House
Wilson sent chief foriegn policy adviser to London, Paris, and Berlin to negotiate a peace settlement. It was unsuccessful.
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
league of nations
an international organization to promote world peace and cooperation that was created by the Treaty of Versailles (1919); task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again; after the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world; was to be based in Geneva, Switzerland; this choice was natural as Switzerland was a neutral country and had not fought in World War I
Marne
Battle near paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Pravda
While in Siberia, Trotsky spent years publishing a newspaper named ......... meaning "The Truth"
draft
the selection of persons for required military service
Allies accomplished what
They Won World War 1
reichstag fire
February, 1933; the Reichstag was set on Fire by a secret order of Joesef Goebbels; called a communist plot;Hitler convinced president Hindenburg to suspend all civil rights for Communists, socialists, liberals, and trade unionists
66,000
this many canadians died in world war 1
Russian Revolution Stage One
Alexander Kerensky overthrew Czar Nicholas II started the Bolshevik Revolution
14 points
Woodrow Wilson's proposed plan to end World War II; presented ideas focused on preventing a future war
self determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Fourteen Points
Speech by Woodrow Wilson to congress on January 8,1918 that outlined a postwar world dominated by democracy,free trade,disarmament,self-determination.
trench warfare
a strugle between 2 sides which neither side is able to win like stalemate
Two Power Standard
British policy that Britain's navy should be as powerful as two other nations' navies combined
neil
'there seems to be death in the air.'
stalingrad
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.
madison was ________ __ _____ before he was president
secretary of state
Warmonger
A Person Who Tries To Stir Up A War
leauge of nations
association of nations formed to help maintain world peace and prevent imperialism; usa only country not part of it
Central Powers
one group of countries fighting on the same side in WWI. Central Powers fought the Allies.
Franz Ferdinand and Sophia
this couple of Austria-Hungary visted the Bosnian city of Sarajevo to "show their face" and "get to know the people"
selective service act
law requiring men to register for military service
How did Americans support the war effort?
a.bought war bonds
b.planted gardens
c.conserved foor
d.volunteered
e.spread popaganda
f. women went to work
name of peace treaty made by wilson, clemenceau, and lloyd george
treaty of versailles
Alsace and Lorraine
Part of France but Germany won it durin the Franco-Prussian war and france got it back after WW1
lend and lease act
program that gave the gov power to make weapons available to great britain without regard for its ability to pay
Battle of Vimy Ridge (1917)
Canadian forces won big lead by British leader Byng
French forces had failed 3 times to take the ridge
Most important battle up to this point
shot or bayoneted
the men were taken up secondly in the Armenian massacre and were ....... or ....... to death
Russia, France, and Great Britain
3 nations that belonged to the triple entente.
Describe 6 of wilsons 14 points and why they had no affect on the treaty of versailles.
1)no more secret treaties.2)freedom of the seas.3)reduce armaments.4)no more berriaers to trade.6)establish a "general association ofprotection for all nations"
Sabotage and Sedition Acts
passed in 1918 made it a crime to say, print or write almost anything negative about the government.
what did the espionage and sedition act do?
make it illegal to go against the war effort
sitzrieg
phony war
luftwaffe
german airforce
red army
russia's army
Francisco Franco
Spanish fascist leader
april 30 1945
hitler committed suicide
places germany invaded
Rhineland, Austria, Sudentenlad
Anschluss
Union of Austria and Germany
WRA
agency responsible for relocating Japanese-Americans following Pearl Harbor
sonar / radar
two new detection devices
Holocaust
attempt to exterminate Jewish people, Aryans (best thing ever) vs. Jews (parasites)
London Blitz
focused on civilian destruction. 300-600 civilians died daily, mainly attacking at night with air raids and leaving the cities in ruins
socialist
which ideas have fascists implemented so that people would not like communism
League of Nations-
an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, and it was the precursor to the United Nations
Charles DeGaulle
Leader of the French resistance
Operation Fortitude
The most successful deception operation of the war and arguably the most important. It was where the Allies used fake tanks and such to get the Germans to believe the attack was coming from a false location.
d day
invasion of france to invade germany
Barbarrosa
Operation to attack Russia in 1941 because Hitler knows its gonna be a long war.
Blitzkrieg
The 'lightning war' used by the Germans in World War II, which made full use of the weapons of modern war in order to win quick victories.
Big Four
US, Great Britain, Soviet Union, France
stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
his forces invaded from the east
Munich Agreement
England and France appease HItler hoping to avoid all out war. Let him keep Austria and the Sudentenland.
Berlin
capital of Germany located in eastern Germany
Albert Speer
As Hitler's favorite architect, Speer was in charge of building cities and structures for Hitler and designing new cities envisioned after victory in WWII.
Atlantic Wall
An extensive system of coastal fortifications built by Germany (1942-1944) along the western coast of Europe and as a defense against an Allied invasion of the mainland continent from Great Britain.
Royal Air Force
the airforce of Great Britain
Navajo Language
used to create secret code that Japanese never broke
Atalntic Charter
August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self-determination for all liberated nations
Okinawa
a battle Japan lost and kept fighting anyways
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
General jarulzelski
communist leader in Poland who thought he'd win the free elections, but he didn't
French Resistance
What group fought the Germans secretly in France during WW II
"Europe First" Strategy
Germany seen as a bigger threat
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American leader. in charge of Operation Overlord
Victory Garden
During World War II, vegetable garden planted to combat food shortages in the United States
black shirts
Italy's secret police set up by Moussolini
Operation Overlord
The Allied invasion of Normandy (NW France) in June of 1944. nicknamed D-Day
J. Robert Oppenheimer
physicist who directed the Manhattan Project and spent $2 billion to develop a weapon from an atom
Dec 7, 1941
japanese attack u.s. at pearl harbor
Total War
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
LEYTE GULF
Allies won great victory at this battle in the Pacific near the Philippines in October 1944.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
fat man
The code name for the plutonium-core, implosion-type atom bomb the U.S. first tested and then dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in August 9 1945. It was first tested in US soil New Mexico.
Lebnsaum
Room to mose. Phrase used by Hitler to justify the invasion of other countries. First espoused in Mein Kampf
zoot suit riots
series of attacks by U.S. sailors against Mexican Americans in Los Angeles.
what was the nazis final solution?
to destroy the jews
the Manhattan Project
FDR authorized this program in order to build an atomic bomb to counter the one the Germans were rumored to have been building.
v-e day
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
battle of the bulge
1944-1945 battle in which allied forces turned back the last major german offensive of world war II
9 power treaty
Binded all countries to obey the "Open-Door Policy' in China
Harry Truman
Who was the President of the United States when the decision was made to drop the atomic bomb?
Albert Einstein
German scientist who came to the US after being terrorized by Hitler and helped to develop the Atomic Bomb
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt
managed to pull Americans out of the Great Depression and lead them to victory in World War II
what did the japanese name the part of china they conquered
Manchuko
battle of britain
2,000 luftwaffe planes in london skies for 2 months bombing london
how the government produced war supplies and feed its soldiers
rationing what USA coul buy
"Hitler's fate was sealed. Mussolini's fate was sealed.
As for the Japanese, they would be ground to powder...
I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful."
Churchill's reaction to Pearl Harbor
The London Economic Conference
1933 conference; 66 nations; hoped to organize a global attack on the depression and to stabilize various nation's currencies; FDR considered sending a delegation, feared stabilization of American currency might undermine his inflationary practices; did not send a delegation, resulting in its adjournment
"Peace in Our Time"
Hitler broke the treaty of Versailles by rebuilding the German military. European leaders did not try and stop Hitler, rather they vainly tried to buy peace by giving into his demands, a policy known as appeasement.
Ardennes Offensive: Battle of Bulge
Dec 1944-1945; Hitler sent troops across Allie front; from S. Belgium to Lux., germans created deadly bulge, germans gave up b/c of fuel shortage, US and Brits destroyed oil refineries in german territory
the date that fat boy was dropped over hiroshima
august 6, 1945
Why put on a star of david
to identify they were jews
What was the name of the document that gave Germany the Sudetenland?
The Munich Agreement
"quarantine the aggressor"
name of speech given by FDR in 1934 - showed his position of wanting interventionism
war supplies and old naval ships
The United States aided Great Britain by giving them___________.
What prompted Japan to attack Pearl Harbor?
Roosevelt stopped trade with Japan so they didn't have any oil
The Final Decision by the Big Three on entering WWII
We will open up the Western Front
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