world war vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
armistance
truce
Kaiser
German emperor
U-boats
German Submarines; Undersea-boats
reperation(indemnity)
pay for causing war
Eastern Front
Russia vs. Germany
ABM
Anti Ballistic Missles (defensive)
"Central Powers"
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
reparations
compensation or payment compensation payable by a defeated nation for damages sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities
Battle of Somme
July 1, 1916
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Gavrilo Princip
Serbian nationalist/terrorist who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in 1914. This event resulted in the start of World War I.
contraband
weapons and military supplies from Germany
"Big Four"
Italy, US, Great Britain, France
T/F The yalta Conference recognized Soviet control of Eastern Europe.
True
Entente
nonbinding agreement to follow common policies
Zimmermann Telegram
German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann offered to help Mexico recover Texas,New Mexico, and Arizona
Eastern
Stretch of battle field along german//russia border
Mobilization
the gathering of resources and preparation for war.
draft
the selection of persons for required military service
Russia
country which signed an early peace treaty with Germany
Trenches
Deep ditches soldiers dug during WWI because neither side could gain an advantage and they needed protection..
Russian Treaty with germany
treaty of Breast Litovsk
propaganda
spreading ideas for the purpose of influencing opinion
naval race
announced by Germans, were competing with the dreadnaughts of Great Britain
Nationalism
feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or group
Battle of the Somme
Germany gains 1 mile
ration
the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel)
1st Russian revolution
February/march 1917, new Russian government, no czar instead democracy...for now
Militarism
The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.
Alice Paul
yound Quaker activist; injected new energy and more radical tactics into women's suffrage movement; formed National Woman's Party; helped make NAWSA postion more acceptable to Wilson
allied powers
great britain, france, russia, and us
Assassination
the Balkan region was considered the powder keg of Europe, tension between ethnic groups and the anticipated an,nexation of Serbia by Austria-Hungary led to the spark that blew the powder keg, the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
genocide
the deliberate attempt to wipe out an entire nation of a group of people
new weapons
result of WWI and new warfare, airplanes, machine guns, submarines, tanks, poinsonous gas
schlieffen plan
german plan, 90% of military against france, defeat in six weeks
"Peace without victory."
Wilson's idea which opposed punishing the defeated powers
Spanish Flu
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people
Chateau Therry
Us and allies stop German forces within 60 miles of Paris
what two european nations were interested in taking control of the balkans
Austria and Russia
Ethnic group
a minority that speaks a different language or fallows diffrent customs than the majority of people in a country people who share common language and traditions
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
went to Bosnia-Herzogovina and got assassinated
midway
naval battle of World War II (June 1942), An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
Henry Cabot Lodge
republican, majority leader in Senate, proposed series of amendmants that would weaken League of Nations, (wilson's opposition)
Arabic
British ship sunk a few month after the Lusitania. US very angry. Germany promised not to sink passenger ships
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
war communism
a policy that was used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army
1st country to declare war
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
Election of 1916
During his first term, Woodrow Wilson fulfilled many progressive aspirations for reform and expanded presidential authority. But as this presidential election approached, another issue concerned the electorate even more than progressive reform: the "Great War" broke out in 1914. From the war's outset, Wilson implored Americans to remain "impartial in thought as well as in deed" and a campaign slogan, "He kept us out of war" was a popular refrain during this election. Wilson won this election as the peace candidate, but less than six months after this election, America had entered the war.
Verdun
The longest battle of World War I, one of the most deadly
david lloyd george
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points., British prime minister during WWI
Wartime Elections Act
granted the vote to the mothers, sisters, and wives of soldiers in the Armed Forces
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
after losing major territory the Russians surrendered and agreed to sign the treaty. The treaty sliced about a third of the Russians western territory away. This officially brought the end of the Russian empire.
Schenck v. US
Supreme Court case which upheld the Espionage and Sedition Acts, saying that freedom of speech can be limited if it poses a "clear and present danger"
Zimmerman note 1917
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government and became a major factor that caused WWI.
What happened on July 28?
Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia
wilsons first point
called for open covenants of peace , openly arrived at
Treaty of Versailles
Germany must accept all blame for the war, arms limitations: 100,000 men in army, 6 warships destroy all submarines, destroy the airforce, give colonies to Britain and France, $300 billion in reparations for repair of land, rebuild, widow pensions, and loss of trade, land in Europe redistributed, league of nations
trench warfare
the type of fighting in WWI in which both sides dug trenches, which were proteceted by mines and barbed wire- "no man's land" was the middle
The Moroccan Crisis of 1911
was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911.
immigration Act of 1917
required a literacy test, 8 dollar head tax, cut Mexican immigration in half--> shortage of workers
leon trotsky
bolshevik who was sent to work out a peace agreement with the cental powers.
Wilfred Owen
He was a war poet. Was killed at the end of the war
Between February and throughout October: "Dual Power" (dvoevlastie)
The effective power of the Provisional Government was challenged by the authority of an institution that claimed to represent the will of workers and soldiers and could, in fact, mobilize and control these groups during the early months of the revolution—the Petrograd Soviet [Council] of Workers' Deputies.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
the two sides met in the largest naval battle in history
4. What was the name of the group that conspired to assassinate Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
the black hand
sabotage and sedition acts
passed in 1918 made it a crime to say, print, or write almost anything negative about the government
Why did the Japanese military attack China without the approval of the elected government?
they knew the League of Nations would do nothing
why did a lot of countries mobilize?
there hadn't been a major war in fifty years so they didn't remember how bad it was, they thought they would be home by christmas, nationalism
U-Boat
submarine
Tsar Nicholas(Romanov)
...
Sopwith Camel
British plane
germany, austria-hungary, italy
triple alliance
tripple entente
Britain, France, Russia
FBI
coordinated civillian intelligence; reorganized after war;: a federal law enforcement agency that is the principal investigative arm of the Department of Justice
aka peace without victory
fourteen points
Battle of the Marne
Aug. 1914
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary(formerly the Triple Alliance) with Italy, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Big Four
-France (Georges Clemenceau)
-Italy (Vittorio Orlando)
-Great Britain (David Lloyd George)
-US (Woodrow Wilson)
Serbia
Who did Austria-Hungary declare war on?
BLITZKRIEG
"Lightning War" - German military strategy in which surprise air attacks are followed by attacks on land
Victory Gardens
backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support war efforts
Allies
Britain, France, US, Russia, Italy (Joined later)
earmarked
any identifying or distinguishing mark or characteristic
-German Role
gave equipment to the Boers
Hideki tojo
japan continued its policy of expansion
Triple Entente in 1914
France, Russia, G.B., Belgium
Conscription
"the draft" which required all young men to be ready for military or other service
Uboats
These German boats could not follow international law when searching vessels.
Schlieffern Plan
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I according to which Germany would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
Britain vs. Germany
nationalism conflict that caused WWI
Funds
1/3 come from taxes
2/3 come from bonds
Liberty loan act
Wars costs
18 million died. 10 million civilians/8 million soldiers. $400 billion - property destroyed
14 pts
to reduce the causes of war
Alliance system
groups of countries that work together
Unrestricted submarine warfare
submarines would sink without warning
Poliburo
had all the power, included educated power, carried out policies and made coherent those ideas of the c.committee
lusitania
british passenger ship that was sunk by the german u- boats killing 1,200 of the 1,900 aboard and 128 of them americans
Meiji Emperor
elstablished a system of universal education designed to produce loyal skilled citizens who were ready to work for Japan's modernization.
Bataan Death March
American and Filipino prisoners were forced to walk 65 miles to a prison camp; many died of disease, starvation, and violence
president during WWI also formed the League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson
Austria blames and declares war on who for assassination?
Serbia
casualties
victims of war - the dead and injured
Schiefflen Plan
plan developed by Germany which said that the only way to win the war would be to knock out France because it was smaller and would mobilize quicker than Russia. Plan was to lead the French into Germany a little bit, then march through Belgium to attack Paris, but Belgium wouldn't let the Germans go through
Liberty Loan Act
government sells liberty loans 2/3 money obtained from war through borrowing) 1 out of every 5 americans buy them
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Balance of Power
The distribution of power among naitions si that no single nation can dominate or interfere with another
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States during the war; joined war in 1917
total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
Selective service
the requirement that all men between 21 and 30 must register for the military draft
u.s. goes to war
u-boats, zimmermann telegram, russian revolution
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
War Labor Board
This government agency was created to make sure industrial disputes ended through voluntary, peaceful arbitration. Its main purpose was to keep labor disputes from disrupting the country's many large contracts for war supplies. The board's actions when confronted with a labor crisis were to abandon lockouts and strikes, preserve the right of collective bargaining, determine hours and wages according to prevailing local standards, perform adjustment through mediation and conciliation, maintain maximum production, and uphold the right of workers to make a living wage. The board was abolished in 1919, by which time it had successfully disposed of all but 33 of its 1,244 cases.
Mustard Gas
most lethal. First used by Germans in 1917. Was odourless. took 13 hours for affect. Skin would bliser, caused internal and external bleeding, it was an extremely painful death, taking 4-5 weeks to die when the lungs fill with fluid.
first battle of marne
September 1914, German offensive was stopped but French could not do counteroffensive--->cause trench warfare for 4 years since stalemate
War in Sight crisis
France quickly recovered from its defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. France paid its war remunerations and began to build its military strength again.
Lend Lease Act
U.S. policy before the U.S. enters W.W. II in December, 1941 in which the U.S. provided war materials to the Allies fighting the Axis powers. Shows that in the period 1939-1941 the U.S. was moving away from its policy of neutrality.
Security Treaty
Treaty made at the Paris Conference in which GB and the US agreed to come to France's aid in the event of another invasion
Toll of the war
9 million soldiers, 13 million civilians died. Bloodiest war up to that time. Called the Great War.
Why did American soldiers island hop?
to get closer to Japan
League of Nations
This part of the 14 Points was accepted, and was an organization designed to arbitrate disputes.
Second Battle Of Ypres
1915, Canadians moved to allied line, hampered by Chlorine gas and ross rifles, Canadians still managed to hold their position until reinforcements arrived despite lack of leadership and experience
Emperor Franz Joseph
emperor of Ausria and king of Hungary; 2nd member of the Triple Entente
Provisions of Peace
Germany had to give up some land, Germany had to pay reporations.
President Woodrow Wilson
led the united state from 1913 to 1921.
Liberty bonds
a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I.
Why did Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-Shek call a truce in their civil war?
The Japanese invaded China.
3 Weaknesses that Led to WWII
1. Angered Germans
2. Left out Russia
What problems affected the postwar U.S.?
The influenza epidemic of 1918, the labor unrest, and the Red Scare.
1st and 2nd Balkan Wars
1. Nearly half a million soldiers on each side, Balkan League vs. Turkey in 1912, wanted to drive the Turks out. Turkey surrendered, peace conference held in London. Turks gave up rest of the land in the Balkans.
2.Disaster for Ferdinand, Bulgaria, who wanted more land of the Balkans. Under attack from 4 sides. Serbia doubled the size of his country
what does the war show russia?
that czar nicholas II's rule was very inefficient
soldiers would spend all day in the trenches fighting against the enemy, new weapon was gas used to kill fast. Many battles lasted long because of the nature of trench warfare. a stalemate was a factor also.
How did trench warfare make offensives long and deadly?
What was "A Return to Normalcy" and who said it?
"A return to normalcy" (i.e. a return to the way of life before World War I) was United States presidential candidate Warren G. Harding's campaign promise in the election of 1920.
czar
russian emperor
zeppelin
german war blimp
illiterate
can not read or write
John J Pershing
led american soldiers
day of White Revolution
March 1917
France
Morocco attempted independence from this country in 1905
Collective Farm
Farms run by the government
What was the Ottoman Empire?
Middle East
Rationing
limiting the supplies of scarce materials
a tommy
what are english soldiers called
Pacifism
the belief that all international disputes can be settled by arbitration
Communists
the Bolsheviks were later renamed this
the central powers
germany austria hungary turkey
Tannenberg
The Battle of Tannenberg, Russian's suffered a great defeat in the war, causing them to retreat.
Pequot War
pequot and dutch vs. narraganset, mohegams, english (puritans of mass. bay); the english destroyed villages, people and tribes
zegota
Polish code name for the underground Council for Aid to Jews; Catholic rescue organization acting solely on religious principles
number of nations at beginning of war
6
autocrat
a monarch who rules with unlimited power
january 25, 1915
1st zebbelin raid in britain
foch
commanding general of allied forces at the end of the great war
Bolshevik Revolution
The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
richard manning
This progressive governor was elected in 1915. He passed a child labor law so that children under age 14 could not work in mills, miness and factories.
Terrorist
individuals or small groups who use violent attacks to advance political goals
Great Migration
Hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved to northen cities to escape the discrimination of the south
Peace, Land, Bread
motto of the Bulsheviks "................."
Kellog-Briand pact
agreement that called upon the nations of the world to renounce the use of offensive war
yalta conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Valcartier
Camp ______ was built in Quebec to train Canadian Troups
Western Front
the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
consumer goods
goods (as food or clothing) intended for direct use or consumption
William Howard Taft
established the dollar diplomacy which substituted dollars for bullets in order to expand in foreign governments. This provided excessive loans to impoverished countries, but eventually did more harm to them than help. Taft also encouraged American banks to lend money to Central American countries to help pay off debts owed to Britain and entrepeneurial investment in the region
Charles Evans Hughes
Supreme Court justice ;; 1916 Republican candidate
Algericas Conference
Germany tried to persuade France to turn away
- Led to suspicion of Germany
- Russians asked British to join an alliance
war guilt clause
1.) formally blamed Germany 2.) charged Germany for $33 billion
stalemate
a deadlock in which neither side gains territory
Vittorio Orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
pearl harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
victory garden
a vegetable garden, esp. a home garden, cultivated to increase food production during a war or period of shortages.
national socialist workers
Nazi party that Adolf Hiltler joined in 1920
Conscientious Objectors
opposed fighting in the war on moral or religious grounds
Plan 17
The name of a "scheme of mobilization and concentration" that was adopted by the French General Staff in 1913, to be put into effect by the French Army in the event of war between France and Germany but was not 'a prescribed narrative for the campaign' or battle plan. The French equivalent of the German Schlieffen Plan
Sedition Act
was a law which punished citizens of the constitution, government, Military, or the flag
(American) President Wilson
was pissed and told Germany they needed to stop unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany listened for a little while...
The Zimmerman Telegram
a 1917 proposal from Germany to Mexico to make war against the US, Mexico ignored it but US became angry
the neutrality of belgium was violated
why does england enter war
Cause of WWI 2: Imperialism(militant)
Impose yourself on another country. Make your territory
what you think. More make it do it.
balkan powder keg
state of unrest in the balkans that allowed the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian thrown to WWI.... (differences btwn serbia&austria hungary)
national wheat board
Instituted by Blum, this was set up to manage the production and sale of grain
Impact on the Homefront
people asked to give and help country, "victory gardens", worked wherever the govt. needed them, conscription - a draft, raised taxes, govts. aggresive used of propaganda, spread ideas to promote a cuase or damage opposition, control public opinion.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
Paris peace conference
G.B. -> wants land , $ , revenge & weak Germany
Italy -> wants $ & land
France -> wants land & lost land , Germany is blamed , $ , revenge , weaken Germany
US -> PEACE
Why did the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand lead to the "war to end all wars"?
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand lead to the "war to end all wars" because it set off a series of war declarations on numerous nations because of alliances that have been formed.
What were the number of casualties in World War 1?
millions of soldiers died
millions of soldiers were wounded
millions of civilians were dead and injured; there was a widespread flu pandemic and much starvation.
What was the U.S. Military's condition?
They were weak and had only 16 ships and about 7,000 men. They were poorly trained and equipped and were often led by inexperienced officers.
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