"C" Vocab for 'Anatomy and Physiology of Companion Animals' Flashcards

Terms Definitions
calorigenic
Heat producing
chondrocyte
Mature cartilage cell.
benign
A nonrecurrent, nonharmful growth.
chyme
The semifluid, partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum.
chondroblasts
Fixed cells that form cartilage.
cerebellar dysfunction
Caused by inflammation, underdecelopment, or degeneration of the cerebellum, the disease is characterized by an exaggerated and awkwaed gait usually resulting from hyperextension of the legs. Cerebellar dysfunction does not exhibit any degree of paralysis, partial or complete.
brachycephalic
Shor-faced. Brachycephalic breeds of dogs include Boston terriers, pugs, English bulldogs, and Pekinese.
basement membrane
A noncellular, collagen-based structure that supports epithelial tissue.
centromere
Also called a kinetochore; the protein disk that holds a pair of chromatids together as a chromosome and then holds that chromosome to a spindle fiber during cell division.
cellulose
Ruminant animals must convert this matter into volatile fatty acids to derive sustenance from it. This is accomplished through microbial fermentaion. Cellulose is not digested by carnivores and most omnivores.
cerebellum
Second largest component of the brain; allows the body to have coordinated movement, balance, posture, and complex reflexes.
carbohydrates
One of teh essential nutrients necessary for all ife functions. They are a quick source of energy and may be stored in the body as glycogen; sugars.
cardiomyopathy
Disease of the myocardium (heart muscle)
carninogenic
Having those properties that cuase cancer.
chondroitin sulfate
A glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage.
cilia
Hairlike processes of the luminal surface of cells that assist in the movement of mucus, fluid, and solid material across the cell surface.
beta2-adrenergic receptors
Receptors associated with the sypathetic nervous system response; these receptors, when stimulated by catecholamines, tend to cause dilation of the bronchioles (airways) and vasodilation of some blood vessels.
barbs
Slender prjections off the main feather shaft that comprise a vane on each side of the shaft.
basopenia
Theoretically, a decrease in the total number of basophils in peripheral blood.
calcifies
Hardening of organic tissue by the deposit of lime and calcium salts.
cerebrum
That portion of the brain responsible for functions most commonly associated with "higher-order" behaviors (learning, intelligence, awareness); receives and interprets sensory information, initiates conscious (voluntary) nerve impulses to skeletal muscles, and integrates neuron activity that is normally associated with communication, expression of emotional responses, learning, memory and recall, and other behaviors associated with consciuos activity.
caudal
A directional term meaning toward the tail end of an animal.
callus
The healing tissue between the ends of the fractured bone that is eventually replaced by true bone as the fracture heals.
canaliculi
Tiny channels through the matrix of bone. Threadlike projections from osteocytes communicate with each other and with blood vessels through the canaliculi.
ciliary muscle
Multiunit smooth muscles of the ciliary body that adjust the shape of the eye's lens.
chordae tendineae
Fine, threadlike cords that connect two atrioventricular valves to the appropriate papillary muscles in the ventricles.
chemical signaling
The specific interaction of hormones and neurotransmitters to cell surfaces for the purpose of changing cell activity.
cell metabolism
Functions that break down nutrients, prduce ATP, use ATP, and create complex molecules from simple ones.
chymotrypsin
Protease secreted in an inactive form from the pancreas and activated by trypsin.
bloat
The accumulation of gas within the rumen or monogastric stomach causing severe distention.
belly
The thick, central portion of a muscle.
broad ligaments
Paired sheets of connective tissue that suspend the uterus from the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity and atach it to the adbominal wall. They are often subdivided into the mesovarium, which supports the ovary; the mesosalpinx, which supports the oviduct; and the mesometrium, which supports the uters.
bulbar conjuctiva
The transparent membrane that covers the fron (rostral) portion of the eyeball.
choanae
Two internal nares that open from the nasal chambers into the roof of the mouth.
central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord
cholecystokinin (CCK)
A hormone released by the duodenum when chyme enters from the stomach. It slows gastric emptying and motility while increasing intestinal motility. It also stimulates the pancreas to release digestive enzymes into the duodenum.
cholesterol
A steroid alcohol that is found in many fat-based tissues throughout the body. Cholesterol can be synthesized in the body or obtained through diet.
canine tooth
Sharp, pointed tooth between the most caudal incisor and the most rostral premolar.
canthus
The corner of the eyelids where they come together. Each eye has a medial and a lateral canthus.
catalse
An enzyme found in almost all cells the breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
basal bodies
Refers to a pair of tubular structures. Each one is compsed of nine microtubules surrounding another pair of microtubules. Basal bodies act as teh base of cilia and flagella.
ball-and-socket joint
Also called a spheroidal joint. It consists of a spherical joint surface (the ball) that fits into a closely matching concave joint surface (the socket). The shoulder and hip joints are ball-and-socket joints. Ball-and-socket joints allow the greatest range of joint movements.
basophilia
An increase in the total number of basophils in peripheral blood.
biopsy
The removal of a small sample of tissue for microscopic examination. This procedure is often but not exclusively used to determine whether a tumor is benign or malignant.
beta pleat
The formation of a complex protein that is composed of hydrogen bonds corresponding with the spines of polypeptide chains.
bronchial tree
The air passageways in the lungs between the main bronchi and the alveoli. The branching nature of the bronchi as they form smaller and smaller air passageways resembles the branching of a tree.
B lymphocyte
The type of lymphocyte that is responsible for humoral immunity through its transformation into a plasma cell and production of antibody.
canine parvoviral enteritis
Caused by the canine parvovirus, this infectious disease has an extremely high mortality rate in puppies. Infections occurring in utero are known to cause acute myocarditis and overall poor health in the litter. Because it tends to attack cells in the mitotic phase, rapidly dividing epithelial tissue is particularly affected by parvoviral infections. Vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, and dehydration are clinical signs of disease. An immunization is available.
cental sulcus
The cental depression of the frog in the equine hoof
chemical digestion
The breakdown of food by action of chemicals or enzymes.
chorionic gonadotropin
A hormone produced by the placenta of a pregnant animal.
circulating pool of neutrophils
Neutrophils found in the peripheral blood flowing through the center of blood vessels.
cell-mediated immunity
The portion of the immune system that produces "killer" cells that directly attack foreign invaders.
ciliary body
A portion of the uvea, or middle vascular layer, of the eye. The ciliary body is a ring-shaped structure located immediately behind the iris. It contains the ciliary muscles that adjust the shape of the lens and the cells that produce aqueous humor.
bilateral symmetry
The concept that the left and right halves of an animla's body are mirror images of each other. Paired structures, such as the kidneys, are located one on each side of the body, and single sturctures, such as the heart, are located near the median plane.
bolus (of food)
Amount of food swallowed at one time.
brood patch
Area of thickened skin on the lower abdomen of birds where feather are plucked to transfer hear to eggs during incubation.
cell adhesion molecules (CAM's)
Glycoproteins that aid not only in the bonding of cells but also in lubricating the movement of one cell past another. They also help to transport specialized cells to areas of need.
cervical vertebrae
The bones of the neck portion of the spinal column.
brush border
The area on the free surface of an epithelial cell that is covered with microvilli.
body of the stomach
The central part of the stomach between the fundus and the antrum.
bulb of the glans
An enlargement in the penis of the dog and related species. It is made up of erectile tissue that slowly engorges with blood during copulation. When muscles surrounding the vagina and vulva of female clamp down on teh enlarged bulb, the male connot withdraw the penis. He typically dismounts and turns to that the two animals are tail to tail. This position is known as the "tie" and usually lasts 15 to 20 minutes, after which the animals can separate.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Also known as mad cow disease. This was first contracted by cows in Great Britain that had consumer the flesh of sheep thought to carry infectious prions.
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