"LMS Directed Reading Flashcards

Terms Definitions
liquid precipitation
rain
phenomena caused by interactions between solar radiation and the ionosphere
auroras
Instrument that measures atmospheric pressure; changes in atmospheric pressure cause the sides of a sealed metal container to bend inward or bulge out
aneroid barometer
Gentle winds that extend over distances of less than 100 km are called
breezes
What instrument measures snow depth?
measuring stick
the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which temperature decreases as altitude increases
mesophere
Solar radiation that is not reflected is
absorbed.
The prevailing winds that blow from west to east through the contiguous United States are the
westerlies.
What controls humidity?
rates of condensation and evaporation
1 atmosphere; the average atmospheric pressure at sea level, equalling 760 mm of mercury or 1,000 millibars
standard atmospheric pressure
the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases
troposphere
One process that helps heat Earth’s atmosphere that is similar to the process that heats a greenhouse is called the .
greenhouse effect
During the day in mountainous regions, a gentle breeze called a forms when warm air from the valleys moves upslope.
valley breeze
The liquid phase of water is called _________________
water
The solid phase of water is called ___________________
ice
Water vapor can turn directly into ice without becoming a(n)
liquid
The process in which freezing or condensation nuclei are introduced into a cloud to cause rain is called
cloud seeding.
What percentage of water is in dry air?
dry air
The most abundant elements in air include all of the following
oxygen, nitrogen, argon.
When does convection occur?
Convection occurs when gases or liquids are heated unevenly.
What causes scattering?
Clouds, dust, water droplets, and gas molecules in the atmosphere disrupt the paths of radiation from the sun and cause scattering.
narrow bands of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere
jet streams
What happens to the rate of evaporation as the temperature gets higher?
It gets higher.
The measure of the actual amount of water vapor in the air is called the__________________.
absolute humidity
a thick layer of ice on a surface
glaze ice
In Earth’s atmosphere, what causes the distinctive pattern of temperature changes with increasing altitude?
The temperature differences mainly result from how solar energy is absorbed as it moves through the atmosphere.
Which regions will generally have more moderate temperatures?
regions receiving ocean winds
As warm air above land rises and cool air from above water moves in to replace it, a cool wind moving from water to land, called a, forms in the afternoon.
sea breeze
What happens when the lithium chloride in a dew cell absorbs water from the air?
Its electrical conductance increases.
If a person wanted to know how close the air is to reaching the dew point, he or she would calculate the _______________
relative humidity
Which of the following are created by the process of supercooling?
snow and rain
Identify six ways oxygen is removed from the atmosphere.
animals; bacteria; plants; forest fires; the burning of fuels; weathering of some rocks
Where do low-pressure regions form?
where warm air rises away from Earth’s surface
Name four other important sources of water vapor in the atmosphere.
evaporation from lakes, ponds, streams, and soil
During the condensation of water, latent heat
is released into the surrounding air.
How do large particles in the atmosphere differ from small particles?
Large particles remain in the atmosphere briefly; tiny particles can remain suspended in the atmosphere for months or years.
Why does the amount of water in the air affect the temperature of a region?
Water vapor stores heat.
Why does air near Earth’s surface flow from the poles to the equator?
air moves from high-pressure regions to low-pressure regions
Where on Earth does most evaporation take place?
in oceans of the equatorial regions
Does cloud seeding cause a significant increase in precipitation?
Sometimes cloud seeding produces more rain and at other times it does not increase precipitation.
What happens when particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere reflect and bend solar rays?
The deflection causes rays to travel in all directions without changing their wavelengths.
How does an electric hygrometer work ?
An electric current is passed through a moisture-attracting substance. The amount of moisture changes the electrical conductivity of the substance and can be measured and expressed as relative humidity of the surrounding air.
The two most abundant compounds in air are
the gases carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Why do desert temperatures vary widely between day and night?
In the desert there is little water vapor to hold the heat of the day.
What happens as the water evaporates from the LiCl?
The LiCl loses its ability to conduct electricity.
What are three ways in which cloud seeding materials are released?
burners on the ground, flares dropped from aircraft, or dropping from aircraft
Why is the atmospheric pressure lower beneath a mass of warm air?
Warm air is less dense than cool air. It exerts less pressure than the same volume of cooler air does. So the atmospheric pressure is lower beneath a mass of warm air.
How does the speed of an object relate to the Coriolis effect?
The faster an object travels, the greater the Coriolis effect.
What can cause air to cool to its dew point?
conduction when the air is in contact with a cold surface
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