"LMS Directed Reading 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
upper boundary of the stratosphere
stratopause
water vapor in the atmosphere
humidity
Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
barometer
In the Northern Hemisphere, trade winds flow from the
northeast.
In one type of _________________________, a funnel fills one side of a divided bucket with 0.25 mm of rainwater, and then tips and sets off an electrical device that records the amount.
rain gauge.
the region above the ionosphere, where Earth’s atmosphere blends into the almost complete vacuum of space
exosphere
Solar rays with longer wavelengths, such as visible and infrared waves, reach the
lower atmosphere.
X rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet rays are absorbed by molecules of nitrogen and oxygen in the mesosphere and
thermosphere.
A stormy region created where the polar easterlies meet warm air from the westerlies is called a
front.
What determines the rate of evaporation?
air temperature
solid precipitation in the form of lumps of ice
hail
Nitrogen is removed from the air primarily by
nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Almost all radiation that has a wavelength shorter than the wavelengths of visible light is absorbed by the
upper atmosphere.
From what direction do trade winds flow in the Southern Hemisphere?
the southeast
What is the name of the condensation that forms during the night?
dew
In what kind of clouds does hail usually form?
cumulonimbus
List seven different particulates.
volcanic dust; ash from fires; microscopic organisms; mineral particles from soil; pollen; particles from meteors; salt crystals
How much of the total mass of the atmosphere does gravity keep within 32 km of Earth’s surface?
99%
The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation is called the .
greenhouse effect
How fast do waves of radiation travel through space?
300,000 km/s
What are the three looping patterns of air flow in each hemisphere called?
convection cells
What is the name of the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas?
sublimation
What equation is used to calculate the absolute humidity?
absolute humidity
The diameter of most cloud droplets is about
20 micrometers.
What is a temperature inversion?
A temperature inversion is the layering of warm air on top of cool air.
How much of the radiation from visible light waves is absorbed as they pass through the atmosphere?
a small amount
What happens to the water molecules when the water absorbs energy?
They collide more frequently.
The temperature at which the LiCl in a dew cell loses its ability to conduct electricity is the .______________
dew point
About how much snow does it take to produce 1 cm of water?
10 cm
Describe the four steps of the nitrogen cycle.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil change N2 into nitrogen compounds; nitrogen compounds in plants are consumed by animals; nitrogen compounds return to the soil in wastes; decay and processes in the soil return N2 to the atmosphere.
The sun’s rays shift northward and southward during the changing seasons of the year causing a shift in the position of
pressure belts and wind belts.
What causes dew to form?
Objects near the ground lose heat during the night, often dropping to the dew point of the surrounding air. Air comes into contact with the surfaces and water vapor condenses out of it.
Name three things meteorologists can determine with Doppler radar.
location, direction of movement, and intensity of precipitation
What is an air pollutant?
Air pollution is any substance in the atmosphere that is harmful to people, animals, plants, or property.
Why does the amount of water in the air affect the temperature of a region?
water vapor stores heat
What determines the path along which the Coriolis effect deflects moving objects?
The Coriolis effect deflects moving objects along a path that depends on the speed, latitude, and direction of the object.
What is a common mixing ratio for air in polar regions?
less than 1 g/kg
What is the size of normal raindrops?
0.5 to 5 mm in diameter
Besides altitude, what are two other factors that cause atmospheric pressure to change?
temperature and the amount of water vapor in the air
What happens to solar energy that reaches Earth’s surface?
The surface either absorbs or reflects the energy.
What is the difference between frost and frozen dew?
Frost forms when water vapor turns directly to ice; frozen dew forms when dew freezes as clear beads of ice.
What must happen in order for a cloud droplet to fall as precipitation?
It must increase in size.
How is water vapor removed as it enters the atmosphere?
Water vapor is removed by the processes of condensation and precipitation.
What happens to air heated by radiation or conduction?
the air becomes less dense and is pushed by nearby cooler air; the cooler air becomes warmer, and the cycle repeats.
What would you use to calculate the relative humidity from a psychrometer?
the difference between the readings of the two thermometers
Is the current oxygen content of the atmosphere lower, higher, or about the same as it was millions of years ago? Explain your answer.
The oxygen content is about the same because the amount of oxygen produced by plants each year equals the amount consumed by all animal life processes.
Name the two primary sources of heat in the atmosphere.
the absorption of the sun’s rays by gases in the atmosphere; ocean and land surfaces absorb energy and then give off that energy as heat
What is a disadvantage of using a hair hygrometer?
It is less accurate than psychrometers and dew cells.
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