"The Human Species"- Intro to Biological Anthropology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Arboreal
Living in trees.
Nocturnal
Active during the night.
B.P.
Before Present (1950), The internationally accepted form of designating past dates.
Eon(H)
The major subdivision of geologic time.(H)
Taphonomy
(H)
The study of what happens to plants and animals after they die.
(H)
Taphonomy
(H)
Taphonomy helps in determining reasons for the distribution and condition of fossils.
Vasoconstriction
(H)
A physiologic response to cold stress that minimizes heat loss by the narrowing of blood vessels, which DECREASES blood flow and heat loss.
(H)
Vasoconstriction
(H)
Alternates with Vasodilation in a pattern called the Lewis Hunting Phenomenon.
Regional Continuity
The appearance of similar traits within a geographical region that remain over a long period of time.
Solitary Group
The smallest primate social group, consisting of the mother and her dependent offspring.
Orrorin Tugenensis
An early primitive hominid species from Africa dating to the late Miocene(6 Ma).
Dendrochronology
A chronometric dating method based on the fact that tree's in dry climates tend to accumulate one growth ring per year.
Haplorhini (Haplorhines)
(H)
One of the two suborders of primates suggested to replace the prosimian/anthropoid suborders. This suborder is characterized by being WITHOUT a moist nose. (Ex. Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans)
(H)
Haplorhini (Haplorhines)
(H)
(The other suborder is the strepsirhines).
Protein-calorie Malnutrition
A group of nutritional diseases resulting from inadequate amounts of proteins and/or calories.
Middle Paleolithic(H)
A general term used to collectively refer to the stone tool technologies of archaic humans.(H)
Polygamy
A sexual bond between an adult male and an adult female in which either individual may have more than one mate at the same time.
Sahelanthropus Tchadensis
An early possible hominid species from Africa dating between 6 and 7 million years ago that has a number of hominid dental traits and may have been bipedal.
Australopithecus Boisei
A very robust species of robust australopithecine dating between 2 million and 1.2 million years ago and found in East Africa.
Fission-track Dating
A chronometric dating method based on the number of tracks made across volcanic rock as uranium decays into lead.
Lemur
A prosimian found today on the island of Madagascar.
Allen's Rule
(H)
Rule that states that mammals in cold climates tend to have short, bulky limbs, allowing less loss of body heat, whereas mammals in hot climates tend to have long, slender limbs, allowing greater loss of body heat.
(H)
Allen's Rule
(H)
Masai cattle herder from Africa VS. Inuit (Eskimo) man.
Social Structure
The composition of a social group and the way it is organized; including size, age structure, and the number of each sex in the group. There are five of these social groups.
Monogamous Family Group
Social structure in which the primary social group consists of an adult male, an adult female, and their immature offspring.
Kenyanthropus Platyops
A species of early hominid in East Africa dating to 3.5 million years ago. This species combines a number of primitive features (small brain, jutting face) and derived features (small molars, flat face). Its evolutionary status is unclear.
Morotopithicus
A genus of fossil ape that lived in Africa 20 million years ago ans whose postcranial anatomy was similar in a number of ways to living apes.
Knuckle Walking
A form of movement used by chimpanzees and gorillas that is characterized by all four limbs touching the ground, with the weight of the arms resting on the knuckles of the hands.
Velocity Curve
A measure of the rates of change in growth over time.
Sickle Cell Anemia
(H)
A genetic trait that occurs in a person homozygous for the "S" allele, which alters the structure of red blood cells and oxygen transport is severely impared.
(H)
Sickle Cell Anemia
(H)
produced from a mutation in the beta chain of hemoglobin from the allele usually called hemoglobin A, to the hemoglobin S allele
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