2_Animal structure and function Flashcards

Terms Definitions
*goblet
*interstitial fluid
tissue fluid
glands
-specialized epithelial tissueGoblet cells-unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucusExocrine glands-secrete product through a duct onto exposed epithelial surfaceEndocrine glands-release hormones into interstitial fluid or blood
Cartilage
exists as 3 diiferent types
simple epithelieum 
-single layer
-used for diffusion 
ex) air sacs of lungs 
Fibrocartilage


coarse parallel collagen fibers; provides flexible support with compressibility; forms intervertebral discs and knee cartilages
Skeletal muscle


Striated muscle generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body. Attached to and move bone skeleton
Chondrocytes


exists as 3 diiferent types
homeostasis
-balanced internal environment (steady state)
neuron
-elongated cell-receives and transmits info but do not touch other neurons-synapse (a junction between neurons)-dendrites-receive signals & transmit signals to cell body, can be many of them-axon-transmits signals away from cell body to other neurons, muscles, & glands, one 1, much longer than dendrites
homeostatic mechanisms
systems working together to regulate. 
ex) nervous, cardiovas and endocrine work together to regulate body temperature
Epidermis 

-Epithelial layer of the skin
-Covers the entire body
-Protects 

 
*endothelium
-lining of blood and lymph vessels 
-have diff. embryonic origin from "true" ephithelium 
-but structurally similar
Leukocytes


A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.
Muscle


Tissue consisting of long muscle cells that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses. (list 3 types)
Osteocytes


Bone-forming cells that deposit a matrix of collagen.
connective tissues
-cells embedded in intercellular substance-microscopic collagen fibers, eleastic fibers, reticular fibers (thin branched fibers) scattered throughout a matrix (thin gel of polysaccharides)**one exception to gel matrix-plasma(liquid matrix)Ex of connective tissue: blood, bone
3 epithelial tussue structures
simple, stratified, pseudostratified
nervous tissue
consists of neurons-elongated cells specialized for transmitting impulsesalso consists of glial cells-support and nourish neurons
acclimatization
process of adjustment to seasonal changes
Dense Irregular


like regular variety, but fibers are arranged in different planes,; resists tension exerted from many different directions; forms the dermis of the skin and fascia.
Bone
(osseous tissue) consists of a firm, collagen-conatining matrix embedded with calcium salts, which confer rigidity; forms the body skeleton.
Transitional epithelium


is a modified stratified squamous epithelium.  Adapted for responding to stretch; lines hollow urinary system organs.

Simple columnar epithelium

specialized for secretion and absoprtion, consists of a single layer of tall columnar cells that often exhibit microvilli and globlet cells. Lines most of the digestive tract.

 
*exocrine gland
-secrete products onto free epithelial surface through a duct (tube) 
ex) goblet cells and sweat glands and parotid salivary gland
Which type of dense connective tissue connects muscles to bones?
tendons
muscle tissue
-consists of cells specialized to contract (only function)-each cell is an elongated muscle fiber made up of contractile units (myofibrils)
bone structure
-outer layer of compact bone surrounding a filling of spongy bone-compact bone constists of osteons(spindle-shaped units containing arranged osteocytes within)
Fibroblasts


A type of cell in loose connective tissue that secretes the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers.
Simple cuboidal epithelium


commonly active in secretion and absorption. Found in glands and kidney tubules.
Columnar


The column shape of a type of epithelial cell.
Haversian systems


One of many structural units of vertebrate bone, consisting of concentric layers of mineralized bone matrix surrounding lacunae, which contain osteocytes, and a central canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves.
simple cuboidal and columnar epithelia
-lines passageways-specialized for secretion and absorption
skeletal muscle (striated)
-striated fibers of actin & myosin-under voluntary control-multinucleic -elongated cylindrical fibers run parallel to each other-skeletal muscles contract, move parts of the body
stratified squamous epithelium
-forms outer layer of skin-lines passageways into the body-provides protection (due to many layers piled up)
negative feedback
-a change (stressor) in some steady state triggers a response that opposes the change
elastic connective tissue
-consists of bundles of parallel elastic fibers-found in lung tissue & walls of large arteries (things subject to change in pressure)
hibernation
long term torpor in response to winter cold
*serous membrane
-lines a body cavity that does not open to the outside of the body
-secretes fluid into the cavity it lines 
-simple squamous epithelium + thin layer of loose connective tissue
Stratified columnar epithelium


is rare in the body; commonly appears  at junctions between other epithelial types.
2 types of specialized cells in connective tissue
fibroblasts-make protein/carb complexes which make the fibers in matrix, help heal woundsmacrophages "body scavenger cells"-phagocytize things
costs and benefits of endothermy
benefits: high metabolic rate, constant body temp allows higher rate of enzyme activity, can be active even in low winter tempscosts: high energy cost, much greater food requirements
simple squamous epithelium
-very thin-lines blood vessels and air sacs in lungs-permits exchange of materials by diffusion (oxygen, water, hormones)Ex. cheek cells
estivation
-torpor due to lack of food or water during summer heat-tends to happen in water based animals Ex. lungfish
*mucous membrane / mucosa
lines body cavity that opens to outside of body 
ex) digestive or respiratory 
functions of connective tissue
1) joins other body tissues2) supports body and organs3) protects underlying organsEx. bone
Dense/ Fibrous connective tissue
A dense tissue with large numbers of collagenous fibers organized into parallel bundles. This is the dominant tissue in tendons and ligaments. Fixsen’s definition: The term "fibrous connective tissue" is used in different ways. Used broadly, it refers to any type of connective tissue other than adipose connective tissue. Used more narrowly, it refers to dense regular connective tissue (tendons, ligaments).  (list 3 types)
What role do calcium salts play in bone?
making the matrix hard
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