3C 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
trees
fish
crops
3 examples of renewable resources
impermeable, 7.10.2
______ describes material through which water cannot pass.
weathering
mechanical or chemical process that breaks down rocks into smaller and smaller fragments
humus
dark colored, decayed organic matter in soil that serves as a nutrient source for plants and promotes good soil structure, and helps soil hold water
soil
material that supports vegetation and is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, organic matter, water, and air; may take thousands of years to form
batholith
_______ is the largest intrusive igneous rock bodies that form when magma cools underground before reaching Earth's surface.
carbon monoxide
______ is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas made up of carbon and oxygen.
1%
How much water is usable by people?
 
climate, 5.3C.2
______ is the average weather conditions in an area over many years.
granitic, 6.10.2
______ is a light-colored, silica-rich igneous rock of a lower density that basalitic rock.
meteorologist 6.13
is a person who studies weather
photosynthesis 7.12
is the process by which chlorophyll-containing land plants and cholorphyll-containing ocean organisms use energy, carbon dioxide, and water to produce food.
soil changes
 
because of forming or natural disasters in an area
soil type
differs depending on location and slope
litter
leaves, twigs and other organic matter in the A horizon that changes to humus when it is exposed to decomposing organisms
till
______ is a mixture of different-sized sediments dropped from the base of a slowing glacier and that can cover huge areas of land.
plucking
______ is a process that adds boulders, gravel, and sand to a glacier's bottom and sides as water freezed and thaws and breaks off pieces of surrounding rock
deposition
______ is the dropping of sediments that occurs when an agent of erosion loses its energy of motion and is no longer able to carry its load
abrasion
______ is erosion that occurs when windblown seditments strike rock, scraping the surface and wearing it away.
stike-slip faults, 8.10.3
______ occur along transform boundaries and generally causing earthquakes.
homonids 8.12
are humanlike primates that walked upright on two feet and ate both meat and vegetables
volcano
______ is an opening in Earth's surface that often forms a mountain when layers of lava and volcanic ash erupt and build up.
______ occurs where Earth's plates are moving apart or together and at hot spots.
sill
______ is an intrusive igneous rock body that forms when magma is sqeezed into a horizontal crack between rock layers and then hardens.
ozone
______ is a molecule of oxygen that contains three atoms of oxygen.
air pollution
the addition of any unwanted substance into the air
lava, 6.10.2
______ is the thick, gooey, molten material know as magma when it reaches Earth's surface, and flows from volcanoes
weather 6.13
is the present state of the atmosphere, including air pressure, wind, temperature, and the moisture in the air.
permeable, 7.10.2
______ describes rock and soil that have connecting pare spaces through which water can pass.
delta, 7.10.1
______ is a trianglualr or fan-shaped deposit of sediments that is formed when a stream or river slows and empties into an ocean, gulf, or lake.
upwelling 7.11.2
______ is circulation in the ocean that brings deep, cold water to the ocean surface.
nekton 7.12
are all organisms that actively swim throughout the ocean.
Oxidation
process that occurs when a material is exposed to water and oxygen
 
(iron will rust)
valley glacier
______ occur in mountain valleys where the elevation is high enough that the snow does not melt all year round.
rockslides
______ are when large blocks of rock break loose from a steep slope and start tumbling.
astehenosphere, 8.10.3
______ is the plasticlike layer below the lithosphere.
Pangaea, 8.10.1
______ is athe single large landmass made up of all the continents connected together that croke apart about 200 million years ago.
homologous 8.12
are body structures that are similar in origin and show that two or more species may share common ancestors.
species 8.12
are groups of similar organisms that can successfully reproduce among themselves in their natural environment.
violent eruptions
______ occur because of gases under high pressure.
tephra
______ are when bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption.
shield volcano
______ is broad with gently sloping sides formed when hot, fluid lava flows from one or more vents.
groundwater
______ is water from rain or snow that sinks into the Earth and is stored there.
infrared radiation, 5.3C.2
______ is energy with a wavelength longer than the wavelength of light.
nonfoliated, 6.10.3
______ is a type of metamorphic rock such as marble, whose mineral grains grow and rearrange when exposed to heat and pressure but do not form layers.
station model 6.13
shows the weather conditions at one specific location using symbols on a map.
alluvial fan, 7.10.1
______ is a triangluar deposit of sediments that is formed when a river empties from a mountain valley out onto a flat, open plain.
runoff, 7.10.1
______ is water that doesn't soak into the ground or evaporate but instead flows across Earth's surface.
aquifer, 7.10.2
______ is a layer of permeable rock that allows water to move freely.
shoreline, 7.10.3
A ______ is where land meets the ocean.
tidal range 7.11.3
______ is the difference between the level of the ocean at high tide and low tide.
plankton 7.12
are tiny marine algae and animals that drift with ocean currents.
esker
______ is a winding ridge of sand and gravel left by a melting glacier.
continental drift, 8.10.1
______ is a hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener that states that continents have moved slowly to their current locations on Earth.
convection current, 8.10.3
______ is the cycle of heating, rising, cooling, and sinking that is thought to be the force behind plate tectonics.
transform boundary, 8.10.3
______ occur when two plates slide past one another.
plate tectonics, 8.10.3
______ is the theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections that move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle.
sedimentary rock 8.12
is rock formed by compaction and cementation of sediments or when minerals precipitate out of solution or are left behind when a solution evaporates.
variation 8.12
is an inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of the same species and can be beneficial, harmful, or neutral.
natural selection 8.12
is Darwin's theory of evolution, which says that organisms with traits best suited to their environments are more likely to survive and reporduce.
hot spot
______ is the location in the mantle that is hotter than oter areas and that melts rock, which is forced up toward the crust as magma.
precipitation, 5.3C.1
______ is any form of water that falls to the earth a cloud.
humidity, 5.3C.1
______ is the amount of water vapor in the air.
intrusive, 6.10.2
_______ is a type of igneous rock with large mineral grains that is formed from slow-cooling magma beneath Earth's surface.
isobar 6.13
is aline drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal atmospheric pressure.
longshore current, 7.10.3
______ is an ocean current that runs along the shore, moves sediment along shorelines, and is caused by waves colliding with the shore at slight angles.
water table, 7.10.2
______ is the upper surface of the zone of saturation, which is the area where all the pores in the rock are filled with water.
rill erosion, 7.10.1
______ is a type of surface water erosion caused by runoff, in which a small stream forms during a heavy rain, carries away plants and soil, and leaves a scar or channel on the side of a slope.
salinity 7.11.1
______ is the measure of the amount of salts dissoved in seawater, which is usually measured in grams of salt per kilogram of water.
abyssal plains 7.12
are the flattest features of the ocean floor, created when currents deposited sediments on the seafloor and filled in valleys.
continental shelf 7.12
is a gradually sloping end of a continent that extends out under the ocean for varying distances.
mass movement
______ is a type of erosion in which gravity alone causes loose materials to move downslope.  They can happen quickly or slowly.
punctuated equilibrium 8.12
is the model of evolution that shows the rapid change of a species caused by the mutation of just a few genes, resulting in the appearance of a new species.
volcanic neck
______ is the solid, igneous core of a volcano left behind when the volcano stops erupting and the softer cone erodes away.
evaporate, 5.3C.1
______ is to change from a liquid to a gaseous state.
isotherm 6.13
is a line drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal temperature.
meander, 7.10.1
______ is the curve in the side of a stream formed by a fast-moving channel of deep water.
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