3R Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
petal
attraction
gymnosperms
pines
prefer
eelistama
to water
regar
angiosperms
flowering plants
archegonia produces
eggs
symplast
thru plasmodesmata
la secuoya
Male reproductive cell
Sperm
storage
tap roots function
Hydrangea quercifolia
Oakleaf hydrangea
ovule
holds eggs/seed coat
potato "eyes"
grow potatoes
Viburnum cassinoides
withe-rod viburnum
Sweet William
Dianthus barbatus
Juniperus scopulorum 'Skyrocket'
Skyrocket juniper
gibberellin
controls growth, apical dominance
Tsuga canadensis 'Pendula'
weeping hemlock
stamen
makes or produces pollen
Fagaceae: Fagus sylvatica
European Beech
phloem
carry nutrients throughout the plant
flower
reproductive structure of a plant
monocot
fibrous roots, scattered bundles, parallel veins, vascular cambium absent
Fruit
Ripened ovary of a flower
deep
Gymnosperms have _____-growing root systems
Trachophytes
have vasucular tissue. Phylums lycophyta, sphenophyta, pterophyta.
stem
provide support for the plant
development
organism becomes more complex structurally
cambium
formative one-cell-thick layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth
epidermis
outer layer of the skin
Apoplast
network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
vascular plant
plants with true vascular tissue
flowers
Nonvascular plants do not have __________ or cones that produce seeds.
chamise
Adenostoma fasciculatum; found at dry slopes undr 1600m; CA to Baja CA
Photosynthesis
from chlorophyll; water plus carbon dioxide plus sunlight equals sugar and oxygen
dicot seeds
nutrients from endosperm are transferred to cotyledons
cortex
has parenchyma cells that have plastids for storage of starch
Pericycle
gives rise to lateral roots (produces)
spenophyta
horsetails, joined stems, outer cells of stems contain silica
plants' common characteristic 3
have a cuticle
flowers: arecaceae
imperfect, highly branced paniculate, 3 petalous
prokaryotic cell
unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, that lacks a nucleus
thigmotropism
a plant's response to physical contact
Roots
Underground organs that absord water and minerals.
Dehiscent fruits (two types)
-Single carpel-Multiple carpels
Transpiration
evaporation of water from a plant's leaves
vascular tissue
transports materials between roots and leaves
adaptations
tusk tounge mouth wings ears feathers shell
Philya of the plant kingdom
-Hepaticophyta, -Anthocerophyta, -Bryophyta, -Psilophyta, -Lycophyta, -Arthrophyta, -Pterophyta, -Cycadophyta, -Gnetophyta, -Ginkgophyta, -Coniferophyta, and -Anthophyta
male
All conifers produce two types of cones, __________ and female.
guard cells
things that open and close cells
dioecius plants
contains flowers that produce only ovules of only pollen
pollination
Transfer of pollen from the male anther to the female stigma
pistil
Part of the flower used for reproduction made of the stigma, style, and ovary.
cohesion
attraction of molecules of the same substances
Lenticels
allow gas exchange to occur outside enviroment
true leaves
2. spikey leaves to perform photosynthesis
root
plant organ that absorbs water and minerals usually from soil; contains vascular tissues; anchors lant; can be a storage organ
Sepal
a leaflike structure that encloses the bud of a flower
Angiosperm
flowering plant that bears its seeds within fruit
Evergreen
Tree with needles; tree whose leaves remain alive during the winter
Petasites frigidus var. palmatus
Palmate coltsfoot, Sweet coltsfoot
light reaction- plants....towards the source. due to....which is a ....
lean/bend. auxin. hormone.
ovary
A flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop
Sporophyte
The diploid (2N), or spore priducing, phase of an organism
sproangium
a structure in which spores are produced
Vascular tissue that forms tubes that transport di
Phloem
water and sun
what a plant needs to live
root hairs
create a larger surface area for absorption in much the same waw as the brush border does in human intestines
Nastic Response
Dependant of a change in Turgor Pressue
Ex: True Mimosa
fibrous roots
has many roots of the same size
Stigma
part of the female organs on which pollen grains can germinate (grow).
Lonicera tatarica - tatarian honeysuckle
shapards crook, leafing out
Monocotyledon
Plants that have grown from a seed with one Cotyledon
perennials
complete life cycle in more than two years
pollen
a grainy yellow powder made in a tissue at the top of the stamen of a flower.
solar power
drives bulk flow, evaporation of water from within leaves pulls water up thru xylem
photopericlism
a biological response of a plant to changes on the proportion of light and dark withing a 24 hour cycle
vessel elements (vessel members)
shorter and wider than tracheids
Lateral Meristems
Only found in woody plants--> allows the plants to grow thicker
tracheophytes (seedless plants, ferns)
have transport vessels xylem and phloem
petal, sepal, stamen, and pistil
Four parts of a flower
Epidermal
Refers to the cells which lie on the outer surface of an organism.
have broad leaves
leaves have what to up surface area
Prunus virginiana - common chokecherry
shrub form, suckers, white flowers,
gram staining
a method used to identify bacteria by the staining of their cell walls
filament
The part of the stamen that holds the anther up so it can touch the animals + other pollinators entering the plant.
Dormancy
a period of time where the growth or activity of a plant stops due to changes in the environment
germinate
when the new plant breaks out of the seed
Ovule (megasporangium) life cycle (within nucellus)
Megasporocyte -> undergoes meiosis -> 4 megaspores (3 die) -> Megaspore -> Mitosis -> 8 celled embryo sac ( female gametophyte)
spongy layer
The third layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
cellulose
A plant cell wall is made up of a substance called __________, which is a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar.
Annual Growth Rings
inner bands of light wood and outer rings of dark wood on a tree; tell the age of trees and how much water it has received
Characteristics of Vascular plants with cones
old- have stems, leaves, roots, waxy cuticle; new- seeds are in cones(protected)
3 zones of a plant
zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation
Mycorrhizal assocations bw fungi and plants
Ecto mycror- don't penetrate, just go between cell walls
Arbuscular mycor-penetrate cell wall but not cell membrane but has contact with it
More common 80%
Critical to colonization of plants
Only couple hundred species of fungi that do this
what three places does growth take place on a plant?
roots grow downward, stems grow upward and new cells are produced at the tips of is roots and stems
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