500x Flashcards

Terms Definitions
William James
functionalism
myelin sheath
...
Evolutionary Psychology
Explains psychological traits as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Argue that human behavior is generated by psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments.
James-Lange theory
Emotions cause behavior.
Superego
moral, right vs. wrong
Memory
process of encoding, storage,consolidation, and retrieval information.
Gestalt
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Synapse
junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another.
phenotype
a person's observable characteristics, such as hair colour; controlled partly by the genotype and partly by the environment.
latency
During this psychsexual stage, which occurs from about six to twelve years of age, sexual feelings are more or less quiescent and so too would be the consequent fears of retribution.
Clinical Psychology
Behavioural analysis: behaviour modification Personality: social and genetic components Neuropsychology: neural/physiological abnormality
IQ
(Intelligence Quotient) Score that indicates how an individual compares with others on an intelligence test.
Hypothalamus
Responsible for regulating emotions and drives
shadow
repressed, unconscious drives and desires, “dark side”
bf skinner
believed people's behaviors were influenced by history or rewards and punishments
Define the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval in humans beings
Hormones
Chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body.
norepinephrine 
affects neurons involved in increased heart rate and the slowing of activity during stress and neurons involved in learning, memory, dreaming, waking from sleep and emotion
Neuroplasticity
The nervous systems potential for neurophysical or neurochemical change that enhances its adaptability to enviromental change and its ability to compensate for injury
self-socialization
Once children discover that their gender is permanent, they are likely to want to engage in behavior that is “sex appropriate” as defined by the culture. This process is referred to as _______
relaxed wakefulness
resting quietly with eyes closed
identification
unconscious MODELING of one's self upon another person's behavior
conceptual hierarchy
a multi-level classification system based on common properties among items
Distribution
the frequency with which certain responses with which certain responses or scores are obtained when a group of individuals are studied
Consciousness (according to Structuralism)
1-Objective Sensations (outer)2-Subjective Feelings (inner)
Unconditioned response
unlearned naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus
a psychologist who studies personality traits, dynamics and theories
peronality theorist
Affect
feeling & their expressions (emotional feeling)
etiology
factors that contribute to the development of a disorder
ambivalence
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
mode
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
Pancreas
gland near stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar that fuels all behavioral processes. Imbalances result in diabetes and hypoglycemia
Who came up with the psychodynamic perspective?
Freud
Piaget's Model
a 4 stage theory of development-sensorimotor period (birth-2)-preoperational period (2-7)-concrete operational period (7-11)-formal operatinonal period (11-onward)
sensory storage
holds information for only an instant
absolute threshold
minimum intensity of physical energy required to produce any sensation at all
Neuron
Individual cells in the nervous system that recieve, integrate, and transmit information
Psychophysics
The study of how people percieve physical stimuli.
Therapy Interfering Behaviors
When using Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, a patient will do certain things during a session with a therapist such as not showing up and getting mad at the therapist.
experimental methods
manipulate factors to discover their effects
stimulants
_________ speed up activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, and can make a person feel more awake, alert, and energetic
general intelligence
g factor, charlie spearmore factor analysis approach vital statistics, cluster of examinations, school smarts
Health psychology
an area withinpsychology devoted to understanding:
 
Help people understand their own health and longevity, As well as the absence of disease.
attribution
explanations about the causes of a person's behavior
object permanence
the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it no longer can be seen
Is Narcissism always marked by an internal depression?
No.
Posterior Pituitary gland
Receives direct stimulation from hypothalmus and in response produces oxytocin
embryonic period
the period of prenatal development. implaataion to 8th week
William James was a great thinker, writer, and teacher who helped make psychology known to the intellectual world. Jame's psychological perspectivie was known as?
Structuralism
What states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities? C
Circadian Rhythms
Before reform, patients were held with______________
Common criminals
Negative reinforcer
Any event whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will occur.
Gustav Fechner
(1801–1889) had a sudden realization in 1850 that one could study the psychological and physical worlds in a new discipline he called psychophysics
afterimage
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
sampling bias
sample is not representative of the population
Incidence
Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period.
Anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by an excessive fear of becoming fat and refusal to eat
Stereotypes
Schemas of how people are likely to behave based simply on groups to which they belong.
absolute thresholds
the lowest intensity level of a stimulus a person can detect HALF the time
Problems in Identity Development
role confusion, identity foreclosure (period is bypassed), negative identity
orexin
has an excitatory effect on a number of brain regions
"reconstructive views of memory"
"errors of commission: Misremembering occur under specific circumstances"
dependent variable
shows any effects of the independent variable
Conditioning
A kind of learning where the subject learns to associate certain stimuli and responses
Pure (true) Altruism
action intended solely to benefit another
inferiority complex
adlers idea that the feelings of inferiority devlop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence
GENETIC FACTORS
PREDISPOSITION - OUR BRAINS ARE WIRED IN A CERTAIN WAY. WE INHERIT OUR TRAITS BUT YOU CAN CHANGE YOUR PERSONALITYI.E. SCIZOPHERNIA, BIPOLAR, TWINS
Illusion of Invulnerability
The belief that misfortune only happens to others
Validity
test measures what it is claiming to measure
dissociative amnesia,
people experience a loss of memory for personal information that cannot be explained by a blow to the head or some other physical case.
Dream symbols
Images in dreams that serves as visible signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, relationships, and so forth.
Priming
An Enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus (results in reduced activity in the cortex)
What percent of people will have more than one episode of depression?
75-95
after visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a numbner of pathways. Information about form and color is processed by the ___?
ventral stream
aversion therapy
a type of behavior conditioning in which noxious stimuli are associated with undesirable or unwanted behavior that is to be modified or abolished, as the use of nausea-inducing drugs in the treatment of alcoholism.
Personal Space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memory for events that preceded a brain injury
Strengths-based approach to gainful employment
The strengths-based approach to employment involves increasing an employee's awareness of his or her natural and learned talents, integration of these talents into the employee's self-image, and behavioral change in which the employee learns to attribute successes to his or her talents.
double blind procedure
a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experiementers know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
systolic blood pressure
The level of pressure that occurs after each heart beat
Bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder in which the major symptoms are binges in which the individual consumes huge amounts of food in a short period and purges such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives to eliminate the excessive food that was consumed in the binge.
Parietal lobes –
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
Bipolar Disorder
 
explain mood, what manics experience, and average age of onset. 
- mood alternates from severe depression to extreme euphoria (mania)
 
- manics experience: elevated mood, increased activity, diminished need for sleep, grandiose ideas, extreme distractibility
 
- average age of onset is 18. between 0.6% and 1.1% of the population will have a bipolar disorder
identical twins in two sacs is what kind of difference?
environmental difference
split brain studies
-First studies done by Sperry and Gazzaniga on patients with epilepsy-surgery split the corpus callosum-procedure affected the way patients thought and dealt with the world
Brown-Peterson Distractor technique
trying to remember something but being distracted in between learning and rehearsing
variables of PTS
pre disposed to it, gender, sexual abuse, substance abuse
when does the absolute refractory mean?
break between neural impulse.
Generalized Aniety Disorder
An anxiety disorder whos hallmark is excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistantly related to a specific object or situation.
functional fixedness
the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use. string problem
what are the parts of the autonomic system
sympathetic and parasympathetic
benefits of breastfeeding for moms
weight loss, lower pain (Soreness), lower cost(formula), lower risk of osteoporosis, lower risk of cancer.
prefontal cortex
the portion of the frontal lobe to the front of the motor cortex. the area disproportiontely large in humans. contributes to memory and reasoning abot objects and events... houses "exectube control system". ppl who damage this have deficits in planning,paying attn.cerebrum(forebrain)
connection BTWN. genes and behavior
-genes seldom make behavior a certainty (ex.no single gene causes anxiety)

-environmental events such as smoking pregnant, early childhood experiences, stress or trauma and enriched environments all interact with genes to make specific behaviors more or less likely.
When exposed to a jack hammer, you are susseptible to:
stimulation deafness
ALL OR NONE LAW
-cell fires or it doesn't -amplitude & speed do not change-intensity coded by: 1. number of neurons firing (more neurons firing, more thresholds) 2. frequency of firing
Long term memory
The system of memory into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently.
summarize why money can't buy happiness
happiness is temporary like winning the lotto/adaptation-level phenomenon: our tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.relative deprivation: the perception that we are worse off relative to those whit whom we compare ourselves
Cephalocaudal vs promimodistal trend
Cephal. is head to foot. Promimod. is center-outward.
Differences between type and trait theories
Type- thrown into a certain personality category that you have traits of (birth order)Trait- enduring personality qualities, more to the extent at which you are spectrum.
How is stress related to AIDS?
Both lower the effectiveness of your immune system. If a carrier of the virus is exposed to high stress, it may trigger full-blown AIDS.
Steroid hormones work in three ways
can bind to membrane receptors like protein or peptide hormonescan enter cells and activate certain kinds of proteins in the cytoplasmcan bind to chromosomes where they activate or inactivate specific genes
Describe the Strange Situation procedure and the different types of attachment that are typically observed.
Infants are placed in a room and a stranger enters and the mother leaves and returns. Three reactions are Secure- means responsive caregivers with positive attitudesAnxious- caregivers are responsive but inconsistentAvoidant- Caregivers react in angry, resentful and impatient ways.
Do standards for deviance stay the same over time?
no, standards for deviance change over time
What is the difference between a test and an assessment?
An assessment is broader than a test and has both an objective and a subjective component. Objective- being able to assign a number to an obtained score. Subjective- the involved process of evaluating things like interviews that cannot be assigned a numerical value
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