9Abnormal Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stigma
disgrace
Counter-transference
Therapist's transference
Ego
Mediator, rational part
Schizoid PD
affects employment
Psychopathy
-deceptiveness of duplicity
-absence of empathy compassion or remorese towards the victims of the pschopaths explotative self interest
-can often be charming and appear sociall well adjusted
-may or may not engage in criminal behavior
Dependent Variable
variable being observed
Age of:
-Completers
-Attempters
-Completers: 65+
-Attempters: 18-24
121) In
schizoaffective disorder, patients exhibit symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorders.
cue exposure and
response prevention 
Schizotypal is more common in
males
Dyskinesia
tics, tremors, jerky movements associated with dementia
Interceptive
avoid activities that produce reactions similar to panic (exercise)
Proably the most debilitating disorder
Schizophrenia
Attributions
Cognitions about causes of events
Phobias
-persistent, unreasonable fear which leads to anxiety, situationally bound panic, and avoidance-Specific or social types-chronic-Tx: exposure & systematic desensitization -specific types; CBT, role playing, exposure -social types
Occipital Love
-Vision-Back of the brain
Transference
patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure of the analyst
Mood Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Philipe Pinel
-late 1700s
-removed patients from chains
-rooms made sanitary
-did away with blood letting, purging
neurosis
derived from roots meaning "an abnormal or diseased condition of the nervous system"
PTSD Treatment
- no drugs
-antidepressants and anticonvulsants provide symptom relief, which goes away after stopping medication
Schizophrenic disorders seem to be most strongly linked genetically to ________ personality disorder.
schizotypal
schizotaxia
inds who are predisposed to schizophrenia inherit a subtle neurological defect of unknown form
Characteristics of paraphilias
Enduring, exclusive (outweighs importance of normal sexual acts), act on or be distressed by
 
 
 
Mental retardation:
Diagnosis

 
Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning. Pretty much only disorder with which diagnosis is based very much on statistics – a test

**Significant limitations in adaptive functioning (not enough to score poorly on IQ test)

Deficits in at least 2 of 11 adaptive skill areas:
Communication
Self-care
Home living
Social/interpersonal skills
Use of community resources (bus, library)
Self-direction (goals)
Functional academic skills
Work
Leisure
Health
Safety


Onset before 18 years of age (in NC, it’s 22)

 
Diagnosis
A determination that a person's problems reflect a particular disorder
Modern Psychodynamic Therapy
scientific evidencehow personality affects relationships
hypothalamus
controls basica biological urges, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
triclyclins
an antidepressant drug under the biological treament
rosenhan
psychologist that did the experiment with 8 people who went into a mental institution and were admitted as schizophrenics
Cancer
-Spiegel experiment with breast cancer patients and group therapy; those in group therapy lived twice as long -proves strong relationship between body and mind
Secondhand smoke
Higher levels of: ammonia, CO
Projection
put emotions towards someone else other than yourself
 
ex. you're mad about something and you say that your mom sounds angry instead of you
Oral Stage
Earliest psychosexual stage lating for the first 18 months of life; libidinal impulses are best satisfied through the stimulation of the mouth area, including actions such as feeding or sucking; major issues of concern are dependence and the reliability of others.
Arbitary Inference
Drawing unwarrented conclusions on the basis of little or no evidence
132) When medication is not entirely effective in treating psychotic symptoms, it may be supplemented with
CBT.
Corticosteroids:
A group of hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress
Axis I
Clinical Disorders (95% of the disorders)
-examples: depression and schizophrenia
blood-injury-injection phobia
Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
Temperment
refers to a child's reactivity and characteristic ways of self regulation
Biological Factors DID
-no gentic component
-crietiera rule out those caused by biological factors
clinical psychology
concerned with the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders
somatization disorder
a history of multiple, somatic complaints in the absence of organic impairments; patient must complain of at least 8 physical symptoms: pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, double vision, numbness, seizures; histrionic manner (vague, but dramatic, self centered, and seductive); la belle indifference (flippant lack of concern for physical symptoms
Weber
Measured sensation of touch, came up with first quantitative rule of psychology. equal relative increases of stimuli are proportional to equal relative increments of sensation
 
 
 
mental retardation in adults

People with Down’s syndrome, without fail, develop Alzheimer’s disease if they live long enough
Mental retardation and other mental disorders – ex-depression in someone with mental retardation is not the same as someone without. Same goes for schizophrenia etc.
 
cerebrum
the large mass of the forebrain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres
Somatoform disorder
Has associate features like anxiety and depression
Catatonic Type
Unusual motor responses of remaining in fixed positions and odd mannerisms. Echolalia and Echopraxia are preset (mimicking words or movements of others). There are severe and rare subtypes of catatonic schizophrenia
Dimenson more closely related to ASP
Dimension 2
Syndrome
group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder
Specific Phobia
Strong and persistent fear, triggered by a specific object or situation
dopamine hypothesis
hypothesis that states that high levels of this might be the cause of schiz.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
calculation that measures person's mental age
Superfluous sxs of Paranoid PDPrevalence of Paranoid PDTreatment of Paranoid PD
*Hypersensitivity, vigilance*0.5-3%, M>F*None are particularly effective
Paranoid-type schizophrenic
preoccupation w/ delusions or auditory hallucinations, speech is fine, no catatonic behavior, no inappropriate or flat affect, believes someone is out to get them, paranoia about dental work and radio waves
Testing (4)
1) Projective Tests: based in psychoanalytic theories. (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test.
 
2) Objective Tests: rooted in empirical traditions. (MMPI) Million Clinical Multiaxal Inventory. (BDI) Beck Depression Inventory
Superego -
One of Freud's three central personality structures, roughly associated with the "conscience." The superego represents internalized societal rules and values and attempts to control id impulses.
Polygenic
combination of many genes, each of which makes a small contribution to an inherited trait.
Expectancy Effects
responses or behaviors that are function of what the subject or patient believes will be the result of an intervention, rather than of the actual consequences of whatever intervention took place
Systematic desensitization
a technique for eliminating fears that has 3 key elements:1)relaxation using progressive muscle relaxations2)construction of a hierarchy of fears3)learning process (pair responses)
_____ validity would measure how well the EPPP predicts your ability to be a competent psycho.
predictive
6) Neurons release neurotransmitters into synapses. These neurotransmitters
bind to receptors sites.
TUNING:
refers to long-term change in the central nervous system that results form repeated experience of a particular condition of the nervous system, which makes the individual more susceptible to reestablishment of the same condition.
Panic Disorder
-market by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror, chest pain, choking or other frightening sensation
-can occur without any significant change in environment or presentation of aversive stimuli
Panic Attack
Abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by several physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations.
Family History Method
requires that an investigator observe samples of realtives of each proband or index case to see whether the incidence increases in proportion to the degree of hereditary relationship.
Paranoid Schizophrenia
One or more elusions or frequent hallucinations, no prominent disorganized behaviors/ pseech, cathonic behavior or flat inappropriate affect
Treatment for Social Phobia
Role-play their socially phobic situations in front of one another (group therapy)
Also intensive cognitive therapy
 
Best to include parents
 
Tricylic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase helps treat severe social anxiety as well
Addiction
Older term that is often used to describe problems such as alcoholism. It's been replaced with alcohol dependence
Treatment for CD
Use negotiation among adolescents to actively involve the adolescent in setting rules
Self Efficacy
confidence in one's ability to cope with difficulties
experimental method
a scientific method that aims to discover cause and effect relationships by manipulating independent variables and recording effects on dependent variables
Internal Cues
increases in heart rate or breathing associated with initial attack
Exhaustion stage
when stressors continue or new ones enter the picture we enter the 3rd stage of GAS, characterized by dominance of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS-heart and respiration rate decelerate-if stressor persist, we could develop "diseases of adaptation"
Experiments in which you have to approximate by using animals instead of humans.
Analog experiments
autonomic nervous system
regulates functions of various body organs, such as the heart and stomach.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
* cognitive therapy assumes that thought patterns can cause a disturbance of emotion or behavior * cognitive restructuring involves changing thought patterns that lead to abnormality
Causes of Dissociative Disorders
Psychoanalytic theorists- believe that dissociative disorders result when an extremely traumatic event has been so thoroughly repressed that a split in conscious results
Behaviorists- think that people who have experienced trauma simmply find not thinking about it to be rewarding, thus producing amnesia, or in extreme cases, DID
Grief
normal part of life that includes some aspect of depression but no psychosis or suicidal ideation
What cluster of PD are the most commonly diagnosed
Dramatic
Major depression
No mania or hypomania-Axis 1May have psychotic features (delusions), not related to substance abuse or other med disorders, actions outside "norm" attributable to substance abuse, impacts 2 areas of life, one episode lasting 6 monthsTreatment-antidepressants, cog therapy, behavioral therapy, electroshocktherapy
Define: Cyclothymic Disorder
A chronic bipolar disorder consisting of short periods of mild depression and short periods of hypomania (lasting a few days to a few weeks) separated by short periods of normal mood
Specificity -
The extent to which a definition excludes all valid cases. Poor specificity leads to an increase in false positives.
Psychodynamic Perspective
emphasizes the role of anxiety and inner conflict
Personality Inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics that consist of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings. People evaluate the statements as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of themselves.
97) Transvestic fetishism is the desire to dress in clothes of the opposite sex for sexual gratification. This disorder is
present in straight men.
The DSM I:
Emphasized the etiology of mental illness
Which of the following is the most significant barrier to getting an alcoholic into treatment?
overcoming denial
Which of the following is likely to put whites at higher risk of developing an eating disorder than non-whites?
body dissatisfaction
Histrionic personality disorder is most likely to be diagnosed in people who
are attention-seeking and overly emotional.
What are common medical complications associated with anorexia?
Constipation, abdominal pain, intolerance to cold, and lethargy
attachment theory
a set of proposals about the normal development of attachments and adverse consequences of troubled attachment relationships
Systematic desensitization
client is taught to relax to replace an undesirable anxiety response
 
 
Characteristics of Panic Disorders
4 panic attacks in one month
 
Chills
 
Heart rate changes
 
Sense of loss of control
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse.
Social Etiological Theory:
-Social class - higher in lower SES
-Environmental stress - adverse conditions may increase risk of predispotion emerging.
"Downward drift": symptoms interfere and push someone into a lower SES.
social skills training
teaches clients new ways of behaving that are both desirable and likely to be rewarded in everyday life. 2 commonly taught skills are assertiveness and social problem solving.
Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Pattern of uncontrollable worry, about multiple event and areas of life
-Restlessness, fatigue, poor concentration, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance
-Constant future-oriented mood state of uncontrolled anxious apprehension, tension, worry, and uneasiness
5 categories in substances in substance abuse/ dependence
1. depressants- sedation/relax (alcohol,benzodiazepines)2. stimulants-active/alert elevate mood (amphetamines cocaine caffeine)3.opiates-pain reducer (heroine morphine codine)4. hallucinogens-delusions paranoia (mj, lsd)5. other- inhalants anabolic steroids and meds
EDO and friends
Criticism by them increases urge to diet+body dissatisfaction
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
exposure to traumatic event where there's belief you could die or are threatened with death-seen in war, sexual assault, rape, robbery, and threat with a weapon-feelings of hopelessness, intense fear, surreal horror, persistent re-experiencing of event, recurrent dreams, flashbacks
Gender Identity Disorder
Physical gender is opposite of gender identity - transsexualism - goal is not sexual
Natural fool
A term coined during the middle ages that pertained to a mentally retarded person whose intellectual capacities had never progressed beyond those of a child
Acetylcholine and _____ are two _____ that have been found to be linked to Alzheimer's Disease.
Acetylcholine and L-glutamate
Amnesia
a loss of a large block of irrelated memories complete or partial loss of memory can be caused by brain injury or shock etc.
cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT) for phobias
-general term used to apply to therapeutic approaches that combine behavioral techniques, such as exposure, with techniques drawn from the cognitive therapies
Time line of PTSD
Acute Stress Disorder - PTSD within first month
Acute PTSD - 1 month after event
Chronic PTSD - Longer than 3 months
 
Delayed-Onset PTSD - A while after the trauma, develop it
What does Patterson’s concept of “coercion” refer to?
Occurs when parents positively reinforce a child's misbehavior by giving in tot he child's demands. The child, in turn, negatively reinforces the parents by ending his or her obnoxious behavior as soon as the parents surrender. Thus, parents and children reciprocally reinforce child misbehavior and parent capitulation
 
 Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorders
 
odd behavior (along the lines of schizophrenia)
 
Do not lose contact with reality but have extremely problematic ideas
 
Social Anxiety
Give some examples of Projective tests.
RorshachTAT - Thematic apperception test.These come out of the Freudian belief in the unconscious.
What is the limbic system?
-set of brain structures
- involved in anxiety disorders
Interpersonal difficulties and Mood D/O
High levels of Expressed Emotion=More likely to relapseDepression Sxs often lead to rejection *Excessive reassurance seeking *Few pos. facial Sxs *-Self disclosure *Slow speech
Histrionic Personality Disorder: Causes
Causes- Co morbid with antisocial PD or BPD, borderline, and depression
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
A disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts and needs to perform repetitive and rigid actions or mental acts.
42) The core fear of individuals with social anxiety disorder is
negative evaluation from others.
Biological evidence for criminal activity and Antisocial Personality Disorder
boys later convicted of crimes showed low arousal/adrenaline when placed in stressful situtions
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PDA)
Fear and avoidance of situations that the person believes might induce a panic attack.
Avoid certain areas because afraid a panic attack may occur there.
How are Learning Disorders generally defined (and hence diagnosed)?
A heterogeneous group of problems which academic perf differs noticeably from academic aptitude; are almost always treated in the classroom, but no treatment has demonstrated consistent success
what role do psychological factors play in asthma?
psych. factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression may trigger asthma attacks in susceptible individuals
4 parts to Stigma
1. Label is applied to a group
2. Label refers to negative qualities
3. People with label are viewed differently
4.People with label are discriminated
ASPD prevalence in genderASPD is correlated w/high rates of:
M 4x FCriminality, and Substance abuse
Limits to Confidentiality (4)
1. Harm to self or other2. Child abuse3. Sexual abuse by health care professional4. Legal proceedings/report is subpoenaed
In determining the incremental validity of a selection test, the minimum amount of information one has to know is the:
a. base rate, sample size, and validity of the test
b. selection ratio, sample size, and validity of the test
c. base rate, selection ra
c. base rate, selection ratio, and validity of the test
Psychoanalytic view: Freud, 1900’s
- The main source of all mental illness is unconscious processes.
- 2 causes of unconscious tension: Sexual and Aggressive impulses
- Dream analysis is a big part of psychoanalysis.
- The “First Wave” of ideas in psychology.
Lifetime prev of bulimia
Occurs among 1-3% of women, which is 2 to 6x the number of cases of anorexia
What is the cognitive behavioral theorists view of anxiety disorders, such as specific phobias?
They suggest that specific phobias are rooted in a maintained by the client's cognitive styles. This view also suggests that phobic individuals have overactive "alarm systems" to danger and perceive things as dangerous becaues they misinterpret stimuli.
systematic desensitization and 3 key elements of it
a technique for eliminating fears. 3 key elements:1. relaxation training using progressive muscle relaxation, a method of inducing a calm state through the tightening and subsequent relaxation of all the major muscle groups.2. construction of a hierarchy of fears ranging from very mild to very frightening, allowing clients to confront their fears gradually.3. learning process- the gradual pairing of ever-increasing fears in the hierarchy with the relaxation response.
Alcohol Dependence: *2 Hallmark Sxs *Withdrawal Sxs
*Tolerance and Withdrawal*Anxiety, depression, weakness, restless, insomnia, muscle tremors, Elevated BP, pulse, temp
Research suggests that the best single tx for Agoraphobia is:
a. implosive therapy
b. flooding
c. systematic desensitization
d. psychotropic med
b. flooding - exposure while preventing an avoidance response. In-vivo flooding - improvment long-term for 75% of tx patients
James has two alcoholic parents. Research suggests that his risk for alcoholism is
greater than if he had one alcoholic parent.
What might be an iatrogenic effect of abreaction?
many skeptics are concerned that hypnosis can exacerbate or even create dissociative symptoms, or false memories of past abuse
Biological View On Causes of Mood Disorders
Low levels of serotinin have been linked with unipolar depression. People who suffer from bipolar disorder have more receptors for acetylcholine in their brains and skin
Norepinephrine- associated with depression.
 
This suggests that these disorders are caused, at least partially, by biological factors
A large eigenvalue would mean that a particular factor accounts for ______ among the variables.
a large proportion of the variance
Eating disorders are thought to be common in which fields of work?
Far more common among young women than men. Fields that emphasize weight & appearance such as models, dancers, and gymnasts
Stimulants *Effects *Eg
*Stimulate CNS*Caffeine, nicotine, ritalin, MDMA, Coke, Crack
Medical Model: The most common model today
It is the prevailing model, and it sees the person as a patient with symptoms of a disease.
The higher the F, the more the answers suggest:
the person is attempting to appear odd, disturbed, etc.
 
 
 
Psychopathy vs. ASPD vs. Criminal Behavior
 
Numbers
Psychopaths in general pop – 1%Psychopaths in correctional system – 15-25% (22% max security, 10% minimum security)ASPD in general pop – 4-6% (males)ASPD in forensic pops – 50-80%
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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