A Plants S1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fig
higo
poplar
topol
rhiz-
root
antheridium
Produces sperm
Ginko biloba
Ginko
internodes
between nodes
Style
stalk (stigma>ovary)
Leaves

carry
out photosynthesis
viburnum dentatum
arrowwood viburnum
increases transpiration
increased temperature
stem
holds plant up
nitrate accumulating plant
sunflower
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas fir
Black Oak
Quercus velutina
Male (flower)
stamen; anther, filament
Pistil
Female part of flower
Aspidistra elatior
cast iron plant
diploid
whole # of chromosomes
Sex organs; malvaceae
superior, monoadelphous
Products of Photosynthesis
oxygen, glucose
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig'
fibers
long, slender, occur in groups
What are pollen grains?
male gametophytes
Grafting
Asexual reproduction. An artificial form of vegetative propagation in which parts (stem or bud) of two young, closely related plants are joined together, first by artificial means and then by tissue regeneration.
Meristematic tissue
growth area of plant
Spenophyta
vascular plants, hollow/ribbed stems, reduced, scaly leaves. extinct - tree size, modern - small, in marshy habitats. include horsetails.
promote stem and leaf elongation
gibberellins
Other: fabaceae
pulvinous joing, symbiotic realtionships with nitrogen fixing bacteria, legume
Vascular cambium
secondary xylem and phloem
Flower
Reproductive part of the plant.
Apoplastic route ends
at the endodermis
Angiosperms
also known as flowering plants, produce seeds within a protective fruit
fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
xylem
vascular tissue; carries water from roots to rest of plant
pectin
glue like polysaccharides that binds cellulose fibers together for pliability of tissues; collenchyma
endosperm
portion of cotyledon that stores food/energy
Bud
Contains undeveloped tissue that will become the flower.
from the tip
how do dicots grow
Foxgloves celery parsley
Three examples of Biennials
stems
carries substances between the plant's roots and leaves. provides support and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun
tension (transpiration)
negative pressure (pressure gradient) caused by water in leaves: cells throughout the plant fills up with water in the spaces between the cells, water pushes up against cell walls and eventually evaporates through the stomata due to the water undergoing osmosis from cell to cell until it is released (water vapor)
translocation
movement of soluble organic material through sieve tube members occurs through...?
vascular system
system for transporting nutirents throughout the organism
In the flower
Where do seeds form?
Twig
terminal bud, bud scales, lateral buds, lenticels, leaf scar, budd scale scar, bundle trace, node, internode, pith
Spongy Mesophyll
Loosely packed, irregularly shaped cells with spaces around then located below the palisade mesophyll
angiosperm
flowering plants whose seeds are contained in fruit
roots
part of the plant that is underground
pollination
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female structures of seed plants
foot
part of the sporophyte that anchors onto the gametophyte
Stamen
thin stalks topped by small knobs inside the flower; male reproductive parts
gymnosperms
produces seeds that are hidden in woody cones
Tendrils
Leaves with tips coiled around stem. Help plant climb. Sometimes, they are modified stems.
ovulate, pollen
reproductive organ of gymnosperm is cone; female-________, male-_______
Cycadophyta
Palm like plants that reproduce with large cones
carbon dioxide
plants remove ______ from the air
Microspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
plasmogamy
the fusion of the cell plasma membranes
a long, thin structure that supports an anther
filament
Phloem
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
Dermal Tissue
epidermis, outer layer, one cell thick, protection, some specialized cells
true
t/f vascular tissue gives a plants strenght and stability
founder effect
small selection starting a population away from others, only a small gene pool to pass on
epicotyl
the uppermost part of of an angiiosperm embryo
gymnosperm
A plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective fruit.
Rhizoid
Hairlike fiber that anchors a moss to the soil and takes in water from the soil
cork cambium
Produces cells that develop tough cell walls that form a protective outside layer on the stems and roots
leaf
the green part of the plant that collects the sun's energy to make food
Saprobe
an organism that lives in and derives its nourishment from organic matter in stagnant or foul water
tissue
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function
Tropism
The response of a plant to a stimulus
gravitropism
response of plants to the force of gravity
N2 fixing bacteria
convert N2 (nitrogen) to NH4 (ammonia). live in nodules on roots (legumes) or "free" in soil
in their roots
where do plants store their starch
Nonvascular Plant
a low-growing plant that lacks true vascular tissue
Lateral Meristem
Consisting of the vascular cambium and the cork cambium, it produces the secondary tissues which make up the secondary plant body.
Petal
A flower part; the ring of leaflike appendages occurring inside the sepals, but outside the stamens
germination
embryo uses stored food and water from the environment to grow again and push out of the seed


-Prominent leaf scars on stem
-Long, thick petioles
-Generally glabrous
-Deeply palmately divided
Fatsia japonicaC: FatsiaF: Araliaceae
morphology
the branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of organisms.
taproot
a single large root that gives rise to lateral branch roots; mainly in dicots
what is the life cycle of a bryophyte highly dependent on
water
light reaction (3 steps)
1. chlorophyll absorbs light, which excites electrons 2. water is split to form O2 and H+ 3. excited electrons form ATP & NADPH
guard cells
open and close the stomata based on water pressure in the leaf; guard against dehydration of the plant
producer
a living thing that can make its own food
zone of elongation
where cells are not dividing but rather growing in size; occurs behind the cell zone of division
apical meristems
meristems at tips of roots and stems that produce new cells by MITOSIS
hydrolic lift
the process which plants take up water in deep soil horizons and then lost it to the soil in upper horizons
Short Day Plants
Plants flower in late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing
poison ivy
a shrub or vine with leaves in groups of three that give off an oil that irritates your skin...leaves of three, let it be
Betula papyrifera - paper birch
white paper like bark, med-catkins fruit,
cuticle and stomata
what two structures in a plant help maintain moisture?
sporophyte
the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores
how to seedless vascular plants reproduce/examples
reproduce by releasing spores, ferns, club mosses, horsetails
Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and the functions of these tissues.
Main function of the leaf is photosynthesis, to produce food, and the loss of water through transpiration.
· Palisade mesophyll - consists of tightly packed cylindrical cells that contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis. These are the main photosynthetic tissue and it is located near the upper surface where the light is the most intense.
· Upper Epidermis - a continuous layer of cells that contains a waxy layer, which prevents water loss even when it is heated by the sun. The lower cuticle is in a cooler position so it has a thinner cuticle.
· Spongy Mesophyll - consists of round loosely packed cells with few chloroplasts. This is the main tissue for gas exchange so it is located near the stoma (on the lower epidermis).
· Guard cells - two cells which regulate the opening and closing of the stomata, controlling the rate of transpiration.
· Stoma - a pore on the lower epidermis that allows CO2 to diffuse in and O2 out.
Xylem - caries water through the plant to reduce the losses from transpiration
Phloem -transports the products of photosynthesis throughout the leaf
Leaf Blade- large surface area for the absorption of sunlight
What is vegetative reproduction and how is the resulting offspring different from sexual reproduction?
It is the cloning of plants by asexual means, making the offspring genetically identical.
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