A&P 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Disease-causing agent
intra endo
Desert Chaparral
Desert Apricot
Desert Almond
True Sages 
scientific name for producers
lampreys and hagfish are__
Hereshey-Chase experiment proteins labeled with
37. 3 Domain Differences
adrenal cortex
________ - "stress hormone"
-stress= ______ or _____
-release extra ______
-keeps _____ system in check (_____ are a type of "stress")
What enzyme does peroxisomes contain?
MITOSIS: sister chromatids separated and moved to poles. cell elongates to pull chromosomes apart.
nonvascular plants that reproduce using spores.
Glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix that bind to integrins (receptor proteins in the plasma membrane)
Cell (plasma) membrane
The Cell's Outer Boundary
ballon-like devices which are inserted into the blood vessels, pushes plaque against the wall and open the vessel
define: illeum
attaches to colon (large intestine)
the infectious agent that causes AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus
pure breeding
crosses between identical homozygotes (same alleles) SS or ss
rationale for categoriza­tion is usually based on
vertical descent
The cooling of Earth’s crust occurred ____________ in earth’s formation.
Most are multicellular, all are Heterotrophic, Majority of their "body" is composed of filaments called HYPHAE; collectively the hyphae are called the MYCELIUM
Smooth ER ch.4
lipid synthesiscalcium ion storagedetoxifying enzymes
triploblastic. the mouth arises from the blastopore; the anus forms later
a sugar, C6H12O6, having several optically different forms, the common dextrorotatory form
density-dependent inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with another.
Symbolic Communication
Verbal and nonverbal symbolism used by others to convey meaning
list some of the organelles
mitochonriasmooth ERrough ERcentriolenucleusnucleolusGolgi apporatusribosomeslysosomescentral vaculoechloroplastchromosomes
apical meristem
on top of roots and shoots
Chordate Structures
• Embryos all have common structure: notochordo Flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cordo Provides skeletal supporto In most vertebrates, it’s replaced by a jointed skeletono Remains of the notochord exist as disks between the vertebrae• Dorsal, hollow nerve cordo Develops into the brain and spinal cord of the adult• Pharyngeal slitso Water enters through the mouth and passes out through the slits in the pharynx, without going through the digestive systemo Slits function as suspension-feeding devices in many invertebrate chordateso Slits have been modified in more evolved vertebrates for: Gas exchange Hearing Jaw support• Postanal tailo Provides propulsion for swimmingInvertebrate chordates provide clues to the origin of vertebrates• Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates): o adult is sessile and filter-feeds via pharyngeal slitso adult does not have notochord nor tailo larva has all chordate featureso invertebrates• Subphylum Cephalochordata (Lancelets): o adult form shows chordate features and feed and swimo has moutho live on ocean flooro vertebrates
_______ is the extraction of energy from pyruvate in the absence of oxygen.
Greenhouse Effect
natural situation where heat is retained by greenhouse gases
-increased force of contraction by a skeletal muscle fiber when twitches occur before the previous twitch relaxes
Give the definition: galact/o and lact/o
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
natural selection
"survival of the fittest"; how populations over time adapt to their environments
____, a moon of Jupiter, is hypothesized to have a liquid ocean capable of supporting life under its thick ice caps.
meiosis prophase I
homologous chromosomes condense and synapsechiasmata is formed. portions of the homologous chromosomes are being exchanged, which is called crossing over, which is an example of genetic recombination. as a result, even haploid gametes can contain genetic info from both parents
darwin called the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment -
a triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule.
contraction of the protoplasm in a living cell when water is removed by exosmosis.
Osmosis is the active transport of water. T or F?
False. Passive.
Analogous Trait
A trait that is morphologically and functionally similar to another, but which arose from a different ancestral condition.
genetic type (what genes a person has for a particular trait; usually represented by 2 alleles) ex. Ff
an organism in the early stage of development of plants and animals; in humans, a developing individual is referred to as an embro from the second through the eighth week of pregnancy.
Where is the Hydrogen ion gradient formed?
Thylakoid Space.
the division of the cytoplasma of a cell
A control group is always exposed to the factor being tested.
True or False
group of individuals of the same type or species living in a given area
Primary Structure
A proteins unique sequence of amino acids. Determined by genetic information.
Life History Trade-offs
a) survival and reproduction
ex. red deer females that reproduce die younger than those that don't reproduce
b) offspring quality versus offspring number
joins amino acids and grow by addition of amino acids at the carboxyl terminus
peptide bonds
One of a pair of small, cylindrical organelles lying at the right angles to each other near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of animal cells and certain protist and plant cells; each is in the form of a cylinder composed of nine triplets of microtubules.
There are two groups of nitrogenous bases, they are _________(Adenine, Guanine) and _________(Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine)
Purines, Pyrimidines
the part of the earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that supports life.
Types of Prokaryotic Cells
Cells of the microorganims called archaea and bacteria
Biological Species Concept
definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members can breed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring
Cell theory states:
 that cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms, and that all cells come from preexisting cells. States that cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms.
What are Nucleotides composed of?
a. Phosphate Group
b. Sugar
c. Nitrogeneous Base
Quantitative genetic analysis of variance (in quantitative phenotypes)
identifies correlates of populational variation, not cause and effect of quantitative phenotypes
Make Their Own Food
Some protists, certain bacteria and all plants are able to
yellow marrow
found in adults; most red marrow turns into fatty yellow marrow; no longer produces blood
Native species
animals or species that came from the area.
radial symmetry
a basic body plan in which the organism can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle along a central axis, characteristic of sessile and bottom-dwelling animals, as the sea anemone and starfish.
What is Breast cancer?
Most common cancer among women. US women have highest rate in the wold. Small, hard, bumpy surfaced lump. Often no pain associated with early stages.
seasonality depending on the angle of the sun, this affects the lakes
seasonal turnover
winter-cold on top
spring- evens out
summer-warm at top decreasing down
fall- evens out
How is the cell cycle controlled?
-Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKS) are protein kinases that control cell cycle.-Cyclins are regulating proteins levels fluctuate during cell cyle.
As a cell becomes larger, it has ____ surface area in relation to ____.
smaller, volume
Asexual propagation is beneficial for…
maintaining the stability of active ingredient concentrations; long-term conservation of plants
Name some zooflagellates and the diseases they cause
-trypanosoma - causes african sleeping sickness -tsetse fly is a vector -lives in bloodstream of host-assasin bug - chagas disease-giardia lamblia - giardiasis (severe diarrhea)
How is RNA different than DNA?
The sugar is ribose
Generally single stranded
Contains uracil in place of thymine
What is meant by Macroevolution?
evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing
What are the 6 elements that make up 95% of the weight of all living things?
CHONPS(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur)
what determines the origin stories and myths?
when and where you are born
What disease do prions cause in a. sheepb. cattlec. peopled. cannibals
a. scrapieb. mad cow diseasec. creutzfold-jakob syndromed. kuru
What does the GRAS list contain?
chemicals that can be put into your food
Why is it almost impossible to study the virus itself?
Because each kind of virus can multiply only in certain hosts. It cannot be studied easily unless the investigator cultures living hosts.
How does a mammal acclimate to hypoxic conditions at high altitudes?
The reduction in air Po2 leads to a reduction in blood Po2. This stimulates carotid/aortic chemoreceptors and leads to an increase in lung ventilation, which eliminates more CO2. The decrease in blood Pco2 leads to an increase in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid, and ventilation is reduced. Blood and CSF pH return to normal levels eventually via the excretion of bicarbonate.
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