A&P 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What broad-spectrum antimicrobial chemicals are continuously present in epithelial mucosal cells in small amounts to help maintain sterile environment of the body's internal passageways?
Lymphocytes act against cellular targets directly, by killing the foreign cells, or indirectly, by releasing chemical mediators that enhance inflammatory response or activate other lymphocytes or macrophages
What are inflamed pharyngeal tonsils, located in the nasopharynx called?
Which follicles are heavily concentrated in the wall of the appendix?
lymphoid follicles
What are the simplest lymphoid organs?
What is the simplest effector mechanism and occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins?
What is the phenomenon of complementary CAMs uniting, the neutrophils clinging to the inner walls of the capillaries and postcapillary venules?
What predominates at sites of prolonged, or chronic inflammation?
What is a dimer?
two linked monomers
By what week of embryonic development, does the beginnings of the lymphatic vessels and the main clusters of lymph node become apparent?
What cells nearly encapsulate the follicles and abut the deeper part of the cortex, which primarily houses T cells in transit?
dendritic cells
What is the condition called where blood flows into an injured area causing head and redness?
What causes the local edema (swelling) that presses on adjacent nerve endings, contributing to a sensation of pain?
Haptens have reactivity but not immunogenicity unless attached to what?
protein carriers
The receptors on B cells are membrane-bound what?
Because both macrophages and NK cells can act directly against malignant cells, the interferons play some anticancer role
Macrophages are not destroyed in the process of killed ingested or extracellular targets, but which WBC is destroyed in the process?
What disease is evident of the importance of helper T cells?
What are the most common tonsils located at the posterolateral aspect of the oral cavity called?
palatine tonsils
Each lymph node is surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule from which connective tissue strands called what extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments?
What is removal of a reuptured spleen called?
Fever is a stystemic response to the invasion of microorganisms
What serves as 'guided missiles' to deliver anticancer drugs only to cancerous tissue?
monoclonal antibodies
Because antigens are large, complex molecules not normally present in the body, our immune system considers them what?
intruders, or nonself
What is the group of mediators that influence cell development, differentiation, and responses in the immune system and are chemical messengers involved in cellular immunity?
What are the central actors in the final disposal of cell debris as an acute inflammation subsides?
The first encounter between an immunocompetent but naive lymphocyte and an invading antigen, usually takes place in the spleen or lymph node or any lymphoid tissue is called what?
the antigen challenge
What are 2 types of cytokines?
interferons and interleukens
Which defense system attacks particular foreign substances and takes its time and provides the body's third line of defense?
adaptive (specific) defense system
What is the hallmark of the second line of defense of the innate defense system?
Where are the MALT tissues located?
in the digestive tract
Which cells manage the immune response by directly attacking and destroying infected cells?
activated T cells
What are the major lymphatic trunks?
lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian and jugular trunks and intestinal trunk
What is a continued chemical signaling prompting the neutrophils to squeeze thru the capillary walls called?
diapedesis or emigration
What are IFNs?
a family of related proteins produced by a variety of body cells, each having a slightly different physiological effect.
What are the defense mechanisms used by antibodies and which 2 are most important?
neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, and complement fixation (1st 2 are most important)
What is used to treat genital warts (caused by human papillomavirus) and hepatitis C (the most common and serious form of hepatitis)?
IFN alpha
What immunosuppressive therapy is given after allograft surgery?
corticosteroid drugs to suppress inflammation;
antiproliferative drugs
immunosuppressant drugs
B cells become immunocompetent and self-tolerant where?
in the bone marrow
What are xenografts?
grafts taken from one species to another
What plays a central role in triggering immune responses?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
What role do the T cells perform by circulating continuously between the blood, lymph nodes and lymph?
surveillance role
What are autografts?
tissue grafts from one body site to another in the same person
What are endogenous antigens?
foreign proteins synthesized in a body cell
What type of interferon do lymphocyes secrete?
gamma, or immune interferon
What secretion contains lysozyme?
saliva and lacrimal fluid of the eye
What chemicals are released from the T cell's granules once cytotoxic T cells recognize a target?
perforin and granzymes
How do aspirin and some other anti-inflammatory drugs produce pain reducing effects?
by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis
What is white pulp concerned with?
the immune functions of the spleen
Why are lymphatic capillaries absent from bones, teeth, bone marrow and the entire central nervous system?
these areas' excess tissue fluid drains into the cerebrospinal fluid
What cells predominate in germinal centers (the lighter staining center of a lymphoid follicle?
follicular dendritic cells and B cells
Lymphocytes and APCs in the tonsils act primarily against microorganisms that invade what?
the oral and nasal cavities
What part of the target cell do the perforins insert themselves into?
the plasma membrane
What does SCID proudce?
a marked deficit of B and T cells
How is passive artificial immunity acquired?
injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
What are the 2 types of active humoral immunity?
natural and passive
What are some things monoclonal antibodies are used to diagnose?
pregnancy, certain stds, some cancer, hepatitis and rabies
Clonal selection and differentiation of B cells constitute what?
the primary immune response, occurs on 1st exposure to particular antigen
Which line of defense in the innate defense system uses antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invaders' spread?
2nd line of defense
Where do the chief phagocytes (macrophages) derive from?
white blood cells called monocytes that leave the bloodstream, enter the tissues, and develop into macrophages
NK cells are part of a small group of large granular lymphocytes and are sometimes called the _______ of the defense system.
pit bulls
What is a unique group of defensive cells that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the adaptive immune system is activated?
natural killer (NK) cells
How do eosinophils defend against parasitic worms?
They position themselves against the worm and discharge the destructive contents of their large cytoplasmic granules all over the worm
What do selectins provide for other CAMs on the surfaces of the neutrophils to bind?
footholds (place to hold onto)
What function does the tonsils perform?
gather and remove many of the pathogens entering the pharynx in food or inhaled air
Where do large clusters of lymph nodes occur near the body surface?
inguinal, axillary and cervical regions
What plays a crucial role in body protection and in the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and by helping to activate T cells?
lymphoid macrophages, and dendritic cells
Which is the largest antibody?
IgM - a pentamer constructed from 5 linked monomers
What is an invariant chain?
a protein bound by class II MHC molecule while still in the ER
What is cancer of the B cells called?
Hodgkins disease, an acquired immunodeficiency
Where does negative selection occur?
in the inner edge of the thymic cortex
What do most cells of the clone become?
plasma cells, the antibody-secreting effector cells of the humoral response
What are the principal lymphoid organs in the body and where are they found?
lymph nodes, which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body
What are the cells in lymphoid tissues?
lymphocytes (T cells or B cells); plasma cells; macrophages; dendritic cells; reticular cells
What lives in the spaces of the network in huge numbers?
lymphocytes that have squeezed thru the walls of postcapillary venules coursing thru the tissue
What happens when the surface barriers are breached?
the internal innate defenses come into play
What is more widespread cell killing accomplished by?
oxidizing chemicals - H2O2 and a substance identical to household bleach
What are 3 important aspects of the adaptive immune response?
1) specificity - recognizes particular pathogens that initiate the immune response
2) systemic - immunity is not restricted to the initial infection site
3) memory - recognizes and mounts even stronger attacks on previously encountered pathogens
Lymphocytes, esp T cells, account for what % of bloodborne lymphocytes?
65% - 85%, circulate continuously thru the body
What other cells besides macrophages possess a recognition "tool" in the innate system?
Mast cells, a key component of the inflammatory response, release the potent inflammatory chemical histamine
What is red pulp most concerned with disposing of?
worn out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens
What are part of the collection of small lymphoid tissues referred to as mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)?
Peyer's patches, the appendix, and the tonsils
IMPORTANT!!!! What would happen if there were no helper T cells?
There would be no adaptive immune response because the helper cells direct or help complete the activation of all other immune cells
What type of antigens do Helpter T cells (CD4) bind to?
antigens linked to class II MHC proteins, usually found on APC surfaces
When is an immunocompetent but naive B lymphocyte activated (stimulated to complete its differentiation)?
when antigens bind to its surface receptors and cross-link adjacent receptors together
Are small molecules, such as peptides, nucleotides, and many hormones, generally consider immunogenic?
Not unless they link up with the body's own proteins and are recognized as foreign and an attack is mounted by the adaptive immune system
Where are naive T and B cells exported to?
lymph nodes, spleen and other secondary lymphoid organs, where encounters with antigens occur
Why are other immune sera used to treat poisonous snake bites (antivenom), botulism, rabies, and tetanus (antitoxin)?
because these diseases would kill a person before active immunity could be established
What regions are drained by the right lymphatic duct?
right arm, right side of head, and right side of upper body
What is the most common and the most problematic graft type?
allograft, with organ usually from a living human donor, (kidney, live, bone marrow) or one who has just died (heart or lung)
How does fever help to keep bacteria from multiplying?
During a fever, the liver and spleen make iron and zinc less available, needed in large amounts for bacterial multiplication; also increases the metabolic rate of tissue cells in general, speeding up repair processes
Why should a badly infected part of the body be immobilized?
So as not to spread the infection via lymph transport
What do the V regions of the heavy and light chains in each arm of the monomer combine to form?
an antigen binding site shaped to 'fit' a specific antigenic determinant
What are the 2 major types of T cells and what do they do?
CD4 cells; primarily helper T cells (TH)
CD8 cells; cytotoxic T cells (Tc), which destroy any cells that harbor anything foreign
How are the 5 major Ig classes designated?
on the basis of the C regions in their heavy chains
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