A&P 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What releases interleukin 1?
What are infected lymph nodes called?
Substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response are called what?
The activation of what unleashes chemical mediators that amplify virtually all aspects of the inflammatory process?
Plasma cells develop the elaborate internal machinery needed to secrete antibodies at the rate of about ___ molecules per second
Interferon beta and alpha reduce what?
What do other leukocytes secrete?
alpha interferon
In inflamed areas, endothelial cells sprout cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) called what?
What skin secretion contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria and inhibit its growth?
The spleen contains large numbers of what?
What comprises lymphatic tissues?
nodules and lymphatic organs
What is a commercially prepared antibody used in research, clinical testing, and treatment?
monoclonal antibodies
Which macrophages wander thru the tissue spaces in search of cellular debris or "foreign invaders"?
free macrophages
If an inflammation is provoked by pathogens, what type of plasma proteins is activated?
Clone cells that don't differentiate into plasma cells become long-lived what?
memory cells
What chemicals released by injured cells promote rapid release of neutrophils from red bone marrow?
leukocytosis-inducing factors
What is any congenital or aacquired condition that causes immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally?
What does the release of bacterial toxins and the sensitizing effects of released prostaglandins and kinins contribute to?
Which cells protect the body by producing plasma cells that secrete antibodies into the blood (or other bodily fluids)?
B cells
What is the only lymphatic organ not comprised of reticular connective tissue?
What is lymphoid tissue mainly composed of except the thymus?
reticular connective tissue
What lives on the fibers of the reticular network?
Which cells produce plasma cells, that secrete antibodies into the blood an recognize antigens?
B cells
What 2 structurally related cell differentiation glycoproteins that id the effector T cells?
CD4 or CD8
What is the lymphocytes ability to be relative unresponsive to self-antigens so that it doesnt attack the body called?
How many types of TLRs have been identified, each recognizing a specific class of attacking microbe?
About what percentage of T cells make it through 'training'?
Can antibodies protect against viruses and tuberculosis?
No, only pathogens
What enhances the innate defenses by attacking microorganisms directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce?
antimicrobial proteins
What IFN is used to treat patients with MS, a demyelinating disease?
What collects lymph from the 2 large lumbar trunks that drain the lower limbs and from intestinal trunk that drains the digestive organs?
cisterna chyli
What other forces assist with lymphatic return?
skeletal muscle contraction, contractions of the lymphatic vessels
Buboes are the most obvious symptom of what?
bubonic plague
What is often necessary to do to abscesses before healing can occur?
surgical draining
What are the most devastating congenital conditions called?
severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes
What is the response called when someone is exposed to an antigen after the first exposure?
secondary immune response
What are Kupffer cells in teh liver and microglia of the brain?
fixed macrophages
What are macrophages and cells of certain boundary tissues such as epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts called that bear surface membrane receptors?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
What are isografts?
grafts from one patient to another that is genetically identical (identical twins)
What are the events that stimulate the B cell to grow and then multiply rapidly to form an army of identical cells and bearing the same antigen-specific receptors called?
clonal selection
How can pathogens and cancer cells spread thru the body?
via the lymphatic stream
Where does the right lymphatic duct empty into?
the right subclavian vein
In what 2 ways can complement be activated?
classical pathway
alternative pathway
What is produced by the liver in response to inflammatory molecules, is used as a clinical marker to assess for the presence of an acute infection or an inflammatory condition and its response to treatment?
C-reactive protein (CRP)
How is IL-2 used therapeutically?
to treat melanoma and kidney cancers
How does the lymphatic system transport lymph through the body?
by pulsations of nearby arteries, thythmic contractions of thoracic ducts and movement of adjacent tissues
What cells predominate in germinal centers?
follicular dendritic cells and B cells
What do lymphocytes mature into that protect the body against antigens?
T cells or B cells
What are 2 examples of endogenous antigens?
viral proteins produced by virus-infected cells and alien (mutated) proteins made by a body cell that has become cancerous
How are immunocompetent helper (Th) and cytotoxic (Tc) T cells activated?
by binding to an antigen-containing MHC protein displayed on the surface of an antigen presenting cell (APC)
Why are regulatory T cells (Treg) important in preventing autoimmune reactions?
because they suppress self-reactive lymphocytes in the periphery
What does interleukin 1 (IL-1)stimulate?
T cells to liberate interleukin 2 (IL-2) and to synthesize more IL-2 receptors
Is complement a nonspecific or specific defensive mechanism?
nonspecific, but it enhances the effectiveness of both innate and adaptive defenses
What is the adaptive immune system?
the body's built-in specific defensive system that stalks and eliminates with nearly equal precision almost any pathogen
What 2 important functions do 'complete antigens' serve?
1) immunogenicity, the ability to stimulate proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies
2) reactivity, the ability to react with the activated lymphocytes and the antibodies released by immunogenic reactions
What kind of targets do cellular immunity have?
cellular targets-virus infected or parasite-infected tissue cells, cancer cells, and cells of foreign grafts
Are NK cells phagocytic?
No, they use direct contact and induce the target cell to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death)
What do some consider to be a 5th cardinal sign of acute inflammation?
impairment of function
The receptors on T cells are products of what?
the same gene superfamily
What is an important function of the spleen?
blood-cleansing; extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets and removes debris
How does the lymph exit the node at its hilum (the indented region on the concave side?
via efferent lymphatic vessels
Two methods used in self-reactive B cells are?
apoptosis, or receptor editing, which is changing their self-reactive antigen receptor
How are cytotoxic T cells (CD8) activated?
by antigen fragments complexed with class I MHC proteins on surfaces of APCs
How is active artificial immunity acquired?
via a vaccine; dead or attenuated pathogens
What is produced when the macrophage is stimulated by chemicals released by immune cells, activating additional enzymes?
respiratory burst, an event that liberates a deluge of free radicals with potent cell-killing ability
What term refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactivate state?
complement system or complement
What are the 'structures' of the immune system?
diverse array of molecules plus trillions of immune cells (esp lymphocytes)that inhabit lymphoid tissues and circulate in body fluids
What do virus-infected cells do to try to protect nearby uninfected cells?
secrete small proteins called interferons (IFNs), which stimulate synthesis of proteins in the healthy cells and interfere with viral replication by blocking protein synthesis and degrading viral RNA
Why are secondary immune responses faster, more prolonged, and more effective?
because immune system has already been primed to the antigen and memory cells are already in place and provide immunological memory
What are the primary functions of lymph nodes?
filtration of lymph; initiation of an immune response when necessary; production of new lymphocytes
The white pulp clusters or forms "cuffs" around the central arteries in the spleen and appears to be islands in a sea of what?
red pulp - all remaining splenic tissue; venous sinuses and splenic cords, regions of reticular connective tissue exceptionally rich in macrophages
What is the basic antibody structure? (Based on IgG)
4 polypeptide chains (2 light, 2 heavy) joined by disulfide bonds
Where are class II MHC proteins typically found?
on surfaces of cells that present antigens to helper T cells: dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells
When is active immunity naturally acquired?
when you get a bacterial or viral infection, during which time you may develop symptoms of the disease
What are the major types of cells acting as APCs?
dendritic cells (found in connective tissues and in the epidermis, aka Langerhans' cells) macrophages, and B lymphocytes
What happens to T cells that react vigorously to self antigens bound to self-MHC?
they are eliminated by apoptosis (programmed cell death) and is called negative selection
When B or T cells become immunocompetent, they display a unique type of receptor on their surface that enable the lymphocyte to do what?
recognize and bind to a specific antigen
Why do plastics have little or no immunogenicity and so are used to make artificial implants and wont be rejected by the body?
Because they have many identical, regularly repeating units making them not chemically complex
What is the step called complement fixation in the classical pathway complement activation method?
the binding of antibodies to the invading organisms and the subsequent binding of C1 to the microorganism-antibody complexes
When is B-defensin output increased dramatically, to control bacterial and fungal colonization?
when the mucosal surface is abraded or penetrated and tissues become inflamed
How does lymph enter the convex side of a lymph node?
Thru a number of afferent lymphatic vessels
What do the following have in common? injured and stressed tissue cells, phagocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and blood proteins
they are all sources of inflammatory mediators
What is the biological role and location of IgG?
it is the most abundant antibody in plasma and the only Ig class that crosses the placental barrier
IF the lymphocyte is a B cell, the challenging antigen provokes what?
the humoral immune response, where antibodies are produced against the challenger
What is the antibodies role in destroying antigens?
They inactivate them and tag them for destruction
What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system?
1) return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream; 2) return leaked proteins to the blood; 3) carry absorbed fat from the intestine to the blood (thru lacteals)
What is the important role of class I MHC proteins in the immune response?
They provide the means for signaling to cytotoxic T cells that infectious microorganisms are hiding in body cells
Where do the lymph node arise from in embryos?
from the budding of lymph sacs from developing veins
What must a T cell do before it can proliferate and form a clone?
it must recognize one or more co-stimulatory signals
what makes Gamma delta T cells similar to NK cells than other T cell types?
they have a different type of T cell receptor and recognize markers expressed by stressed or damaged cells and their large granular appearance
What are the 2 types of MHC proteins important to T cell activation?
Class I MHC proteins and class II MHC proteins
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