A&P lymphatic system Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
peniasuf
decrease
hemo, hematroot
blood
Unsegmented, tapered worms
Nematodes
mechanical barriers
skin, mucous membrane
efferent lymphatic vessels enter Lymph node  on its ________ side.
concave
a disease causing organism
pathogen
species resistance
unique disease to species

Antigen

 
foreign substance that combine with antibodies
Thymus gland produces
T lymphocytesThymic hormone
White pulp consists of what?
lymphocytes
K.S.
Kaposi's sarcoma, a malignant condition that occurs in association with AIDS and infection by H.I.V.
minivalve
flap-like opening on the lymphatic capillary allowing for its impressive permeability.
macrophages
cells which engulf antigens (developed from monocytes)
Properdin

protein complex that acts with complement to destroy bacteria, enhance phagocytosis, and trigger inflammatory response

Types of Immune Responses
 

Primary Immune Response 
 
Secondary Immune Response
Linguinal is located?
at base of tongue.
_________ lymphoid cell main fighters of the immune system
lymphocytes
defense mechanisms
- built-in defenses against infection/disease- 2 broad categories with a significant overlap between the two categories1) nonspecific defense mechanisms2) specific defense mechanisms
humoral immunity
cells produce chemicals for defense
Located inferior to the thyroid gland
Thymus
antigen
anything the body detects as being foreign
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
single layered walls (like blood capillaries)

travel all over the body
stem cells
primitive stem cells in bone marrow
What are thymocytes?
Produce thymosin and thymopoeitin, which help T lymphocytes to mature.

Primary Immune Response

 response occurring when antigen first encountered
Thoracic Duct
larger and longer duct.
 
Begins at the cisternae chyli at the level of the 2nd lumbar vertebra
 
approx 18" in length
 
empties into the left suclavian vein
 
drains the left side of the head, left neck, left thorax, left arm, and all areas below
The lymphatic vessels resemble the ( arteries or veins) due to the presence of valves inside them.
veins
The Thymus is important for
T Cell maturation
Flow of Lymph
Controlled by:  valves, compression as neighboring muscles contract, negative pressure in thorax 
Which is the largest lymph vessel?
Thoracic duct
immune complex
- another term for antigen-antibody complex
complement fixation
"when complement becomes attached or fixed to foreign cells such as bacteria, fungi or mismatched RBCs and this it is activated to fight against foreign cells"
Milky fluid composed mainly of fat globules & lymph from the intestinal lacteals
Chyle
Non Specific immunity resistance
phagocytosisfeverattack by NK cellsinflammation
Memory T-cells
will remember the specific foreign antigen
cisterna chyli
enlarged sac that collects fluid from the two large lumbar trunks.
plasma cells
secrete large amounts of antibodies in the blood
What are mast cells?
Basophils wandering through tissue, binding and digesting a wide range of bacteria.

As there is no _____________entering the spleen, the spleen can not filter __________

afferent lymphatic vessel
 
filter lymph
The thymus reaches its functional peak during childhood. When does it reach its maximum size and then shrinks.
During puberty.
immunogenicity
- ability of antigen to cause immune response; production of a specific antibody
The lobule is a structural unit of which lymphatic organ?
Thymus
What is the process called when lymphocytes divide/multiply and differentiate into clones that have a specific antigen receptor?
Clonal Selection
cells of the immune system - 2
lymphocytes; macrophages
High Eosinophil count may indicate?
Allergies and/or parasitic infection
What is lymph?
Fluid found in the lymph capillaries and is very similar to blood plasma except that it doesn't possess normal body cells; it contains abnormal body cells.
What are class I MHC proteins?
Found on all cells.
What recieves lymph from the left side of the head, neck and chest, left upper extrimity and the entire body below the ribs. Empties in left subclavian vein.
Thoracic Duct
Lymph Vessels
- Appearance- thin (not to be confused with arteries and veins)
- Function- to transport lymph fluid
complement
- group of proteins found in blood and certain cell membranes- named C with a number (ex: C1)- normally inactive; when activated => significant role in both arms of defense mechanisms
dendritic cells (lymphoid cell)
- capable of recognizing foreign cells; they capture foreign cells and bring them to lymph nodes or spleen so that macrophages can phagocytose, activate immune system cells
What are the three types of lymphocytes?
T, B, NK
What type of cells are involved in antibody mediated immunity?
B Cells
cellular (cell-mediated) immune response
"antigens must be presented by macrophages to an immunocompetent T cell; T cells must recognize nonself and self; after antigen binding, clones form as with B cells but different classes of cells produced"
components of lymphatic vascular network
1. lymphatic capillaries2. lymphatic vessels3. lymphatic trunks4. lymphatic ducts
What are the major trunks of the body?
lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular, intestinal (only one of these)

Passage of lymph through node

1. Lymph enters node through afferent vessels
2. Lymph passes to cortical sinus under capsule and travels around nodule to medulla
3. Lymph passes out efferent vessel from medulla
Cortex of lymph node
-masses of lymphocytes, site of immune response
cell-mediated immunity (Step 2)
- macrophage takes antigen and finds appropriate killer T cell (cytotoxic T cell) => antigen processing- tons and tons of killer T cells (activated) destroys antigen with chemicals => have immunocompetence, NKC do not
What is the role of ERC V?
negative elimination
Surrounds T cells and removes those with wrong antibody
What does the lymphatic system do?
Recovers tissue fluid, identifies foreign agents, activates immunie response, returns fluid to bloodstream
structure of lymph node
corex is outer part and contains follicles which are collections of lymphocytes; medulla is inner part which contains phagocytic macrophages
anatomy of a lymph node
1. hilus (helium)2. afferent vessels- carry into lymph node from other lymph nodes3. efferent vessel- carry lymph out of lymph node to another. becomes afferent vessel then.4. valves control ditection of flow- one-way valves. control direction of lymph flow
Where are palatine tonsils?
On the posterior sides of the oral cavity.
What do B Lympocytes do?
Respond to one antigen - produce immunoglobulins - Antibodies
Cannot be activated until a helper T cell presents and antigen
Once activated creates plasma cells or memory B lymphocytes
Lymphatic Tissues and Organs: Spleen
- Largest lymphatic organ located in upper left quadrent of abdomen
- White pulp: initiates immune response when antigens detected in blood (antigen reseroir); phagocytizes bacteria and foreign materials
- Red pulp: reservoir for erythrocytes and platelets, phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets
attenuated viral vaccines
- virus is alive but altered (ex: MMR, chicken pox, shingles, oral polio)- produces immune response close to naturally acquired immunity
What is the difference between dense and diffuse lymphatic tissue?
Dense has capsule around nodules
Diffuse is non-capsulated
True or False?
 
The thymus in an older person is larger than that of a child.
False.
 
The thymus becomes smaller in an older person because it decreases in size over time.
functions of inflammatory response - 3
"prevents spread of damaging agents, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, sets stage for repair"
What are the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation?
Redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
The medulla of lymph nodes contain what and how are they arranged?
B lymphocytes, marcophages and plasma cells aligned with the strands of trabeculae.
Describe maturation of T cell in lymph nodes
APC's are activated by cytokenes
APC's migrate from Mucosal membranes to lymphnodes
Immature T cells produced in bone marrow migrate to nodes
T cell scan peptide carried by APC, and will proliferate, mature if recognized
parts of the lymphatic system
lymph and lymph vessels . lymph nodes and nodules, spleen and thymus
Efferent (away from node) Lymphatic Vessels
- Once filtered, the lymph exits the lymph node through these
- Lymph nodes can occur singularly or in groups
What happens to B cells once they become activated by an antigen?
They then differentiate into Plase Cells which are responsible for making antibodies
Afferent (toward node) Lymphatic Vessels
- Bring lymph to a lymph node where it is examined for foreign or pathogenic material
Name the types of B cells produced in clonal selection.
Effector - Plasma Cells
 
Memory - Memory B cells
The thoracic duct drains lymph into the venous circulation from which parts of the body?
left side of the head, left arm, left thoracic region, and the entire lower body.
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